Standard Sample Unit 163 (GPM 5/19/69)

Sampling Province 177:  Southern Venezuela.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 364:  Yanomanmo (not in EA).

Focus:  The village of Bisaasi-teri of the Shamatari tribe of Yanomamo, located
   at 2 to 245'N,  6430' to 6530'W, at the confluence of the Mavaca and
  Orinoco Rivers, in 1965.

General Area:  The Indians of the independent Yanoaman linguistic family
  inhabit southern Venezuela and an adjacent strip in Brazil.  They include the
  focal Shamatari tribe (called Yanomamo by Chagnon), the Sanema and Waida to
  the west, the Surara and Pahidai to the south, and probably still other
  tribes or subtribes.  The first European to visit them was the missionary
  James Barker in 1950.  Thereafter acculturation was very slight until after
  1958, and even in 1965 modifications in the indigenous culture were confined
  to steel axes and a few other changes.  Chagnon estimates the population of
  the "Yanomamo," by which he presumably means the peoples of Yanoaman speech
  (many dialects of which are mutually unintelligible) at about 10,000
  distributed in 100 to 125 villages of 40 to 250 inhabitants each.

Selection of Focus:  The focal village and tribe were the most intensively
  studied by Chagnon.

Time:  The date of 1965 is selected as approximately the end of Chagnon's
  sixteen months of field work.

Coordinates:  See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 164 (GPM 7/17/68)

Sampling Province 178:  Guiana

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 366:  Barama River Carib,
  Sc3:189.

Focus:  The Carib Indians along the Barama River in British Guiana, from 710'
  to 740'N and from 5920' to 6020'W, in 1932.

General Area:  The Carib Indians proper occupy much of the Guianas inland of
  the Locono or coastal Arawak, and extend westward into Venezuela and
  southward into Brazil.  They include, or are very closely related to, the
  Macusi, Rucuyen, Camaracoto, Acawai, and Waiwai.  The coast of the Guianas
  was first explored by Keymis in 1596.  It was occupied by the British,
  French, and Dutch in the early 17th century, the first raided for slaves  on
  the plantations, but were soon replaced by Negroes, and relations with
  Europeans were in general friendly but superficial after the beginning of the
  18th century.  The Indians retreated into the interior as plantations were
  established, and relations between them and the Europeans have been largely
  confined to trade.  The Carib of the Barama River are the best described
  group of the true Carib.

Selection of Focus:  The Carib of the Barama River are the best described group
  of true Carib.

Time:  The data of 1932 is chosen as that of the beginning of Gillin's field
  research and that of which he uses as his "ethnographic present."

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 165 (GPM 8/2/66)

Sampling Province 179: Bush Negroes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 396: Saramacca, Sc6:392.

Focus:  The Saramacca proper, located in Surinam at about 3 to 4N and 5530'
  to 56W, in 1928.

General Area:  The Bush Negroes or Djuka fall into three groups:
  1. Saramacca.  This, the last acculturated group, inhabits the upper reraches
     of the Suriname River and the banks of the Gran Rio and Pikien Rio to the
     south.
  2. Akwa.  Found along the Maroni or Marowyne River on the Border of French
     Guiana at 4 to 6N and 54 to 55W.  This is the group analyzed under the
     name Djuka (Sc18:1183) in the Ethnographic Atlas.
  3. Boni.  A small group in the interior of French Guiana not far from the
     border of Surinam.
  All the Bush Negroes speak a creolized language which is probably basically
  Portuguese but has strong elements of vocabulary and some of syntax derived
  from Niger-Congo (particularly Kwa), Dutch, and English.  Suriname was
  originally colonized by the English, but was given to Holland in 1674 in
  exchange for New Amsterdam (now New York city).  During the 17th century,
  refugee slaves fled in increasing numbers up the Suriname River from the
  settlement at Paramaribo, and by 1726 there was already a large number of
  them in the Bush around the Saramacca River.  By the middle of the 18th
  century they had guns and were raiding the Dutch plantations.  Military
  expeditions against them alternated with peace treaties in 1749 and 1761.  In
  1772 a serious revolt occurred, during which the Dutch were nearly driven
  from the colony.  After the repression of this revolt in 1777 (see Stedman
  1796 for an account of the war of 1772-77), the Bush Negroes were in general
  left undisturbed.  The sources do not give population figures for the
  Saramacca, but they are presumably at least as numerous as the Akwa, who are
  reported to have numbered about 15,000 in 1960 (though possibly this figures
  includes all Djuka in Surinam).

Selection of Focus:  The Saramacca are chosen because well described and
  relatively unacculturated.

Time:  The date of 1928 is selected as the beginning of the intensive field
  work by both Kahn and Herskovits.

Coordinates:  Those of the Saramacca are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 166 (GPM 7/17/68)

Sampling Province 180: Riverain Amazon.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 372: Mundurucu, Sd1:901.

General Area: The Mundurucu are a Tupian-speaking tribe who were engaged in
  warlike expansion along the Tapajos River and its tributaries when they were
  first encountered by Europeans about 1760.  They were hostile to whites
  until subdued by a Neo-Brazilian punitive expedition in 1794, after which
  they were peaceful, trading a surplus of manioc for manufactured goods.  A
  mission was established in 1803 at Santa Cruz, and by 1817 acculturation was
  already well advanced, to be followed after 1850 by a strong measure of
  assimilation.  The Mundurucu numbered around 10,000 at the time of contact,
  around 5,000 in 1850 and 1,250 in 1952.  They are reported to have occupied
  21 villages when visited by Tocantins (1877), 19 settlements when visited by
  Stromer in 1931.

Selection of Focus: The Mundurucu of the savanna country in the drainage of
  the Rio de Tropas are selected because, according to Nimuendaju, this was
  their original habitat, because their principal settlements were found there
  by the punitive expedition of 1794, and because Murphy worked there in 1952-
  53, mainly in the village of Cabrua.

Time: The date of 1850 is selected as prior to the period of increasing
  assimilation and not much earlier than the earliest reliable observations.

Coordinates: The village of Cabrua, where Murphy worked is located at about 7
  S, 57 W.  The coordinates of the tribal area are given above under Focus.

Sampling Province 181: vacated.

Standard Sample Unit 167 (GPM 7/19/68)

Sampling Province 182: Northwest Amazonia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 378: Cubeo, Se5:293.

Focus: The Cubeo tribe, located between 1  and 1 50'N and between 70  and 71
  W, in 1939.

General Area: The Vaupes-Caqueta region of Northwest Amazonia is bounded on
  the north by the Guaviare River (separating it from the llanos of Colombia
  and Venezuela), on the east by the Rio Negro, on the south by the Caqueta
  River, and on the west by the Andes.  Its inhabitants speak Cariban,
  Arawakan, and Betoyan (Tucanoan) languages.  The Cubeo are one of the
  Eastern Tucanoan tribes, which also include the Tucano proper, Desana,
  Buhagano, Tuyuca, Para, Macuna, Cueretu, Tahuna, Uasona, and Pamoa.  The
  Cubeo formerly lived along the Vaupes have recently been concentrated
  largely on the Caduiari.  They were first visited by the expedition of Perez
  de Quesada in 1538, but their first scientific observer was Wallace in 1853.
  The first permanent mission among them was not established until after 1881,
  although several abortive attempts were made between 1852 and 1880.  They
  engaged in messianic movements between 1875 and 1880, but neither these nor
  the early missionary efforts made much impression on them.  They were
  moderately affected by the rubber boom in early 1900's, and they suffered
  severely from an influenza epidemic in 1917-18.  Goldman estimates  their
  population at about 2,000 in 1940, when they occupied about 31 settlements.

Selection of Focus: The Cubeo are the best described Tucanoan (Betoyan)
  tribe, and those on the caduiari River were intensively studied by Goldman.

Time: The date of 1939 is selected as that of the beginning of Goldman's
  field work.  At that time he found acculturation still only slightly
  advanced.

Coordinates: The Vaupes-Caqueta region extended from about 2 N to 4 S, and
  from about 67  to 75 S.  The coordinates for the Cubeo are given under Focus
  above.

Sampling Province 154: Upper Missouri.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 315:  Hidatsa (Minitari),
  Ne15:662.

Focus:  The village of Hidatsa, located at approximately 47N, 101W, in the
  year 1836.

General Area:  The Siouan-speaking Hidatsa were one of the three tribes of
  "village Indians" located on the Missouri River in North Dakota.  The other
  tribes were the Siouan-speaking Mandan and the Caddoan-speaking Arikaraa,
  located south or down-river from the Hidatsa.  The abriginal Hidatsa formed
  three village groups, in order of size the Hidatsa proper, the Awatixa, and
  the Awaxami.  They were located near the junction of the Knife River with
  the Missouri and exploited the immediately surrounding territory for
  agriculture and hunting.  They were first encountered by Thompson in 1797,
  when their population was estimated at the former estimated their number at
  2,500.  Catlin in 1832 estimated them at three villages consolidated into
  one.  In 1845, the Hidatsa and Mandan combined in one village, and they have
  been closely affiliated ever since.  In 1905 the population of the Hidatsa
  was reported as 471.

Selection of Focus:  Since the three Hidatsa village groups differed slightly
  in culture, the Hidatsa proper are chosen as the focus, but information from
  the other village groups can be used with the due caution.

Time:  The date of 1836 is selected as immediately prior to the smallpox
  epidemic of 1837, when the ghree local groups combined.  The Hidatsa were
  visited before 1836 by Catlin and Maximilian zu Wien-Neuwied, the major
  monograph of Mathews was published 40 years later, and the recent monograph
  by Bowers specifically seeks to recinstruct Hidatsa culture as of 1836.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.  All three village groups were in close
  contiguity.

Standard Sample Unit 168 (GPM 8/12/68)

Sampling Province 171: Highland Colombia and Ecuador.

Represenatative of the Province and of cluster 384: Cayapa, Sf3: 194.

Focus: The cayapa along the Rio Cayapa and its tributaries, between 040' and
115'n and from 7845' to 7910'W, in 1908.

General Area: The cayapa, who speak a language of the Paezan subfamily of
  Chibchan, originally inhabited the lowland rainforest of Northwester
  Ecuador, where they were able to escape the enslavement suffered by their
  Highland neighbors.  They were first reported by Stevenson in 1908, and were
  studied in depth by Barrett in 1908-09.  In the 19th century they have been
  pushed back into the interior hill country by mestizo and Negro settlers and
  have undergone rather strong acculturation, especially beginning with World
  War II.  Their population was estimated at about 2,000 in 1948.

Selection of Focus: The Cayapa in the drainage of the Rio Cayapas have been
  more thoroughly studied than the scattered groups elsewhere.

Time: The date of 1908 is selected as the beginning of the intensive field
  work by Barrett.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.


Sampling Province 171: Highland Colombia and Ecuador.

Represenatative of the Province and of cluster 384: Cayapa, Sf3: 194.

Focus: The cayapa along the Rio Cayapa and its tributaries, between 040' and
115'n and from 7845' to 7910'W, in 1908.

General Area: The cayapa, who speak a language of the Paezan subfamily of
  Chibchan, originally inhabited the lowland rainforest of Northwester
  Ecuador, where they were able to escape the enslavement suffered by their
  Highland neighbors.  They were first reported by Stevenson in 1908, and were
  studied in depth by Barrett in 1908-09.  In the 19th century they have been
  pushed back into the interior hill country by mestizo and Negro settlers and
  have undergone rather strong acculturation, especially beginning with World
  War II.  Their population was estimated at about 2,000 in 1948.

Selection of Focus: The Cayapa in the drainage of the Rio Cayapas have been
  more thoroughly studied than the scattered groups elsewhere.

Time: The date of 1908 is selected as the beginning of the intensive field
  work by Barrett.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 169 (GPM 7/31/68)

Sampling Province 183:  Eastern Ecuador.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 380: Jivaro (Chivaro, Hibaro,
  Xibaro, Zibaro), Se3:191.

Focus: The Jivaro proper, located between 2  and 4 S and from 77  to 79 W, in
  1920.

General Area: The Jivaro still occupy their aboriginal habitat in the
  Ecuadorean Montana.  Excluding linguistically related groups, the Jivaro
  proper inhabit the basins of the Zamora, Upeno, and upper Pastanza Rivers
  and the right bank of the Santiago River.  The Inca empire made two
  unsuccessful attempts to conquer them.  The first Europeans to encounter
  them were the members of the Benavente expedition in 1549.  The Spaniards
  established several colonies in their territory, beginning in 1557, but the
  Jivaro destroyed them in 1599.  Attracted by the gold in Jivaro country, the
  Spaniards made various unsuccessful attempts to conquer and missionize them
  during the next century, but all of them failed until 1767, when the Jesuits
  gained a temporary foothold, to be followed by the Franciscans in 1790-1803.
  In 1869 the Jesuits returned but were agian expelled in 1886.  A Protestant
  mission was established in 1902.  Even as late as 1915, 1925, and 1928 the
  Jivaro have shown aggression against Europeans, and they still remain
  essentially unsubdued  and only partially acculturated.  Their population
  was estimated at 30,000 in 1580, and various modern estimates range from
  10,000, but Horner calls them exaggerated and gives 5,000 in 1957 as a
  reasonable estimate.

Selection of Focus: No focus narrower than the Jivaro proper can be set since
  all the principal authorities--Karsten, Stirling, and Horner worked in many
  local groups.

Time: The date of 1920 is chosen as near the beginning of Karsten's field
  researches.

Coordinates: The location of the Jivaro in a somewhat larger sense, but not
  including the linguistically kindred Malacata and Palta, is approximately 2
  to 5 S and 77  to 79 W.

Standard Sample Unit 170 (GPM 8/17/68)

Sampling Province 184: Montana.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 374: Amahuaca, Se8:634.

Focus: The Amahuaca on the upper Inuya River (10 10'  to 10 30'S, 72  to 72
  30'W), in 1960.

General Area: The Amahuaca, who speak a Panoan language, are located on the
  upper reaches of the Inuya, Lepahua, Purus, and Yurua rivers in eastern
  Peru, extending eastward slightly into Brazil.  The Indians of this region
  were largely by-passed by early explorers and missionaries, and our first
  fragmentary information on them dates from the second half of the 19th
  century.  Even in 1960, when Carneiro and Dole began their field work among
  them, the group they studied on the Inuya River were still almost completely
  unacculturated.

Selection of Focus: The less acculturated of the two communities studied by
  Carneiro and Dole.

Time: The date of 1960 is selected as that of the beginning of the field work
  by Carneiro and Dole.

Coordinates: The unacculturated village studied by Carneiro and Dole was
  located at 10 30'S and 72 W.

Standard Sample Unit 171 (GPM 7/20/68)

Sampling Province 185: Highland Peru.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 386: Inca, Sf1:93.

Focus: The Quechua-speaking Indians in the vicinity of Cuzco, centering on 13
  30'S and 72 W, in 1530.

General Area: In the early 15th century, the Inca or Quechua proper formed a
  small state with its capital at Cuzco.  With the advent of their ninth
  emperor, Pachacuti in 1438 they began to expand in all directions and by
  1530 had conquered and orgainzed a huge kingdom which embraced most of
  modern Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia as well as northern Chile and northwestern
  Argentina.  Pizarro visited the port of Tumbez in the north in 1527 and
  returned with a military force in 1531.  By 1533 he had conquered the Incas
  and brought their territory under Spanish rule.  Though the Inca empire
  extended for 2,500 miles north and south and an average distance of 300
  miles inland from the Pacific coast, most of its inhabitants were conquered
  peoples of various languages and cultures.  Originally only the inhabitants
  of seven provinces in the vicinity of Cuzco, out of a total of more than 80,
  spoke the Quechua language, although this spread as a lingua franca
  throughout most of the empire.  The population at the time of the conquest
  is estimated at about six millions by Rowe, but by the time of the census by
  Viceroy Toledo in 1571 it had been reduced by warfare, disease, and apathy
  to 1,250,000.

Selection of Focus: The Incas or Quechua proper in the vicinity of the
  capital city of Cuzco in the south central highland region of Peru are
  chosen because the bulk of the ethnographic information for the period of
  the conquest pertains to them.

Time: The date of 1530 is selected as that immediately prior to the Spanish
  conquest and to the civil war which contributed to its success.  Except for
  Cobo, the bulk of the dependable primary sources date from around the middle
  of the 16th century.

Coordinates: The Inca empire at its maximum extent reached from 2  N to 35 S.
  The homeland of the Inca, however, was largely within a radius of 30 to 40
  miles from Cuzco, whose coordinates are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 172 (GPM 7/31/68)

Sampling Province 186: Highland Bolivia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 387: Aymara, Sf2:193.

Focus: The Aymara of the community of Chucuito, Peru, located at about 16 S
  and 65 45'W, in 1940.

General Area: The Aymara, who speak a language of athe Aymara branch of the
  Kechumaran (Quechua-Aymara) family, are indigenous to the Titicaca basin in
  Peru and Bolivia between the Maritime Cordillera Real.  They were orgainzed
  into numerous tribes and petty states until conquered by Pachacuti (regnit
  1430-1463) and incorporated into the Inca state, in which they formed twelve
  provinces.  The Aymara language has lost substantial ground to Quechua in
  both Inca and post-Conquest times but is still spoken in portions of the
  departments of Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna, and Puno in Peru and those of La
  Paz and Oruro in Bolivia.  The Spaniards first casme into contact with the
  Aymara in 1533, and by 1542 had reduced them to subjection.  Dominican
  missionaries arrived in 1539 and were expelled in 1767.  The Aymara were
  severely exploited under the encomienda system, which reduced them to
  virtual slaves.  In 1780 the Aymara rose in revolt; whole regions of the
  Collao were virtually depopulated, and great numbers of Spaniards were
  slaughtered.  Their freedom, however, was short-lived.  The period since
  1870 has been one of social disorganization and acculturation rather than
  violence.  The Aymara numbered approximately 600,000 in 1935--a Substantial
  reduction since Inca times.

Selection of Focus: The village of Chucuito in Peru is chosen since this was
  the site of Tschopik's most intensive research.

Time: The date of 1940 is selected as the beginning of Tschopik's field
  research.

Coordinates: Those for the Aymara as a whole are approximately 15  to 20 S
  and 66  to 76 W.  Those for the village of Chucuito are given above under
  Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 173 (GPM 7/21/68)

Sampling Province 187: Lowland Bolivia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 373: Siriono, Si1:91.

Focus: The seminomadic Siriono in the forests near the Rio Blanco, between 14
  and 15 S from 63  to 64 W, in east central Bolivia, in 1942.

General Area: The Siriono, who speak a Tupi-Guarani language, live in
  scattered bands in east central Bolivia  (see coordinates below).  They are
  first mentioned by Father Barrace in 1653.  Various attempts at
  missionization--in 1765, 1925, and 1935--met with little success.  A
  Bolivian government school was established at Casarabe in 1937, and a number
  of Siriono became workers on European farms and ranchers in the 1930's.  At
  the time of Holmberg's visit (1941-42), however, many of the surviving 2,000
  Siriono were still living a semi-nomadic life in the forest.

Selection of Focus: The Siriono bands in the forest near the Rio Blanco in
  the province of Beni were selected because the principal authority lived
  with them, as well as with their settled relatives and found them still only
  very slightly acculturated.

Time: The date of 1942 is selected as the year when Holmberg lived for a
  period with a wandering band.

Coordinates: The scattered bands of Siriono live in the forests of the
  province of Beni between 13  and 17 S and between 63  and 65 W.  The
  coordinates of the Siriono near the Rio Blanco are given under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 174 (GPM 7/21/68)

Sampling Province 188: Western Mato Grosso.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 399: Nambicuara, Si4:198.

Focus: The Eastern Nambicuara or Cocozu, located at 12 30' to 13 30'S and 58
  30' to 59 W, about 1940.

General Area: The Nambicuara are located in southwestern Mato Grosso, Brazil,
  where the following four divisions are distinguished:
   1. The Eastern Nambicuara or Cocozu, located between the Papagaio and
      Jurena Rivers
   2. The Northeastern Nambicuara or Anunze in the basins of the Camarare and
      Doze de Otubro Rivers.
   3. The Central and Southern Nambicuara or uaintacue, between the Guapore
      River basin in the south and the Teniente Marques, Ike, and Roosevelt
      Rivers in the north.
   4. The Western Nambicuara.
    The Nambicuara were probably first seen by by Pires de Campo about 1720.
  The first reliable description was by Roquette-Pinto, who visited them in
  1912.  The first intensive missionary efforts were by American Protestants,
  beginning in 1925, and by Jesuits, beginning in 1930.  General Rondo visited
  them in 1907.  According to Levi-Strauss, they numbered about 1,500 in the
  early 1940's, but had previously been considerably more numerous.

Selection of Focus: The Eastern Nambicuara are the best described.  The work
  of Oberg was the Waklitisu band, one of the four bands of Eastern
  Nambicuara.

Time: The date of 1940 is selected as shortly prior to the field work of
  Levi-Strauss and Oberg.

Coordinates: The Nambicuara are located between 11  and 14 S and between 58
  30' and 61 W.  The coordinates for the eastern Nambicuara are given above
  under focus.

Standard Sample Unit 175 (GPM 7/22/68)

Sampling Province 189: Upper Xingu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 404: Trumai, Si2:98.

Focus: The Trumai tribe in 1938, when they occupied a single village on the
  Kutuene River, located at about 11 50'S and 53 40'W.

General Area: The headwaters of the Xingu River were originally occupied by
  fairly populous tribes of several linguistic stocks--Arawakan, Cariban, Ge,
  Tupian, and Trumaian.  The Trumai occupied two villages near the junction of
  the Kutuene and Kuliseu Rivers when first seen by a European, Von den
  Steinen in 1884 and 1887.  They were subsequently visited by Meyer (in 1897
  and 1899), Schmidt (in 1901), and Petrullo (in 1931).  All the Upper Xingu
  tribes were extremely isolated until an air strip was constructed in 1948,
  shortly after which they were visited by Galvao, de Lima, and Oberg.  The
  Trumai numbered 43 in 1938, when they occupied one village at the time of
  Quain's field work.  When Wagley paid them a brief visit in 1954, they
  numbered only 24, and today they are reported either extinct or completely
  disintegrated.  The culture, however, was still functioning in 1938.

Selection of Focus: The single village studied by Quain, probably the one
  mapped as VAnivani by Oberg.

Time: The date of 1938 is selected as that of Quain's field work.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 176 (GPM 7/23/68)

Sampling Province 190: Northern Ge.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 408: Ramcocamecra (Canella,
  Capiecrans, Eastern Timbira), Sj4:200.

Focus: The Ramcocamecra, located at 6  to 7 S, 45  to 46 W, at about 1915.

General Area: The Ge-speaking peoples, formerly called the Tapuya, live for
  the most part east of the tropical forest in the steppe country of eastern
  Brazil.  They are classified into five major groupings: the Northwestern
  Ge, the Central Ge (including the Shavante, Sherente, and Acroa), the
  Southern Ge, the Jeico, and the Camacan.  The Northwestern Ge include the
  Timbira (3-9 S, 42-29 W), the Northern Cayapo or Coroa (10 S, 52 W), the now
  extinct Southern Cayapo (20 S, 50 W), and the Suya (13 S, 52 W).  The
  Timbira are divided into a western group, consisting of the Apinaya, between
  the Tocantins and lower Araguaga River, and the Eastern Timbira east of the
  Tocantins River.  There are 15 surviving small tribes of Eastern Timbira, of
  which three (the Kencateye, Apanyecra, and Ramcocamecra) are collectively
  known as the Canella.  The Eastern Timbira are first mentioned in 1728.
  They fought bitterly with the  Neo-Brazilians and were raided for slaves
  until their resistance was sapped by disease and warfare around 1850.  The
  earliest ethnographic data are from Ribeiro, a frontier officer who lived in
  close contact with the Eastern Timbira from 1800 to 1823.  The surviving
  Ramcocamecra numbered about 300 in 1946.  They have been largely gathered in
  the village of Ponto in the state of Maranhao, where the principal
  ethnographer, Nimuendaju (Onkel), was in close contact with them apparently
  from at least 1915 to 1936.  The habitat of the Ramcocamecra during the
  historical period has been the eastern headwaters of the Rio Corda (see
  Focus above for coordinates).

Selection of Focus: The Ramcocamecra are selected as much the best described
  of the various subtribes of the Eastern Timbira, and because Nimendaju was
  in  contact with them for many years.

Time: The date of 1915 is selected as much the best described of the various
  subtribes of the Eastern Timbira, and because Nimuendaju was in contact with
  them for many years.

Coordinates: Those for the Ramcocamecra tribelet are given above under Focus.
  The village of Ponto, where they have lived in recent years, is not shown on
  available maps but is almost certainly within the indicated coordinates.

Standard Sample Unit 177 (DRW 8/19/68)

Sampling Province 191: Tupi.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 412: Tupinamba, Sj8:400.

Focus: The Tupinamba in the vicinity of Rio de Janiero (22 33' to 23 S, 42
  to 30'W)--region #2 as defined below--in 1550.

General Area: The Tupinamba were a nation of tupi-Guarani speakers who in the
  16th century occupied most of coastal Brazil from the mouth of the Amazon
  River in the north (on the euqator) to southern Sao Paulo in the south (at
  25 S ) and in various places also extended inland, where they were known
  collectively as the Tobayara.  They had occupied this region rather
  recently, their megrations ending only in the second half of the 16th
  century, displacing various indigenous peoples, known collectively as the
  Tapuya, from all but a few enclaves along the coast (notably the Teremembe
  in coastal Maranhao, the Waitaka in Spiritu Santo, and the Wayana in Sao
  Paulo).  The coastal Tupinamba consisted of a number of warring subtribes,
  of which the most important are listed below from south to north.
   1. The Tupinakin or Typinamba of Sao Paulo along the coast from Angra dos
      Reis (23 S, 44 W) in the northeast to Cananea (25 S, 48 W) in the
      southwest and inland up the tiete River to 48 W.
   2. The Tupinamba of Rio de Janeiro, including the coastal Tamoyo and the
      Ararape in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro, from Cabo de Sao Tome (23
      S, 42 W) in the southwest and inland up the Tiete River to 48 W.
   3. The Timimino or Tupinamba of Espiritu Santo on the coast and the lower
      Paraiba River from the Sao Mateus River (18 30'S, 39 30'W) to Cabo de
      Sao Tome.
   4. The Tupinikin or Tupinamba of southern Bahia from Cumamu (14 S, 39 W) to
      the border of Espiritu Santo.
   5. The Tupinamba of northern Bahia and Sergipe along the coast of these
      states from the Sao Francisco River (10 30'S, 38 W) to Cabo de Sao Tome.
   6. The Caete along the Atlantic coast from the Pariba River (7 S, 35 W) to
      the Sao Francisco River in the states of Pariba, Pernambuco, and
      Alagoas.
   7. The Potiguara along the coast from the Parnaiba River (2 30'S, 42 W) to
      the  Paraiba River in the states of Piaui, Ceara, and Rio Grando de
      Norte and inland to the mountains.
   8. The Tupinamba of Para and Maranhao from the Para River (0 30'S, 48 W)
      and the island of Maranhao to the Parnaiba River and inland along the
      Pindare, Mearim, Itapecuru, and para Rivers as far west as 52 W.
    The region of Rio de Janiero (#2 above) was discovered by the Portuguese
  in 1502 but was neglected while Sao Paulo, Pernambuco, and bahia (Sao
  Salvador) became thriving centers.  In 1555 a group of French protestants
  colonized Rio, but were poorly governed and then expelled by the Portuguese
  Jesuits headed by Nobrega and Anchieta.  In the north, around Pernambuco and
  Sao Salvador, Indians were enslaved in the export economy.  This
  precipitated a number of messianic outbursts among the Tupinamba and led to
  movements into the interior up the Amazon as far as Peru and Bolivia.  The
  Tupinamba were estremely populous, those of region #8 being estimated at
  40,000 at the end of the 16th century.

Selection of Focus: The Tupinamba of Rio de Janeiro (region #2 above) are
  selected because of the excellence of reports by Lery, Shevet, and Staden,
  and because of their early date and the absense of missionary interference.
  The early reports on other regions can, however, be used with caution
  because of the cultural similarity throughout the Tupinamba area.

Time: The date of 1550 is chosen as that of the captivity of Staden and
  only a few years before the reports of the travellers Lery (1557) and Thevet
  (1555).

Standard Sample Unit 178 (GPM 8/18/68)

Sampling Province 192: East Brazilian Highlands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 411: Botocudo (Aimore, Burun),
  Sj5:299.

Focus: The Naknenuk subtribe of Botocudo in the drainage basin of the Rio
  Doce in eastern Minas Gerais (18  to 20 W, 41 30' to 43 30'W) in 1884.

General Area: The Botocudo, who speak languages of the independent Botocudan
  family, resided in the 16th century in the frainage basins of the Pardo,
  Mucury, Sao Mateus, and Doce rivers between the Serra dos Aimores in the
  east and the Serra do Espinahaco in the west.  A few who had occupied
  sections of the coast in Espiritu Santo had been driven into the mountainous
  interior by 1560.  Throughout the late 16th, the 17th, and the early 18th
  centuries they repeatedly harassed the Portuguese and mestizo settlements on
  the coast, but they largely remained independent, though hunted down
  mercilessly until after 1850.  Some of them began to settle down in the
  early nineteenth century and practice agriculture, but there were still
  nomadic hunting groups, including the Nakenuk subtribe, as late as
  Ehrenreich's visit in 1884.  The bulk of the modern survivors are found in
  the drainage basin of the Rio Doce, though a few live further north in the
  basin of the Rio Pardo (15 30'S).  When visited by Ehrenreich in 1884 they
  still numbered about 5,000, and Tschudi estimated 3,000 in the Mercury basin
  alone in 1862.  They are, however, greatly reduced today.

Selection of Focus: The relatively unacculturated Naknenuk tribe described by
  Ehreneich are chosen as the focus.  They were still too wild to visit when
  Prince Wied-neuwied visited the Shiporok group on the Urucu River, a
  southern tributary of the Mecury, in his 1815-1817 travels.

Time: The date of 1884 is selected as that of Ehrenreich's field research.

Coordinates: Those given above under Focus are the Botocudo studied by
  Ehrenreich.  Other Botocudo extended north to about 15 30'S.

Standard Sample Unit 179 (GPM 7/24/68)

Sampling Province 193: Upper Araguaya and Tocantins.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 406: Shavante (Akwe-Shavante,
  Chavante, Crixa, Puxiti, Tapacua), Sj11:1184.

Focus: The Shavante of the Vicinity of Sao Domingos, centered at 13 30'S and
  51 30'W, in 1958.

General Area: The General Ge peoples, formerly located largely in the
  Brazilian state of Goias, are divided into two divisions: (1) the Acroa and
  Guegue, (2) the Akwe, embracing the Shavante, Sherente, and the extinct
  Shacriaba.  Until about 1850 the Shavante and Sherente were essentially one
  people, living in the north central part of the state of Goias.  Here they
  put up strong resistance to gold prospectors and advancing settlers from
  1732 on.  Around 1850 those who were to become the Shavante separated from
  th subsequent Sherent, leaving the territory formerly occupied in north
  central Goias between the Tocantins and Araguaya Rivers and moving west
  across the Araguaya, where they have since occupied a number of settlements
  on and west of the Rio dos Mortes, a western tributary of the Araguaya in
  the extreme eastern part of the state of Mato Grosso.  Here they continued
  their extreme hostility to the advancing whites, for example killing two
  missionaries as late as 1934.  Peace and amicable relations were not
  established until 1953, shortly before the beginning of the field
  investigations of Maybury-Lewis.  Fewer than 100 in 1958 in Sao Domingos.

Selection of Focus: The Shavante of Sao Domingos and vicinity were selected
  because Maybury-Lewis did most of his field research there, although he also
  spent brief periods at Santa Terezinha and Sao Marcos.

Time: The date of 1958 is selected as that of Maybury-Lewis's first and major
  period of field work.

Coordinates: The various Shavante settlements are located between 11 30'S and
  15'30'S and between 51 30' and 54 W.  The coordinates of the village fo Sao
  Domingos are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 180 (GPM 7/25/68)

Sampling Province 194: Caingang.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 410: Aweikoma (Botocudo of
  Santa Catarina, Brgre, Kaingang of Santa Catarina, Shokleng), Sj3:199.

Focus: The Aweikoma of the Duque de Caxias Reservation, Dalbergia, state of
  Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 1932.  See below for coordinates.

General Area: Linguistically, the Caingang (Kaingang) of the southeastern
  states of Brazil constitute the Southern branch of the Ge family.  The
  Aweikoma, one of the scattered surviving groups, formerly occupied the
  region in the present state of Santa Catarina from the Timbo River to the
  forests of the Serra do Mar and from the Rio Negro to the Urugary River.  In
  their mountainous habitat they stubbornly resisted encroachments by
  Brazilian and German settlers, and were persistently hunted down by the
  notorious begieros of professional Indian hunters.  After their
  pacification, their remnants were settled in 1914 on the Duque de Caxias
  Reservation, where Henry found 106 survivors in 1930.

Selection of Focus: The Aweikoma are much the most fully described of the
  various Caingang groups.

Time: The date of 1932 is selected as that of the beginning of Henry's field
  work.

Coordinates: The sources do not locate the Qweikoma, but there are
  indications that they are centered around 28 S and 50 W.

Standard Sample Unit 181 (GPM 7/25/68)

Sampling Province 195: Guarani

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 409: Cayua (Caingua),
  Sj10:1170.

Focus: The Cayua of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil, located between 23  and 24
  S and from 54  to 56 W, at about 1890.

General Area: The Guarani peoples, at the time of European contact, occupied
  the Atlantic coast of South America from 26  to 33 S and extended westward
  into the basins of Parana, Uruguay, and Paraguay Rivers in what is now
  central and eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, and neighboring
  portions of Brazil.  This nation, speaking closely related languages of the
  Tupi-Guarani family, is divisible into three major divisions with varying
  histories:
   1. The Guarani proper in the basin of the Paraguay River in Parayuay and
      adjacent Argentine.  The Spaniards ascended the paraguay River in 1536
      and in 1537 founded the city of Asuncion, the present capital of
      Paraguay.  They established encomiendas in the middle of the sixteenth
      century, taking Guarani wives.  The race mixture and assimilation which
      followed produced the present dominant population of Paraguay, which
      still preserves Guarani as the prevailing language.
   2. The Guarani of the basins of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers, including
      much of the present Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.  They were
      missionized by the Jesuits and subject to these missions from 1608 to
      1767, except in Rio Grande do Sul, where slave raiders from Sao Paulo
      systematically raided they for slaves, forcing the abandonment of the
      reducciones here in 1638.  After the expulsion of the Jesuits these
      Guarani were reduced to peonage, strongly acculturated, and mestizoized.
   3. The Cayua of southern Mato Grosso and a narrow adjacent strip of the
      divide between 23  and 24 S and between 54  and 56 W.  These are the
      only Guarani who escaped reduction and missionization.  Though
      acculturated to a limited extent, these "forest Guarani" have retained
      their essential independence ever since the eighteenth century.  The
      country they occupy is sparsely populated by Paraguayan, Brazilian, and
      Argentinian cattle raisers and growers of mate (Paraguay tea), by whom
      the Cayua are employed, though most of them still maintain subsistence
      agriculture.  The Cayua of Mato Grosso are reported to have numbered
      about 3,000 in 1912 and again in 1943.  There are no dependable
      demographic data  on the smaller number of Cayua in adjacent Parayuay.

Selection of Focus: The Cayua of Brazil are chosen as more fully described
  and less acculturated than those of Paraguay and the other Guarani peoples.

Time: The date of 1890 is selected as the time of the earlier good
  descriptions and as presumably about that of the period for which Watson
  reconstructs their earlier culture.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.  Watson did his field work in the
  village of Taquapiri in Mato Grosso close to the Paraguayan border at about
  23 30'S and 55 W.

Standard Sample Unit 182 (GPM 7/26/68)

Sampling Province 196: Paraguayan Chaco.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 393: Lengua, Sh9:1168.

Focus: The Lengua Indians in contact with the Church of England mission,
  located from 23  to 24 S and from 58  to 59 W, in 1889.

General Area: The Lengua, who speak a Mascoian language, are located along
  the western bank of the Paraguay River in Paraguay.   They are not to be
  confused with the Lengua-Enigmago or Maca tribe, their neighbors to the
  southwest.  The Paraguay River was first explored by Sebastian Cabot in
  1526, and in 1536 the Spaniards founded the city of Asuncion.  Throughout
  the 16th century the Spaniards from the settlement of the Rio de la Plate
  made a series of vigorous but unsuccessful attempts to conquer the
  Paraguayan Chaco as a means of gaining access to the wealth of th eInca
  empire, but after about 1600 the native inhabitants were relatively
  undisturbed for a considerable period.  In 1889 the Church of England
  established a mission among the Lengua, and thereafter acculturation
  proceeded space.  The population of the Lengua was estimated at 2,300 in
  1950; accurate earlier figures are not available.

Selection of Focus: Of the ten principal bands of the Lengua, several came
  under the influence of the English mission in 1889.  These are selected as
  the focus because of the full description by Grubb, who severed as a
  missionary among the Lengua for 20 years.

Time: The date of 1889 is selected as the year of the foundation of the
  English mission and therefore antecedent to the subsequent acculturation.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 183 (GPM 7/26/68)

Sampling Province 197: Argentine Chaco.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 392: Abipon (Mepene), Sh3:196.

Focus: The Abipon in contact with the Jesuit mission, between 27  and 29 S
  and from 59  to 60 W, in 1750.

General Area: The Abipon, who speak a Guaycuran language, were located on the
  north bank of the lower Bermejo River in Argentina when first visited
  (briefly) by missionaries in 1591.  They acquired the horse at the beginning
  of the 17th century, adopted a nomadic mode of life, and moved southward to
  dominate a vast area bounded on the north by the middle and lower Bermejo
  River, on the east by the Parana River, on the south by the Spanish
  settlements around Santa Fe, and on the west by those of Cordoba and
  Santiago del Estero.  They became a source to Spaniards, raiding their
  settlements to the south, east, and west.  A Jesuit mission was established
  among them in 1748, when they numbered about 5,000, but in 1767 they had
  been reduced to 2,000 in four jesuit missions.  It was not until the 19th
  century that they were forced into complete submission.  They are now
  strongly acculturated and mestizoised until there are few if any full bloods
  surviving.

Selection of Focus: The Abipon associated with the Jesuit missions are
  selected because of the excellent description by Father Dobrizhoffer.

Time: The date of 1750 is chosen as that when Dibrizhoffer begin his 12 years
  of missionary work among the Abipon, only two years after the establishment
  of the mission.

Coordinates: The region dominated by the ABipon in the 18th century extended
  from 26  to 30 S and from 59  to 63 W.  The coordinates for the more
  restricted area of their concentration are given above under focus.

Standard Sample Unit 184 (GPM 7/27/68)

Sampling Province 198: Araucanians.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 388: Mapuche, Sg2:195.

Focus: The Manpuche in the vicinity of Temuco, the capital of Cautin
  province, Chile, located at 38 30'S and 72 35'W, at about 1950.

General Area: The Araucanians originally occupied central Chile from 30 N to
  43 S and from the coast to the intermontane valleys of the Andean
  cordillera.  They were divided into four major divisions, as follows:
   1. The Pinunche in the north about 37 S.  They had been conquered and
      incorporated in the Inca empire under Tupac Yupanqui (regnit c.1448-82)
      as far south as the Rio Maule and this conquered territory was in the
      process of being extended even farther south at the time of the conquest
      of Peru.  They came into contact with the Spaniards in 1536, and were
      completely occupied and subjugated between 1540 and 1558.  As a result
      of the establishment of the encomienda system, they rapidly underwater
      acculturation and race mixture and had ceased to exist as a separate
      entity by the middle of the 17th century.
   2. The Mapuche between 37 N and 39 S.  Four decades of warfare resulted in
      the complete destruction of the early Spanish settlements in the Mapuche
      and Huilliche country in 1598.  The struggle against the Spaniards
      continued intermittently through the 17th century.  Relations were more
      peaceful in the 18th century, but they were broken by serious Mapuche
      uprisings in 1723, 1740, and 1766.  The last uprising was in 1880,
      terminating in the final pacification of the Mapuche in 1882-83, until
      which time Mapuche culture remained relatively intact.  In short the
      Mapuche succeeded in preventing the penetration of their heartland, the
      so-called Frontera or Araucania, by the Spaniards for 300 years until
      near the end of the 19th century.
   3. The Huilliche between 39 30'S and 43 S.  The Huilliche, like the
      Mapuche,successfully resisted the Spaniards for centuries, but they
      succumbed earlier.  Their country began to be colonized heavily by
      Germans after the middle of the 19th century.  Today, most of the
      Huilliche, like the Picunche, have suffered disintegration and
      mestizoization.
   4. The Pehuenche of the higher slopes and intermontane valleys of the Andes
      from 37 20' to 40 20'S.  They were originally non-agricultural, and
      perhaps even non-Araucanian inlanguage, and they have practically if not
      entirely disappeared.
    The total population of the Araucanians at the time of the conquest may
  well have reached 1,000,000.  Not counting mestizos of partial Araucanian
  descent, the surviving Araucanians, almost exclusively Mapuche, numbered
  about 250,000 in 1950.  Mission activities among the Araucanians were
  conducted primarily by the Jesuits from 1593 to the middle of the 18th
  century, then by the Franciscans, and since 1848 by the Capuchins.  Mission
  influence on the Mapuche, however, has been relatively superficial.  The
  Araucanians all speak languages of the Independent Araucanian family.

Selection of Focus: The Mapuche around the city of Temuco were studied by
  both Faron and Titiev, although Faron also worked in Tolten and Villarrica,
  respectively about 200 miles southwest and southeast of Temuco, though also
  within the province of Cautin.

Time: The date of 1950 is selected as two years after the field work of
  Titiev and two years prior to that of Faron.  Since Faron states
  specifically that there has been significant structural change and cultural
  reintegration since the initiation of the present reservation system in
  1884, there seems no reason to select an earlier date, especially since the
  quality of recent ethnographic work is greatly superior to that of earlier
  periods.

Coordinates: The region called Frontera or Araucania, where the vast majority
  of the Mapuche have lived for generations, is located between 37  and 39 S
  and between 72  and 74 W.  Its central part is occupied by Cautin province,
  whose capital, Temuco, is located under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 185 (GPM 7/27/68)

Sampling Province 199: Patagonia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 391: Tehuelche (Patagon),
  Sg4:349.

Focus: The equestrian or mounted Tehuelche, located between 40  and 50 S and
  from 64  to 72 W, in 1870.   (Closer pinpointing may be possible from any
  indication given by Musters of where he worked).

General Area: The Tehuelche, who spoke a language of the Tehuelchean or
  Chonan family, aboriginally occupied the steppes of Patagonia in Argentina
  from the Rio Negro south to the Strait of Magellan.  They were encountered
  by those north of the Rio Santa Cruz (50 S) acquired the horse, and were
  thereafter differentiated as the "horse Tehuelche" from the "foot Tehuelche"
  to the south (50  to 52 S).  Since 1883, when military campaigns finally
  broke the power of the Puelche Indians to the north, settlers have occupied
  most of the Tehuelche country, and the Tehuelche have become strongly
  acculturated.  A severe smallpox epidemic in 1829 cut the population of the
  Tehuelche in half, but Viedma reported about 4,000 survivors in 1937.
  Musters in 1871 estimated the number of the Tehuelche at 1,400.  There were
  only 107 in 1913.

Selection of Focus: The "horse Tehuelche"  studied by Musters.

Time: The date of 1870 is selected as that of the field work of Musters.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 186 (GPM 7/28/68)

Sampling Province 200: Fuegians.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 390: Yahgan (Yamana), Sg1:94.

Focus: The Yahgan, located between 54 30' and 56 30'S and between 67  and 70
  W, about 1865, with special reference to the eastern and central subgroups
  (54 30' to 55 30'S, 67  to 70 W).

General Area: The Yaghan or Yamana, who speak dialects of an independent
  linguistic family, have occupied the southern shore of the island of Tierra
  del Fuego and the offlying islands along Beagle Channel south to Cape Horn.
  They are divided into five local divisions with modest differences in
  culture: (1) easten, (2) central, (3) southern, (4) western, and (5)
  southwestern.  They were first visited by L'Hermite in 1624, but the next
  landmark in their history was the visits of the Beagle 1829-32.  A
  Protestant mission was established among them in the 1850's, and Thomas
  Bridges, a missionary among them for about two decades in the 1860's and
  1870's, is the source of most of the dependable early accounts of the
  culture and language; in addition to his own publications, he supplied the
  bulk of the ethnographic data for the Italo-Argentinian expedition of 1882
  in the 1860's, but after 1880 a sharp decline set in as a consequence of
  epidemics and an altered mode of life.  There were only 1,000 survivors in
  1884, 400 in 1886, 200 in 1899, and 40 in 1933.

Selection of Focus: The eastern and central Yaghan are selected because the
  other portions of Yaghan territory became depopulated at an earlier date.

Time: The date of 1865 is chosen as approximately the beginning of the
  scientific contributions of Bridges.  Most of the reliable later sources,
  notably Gusinde, are concerned with the reconstruction of the culture as of
  this early period.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.