Standard Sample Unit 142 (GPM 7/5/68)

Sampling Province 159: Caddoans.

Representative of the the Province and of Cluster 318: Pawnee, Nf6:342.

Focus: The Skidi or Skiri Pawnee, centered at about 42N, 100W,in central
  Nebraska, in 1867.

General Area: The Pawnee are a Caddoan tribe who formerly occupied the Loup,
  Platte,  and republican rivers in central and south central Nebraska.  They
  were divided into two main divisions:
   1. The Skidi or Skiri Pawnee in the north on the several branches of the
      Loup River.  Their closest kinsmen were the Arikara, who split off from
      the Skidi Pawnee in proto-historic times, moved north, and settled on
      the Missouri River in North Dakota adjacent to the Mandan.
   2. The South Band Pawnee of the Platte and Republican Rivers, who consisted
      of three bands with kindred languages: (a) the Chaui or Grand Pawnee,
      (b) the Pitawirata or Pitahauerat or Tapage Pawnee, (c) the kitkehaxki
      or Republican Pawnee.
    The Pawnee were encountered by Coronado in 1541.  French traders began to
  establich themselves among them by 1750.  They numbered about 10.000 in
  1839. A cholera epidemic reducted them to 4,500 in 1849.  Later figures are
  3,400 in 1859, 1,440 in 1879, 649 in 1906, and 730 in 1930.  The Skidi
  occupied at least 13 villages in the 1700's, reduced to four in 1867.
  Between 1873 and 1875 they removed to Oklahoma, joined the Wichita, leaving
  a reservation on Beaver Creek, a northern tributary of the Loup Rive, which
  had been set aside for them in 1859.

Selection of Focus: The Skidi Pawnee are chosen because they are the best
  decribed of the Pawnee bands.  Sources, like Lounsbury, which deal with
  the Republican Pawnee or other South Bands should be used with great
  caution, since these bands differ from the Skidi in language and culture
  even more than do the Arikara.

Time: The date of 1867 is selected because this is the year for which
  Weltfish, the principal authority, reconstructs the aboriginal culture.

Coordinates: The Pawnee as a whole are located between 40 and 42, and
  between 97 and 101W.  The Skidi were the northernmost band, and are
  pinpointed under Focus above.


Standard Sample Unit 143 (GPM 8/6/68)

Sampling Province 155: Prairie.

Representative of the province and of Cluster 319: Omaha,Nf3:179.

Focus:  The Omaha tribe as a whole, locate in eastern Nebraska at 4110'
  to 4140'N and 98 to 97W, in 1860.

General Area: The Omaha are a tribe of the Dhegiba group of Siouan-speaking
  people, along with the Kansa, Osage, Ponca, and Quapaw.  Their homeland
  is a small section of easter Nabraska around the present city of Omaha.
  They always lived at peace with the white man, and in 1854 ceded their
  hunting ground to the United States and were granted a reservation. Since
  The disapperance of the buffalo around 1870 they reverted to a stricly
  agricultural mode of life, which they have never abandoned despite their
  acquisition of the horse.  Their population was reported as 1,076 in
  1876, as 1,179 in 1884.

Selection of Focus:  The tribe as a whole, being small and integrated.

Time: The date of 1860 is selected as approximately that of the disapperance
  of the buffalo.  Memory of the old way of life was still vivid at the time
  of Fletcher and LaFlesche.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 144 (GPM 7/3/68)

Sampling Province 156: Northeastern Woodlands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 321: Huron (Wendot) Ngl:79.

Focus:  The Attignawantan (Bear People) and Attigneenongnahac (Cord people)
  tribe of the Huron Confederacy, located between 44 and 45N and between
  78 and 80W, in 1634.

Gerneral Area: The Huron were an Iroquoian-speaking people in Ontario north of
  Lake Ontario and the St.Lawrence River.  Neighboring Iroquoian peoples were
  the Tobacco Nation (Khionontaterrhonon, Petun) to the west,  the Neutral
  Nation (Attiwandaron) to the southwest, and the iroquois (especially the
  Seneca) to the south.  To the north were the Algonkian-speaking Algonquin.
  The Huron Confederacy consisted of four tribes: the Attignawantan and the
  Attigneenongnahac mentioned under Focus of above; the Arendahronon to the
  east, who joined the Confederacy in 1590; and the Tohontaenrat,  who joined
  the Confederacy in 1610.  They were visited by Champain, who spent
  a winter among them in 1615-1616.  Father Sagard visited them during the
  winter 1623-24.  The Jesuits began to proselyte them in 1634 and
  described them in annual Jesuit Relations until 1649, when the Huron were
  conquered by the Iroquois, driven their territory, and dispersed.
  Only fragments, notably the Wyandot, survived after that time.  In 1634
  they were reported to number abount 30,000 in 20 villages, but were reduced
  to 10,000 by 1640.

Selection of Focus: The Attignawantan and Attigneenongnhac are selected
  as the largest and most important of the Huron tribes and those to which
  most of the imformationcan be assigned.

Time: the year 1634 is selected  as the date of the first missionary efforts
  of the Jesuits, when the aboriginal culture was still largely undisturnbed.

Coordinates: None of the sources give exact coordinates for any of the
  Huron tribes or villages, but those given under Focus above are
  approximately correct.


Standard Sample Unit 145 (GPM 8/7/68)

Sampling Province 157: Southeastern Woodlands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 324: Creek (Muskogee), Ng3:180.

Focus: The Upper Creek, located in Alabama from 3230' to 3420'N and
  form 8530' to 8630'W, about 1800.

General Area:  The Creek, a Muskogean-speaking nation, occupied considerable
  portions of Alabama and  Georgia at the beginning of the colonial period.
  They were divided into two main divisions, as follows:
   1. The Upper Creek in the drainage basins of the Goosa, Tallapoosa, and
      upper Alabama rivers in what is now Alabama.  Those on the Tallapoosa
      and Alabama rivers are sometimes classed as Middle Creek.
   2. The lower Creek inthe drainageasins of the Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee
      rivers in extreme eastern Alabama and adjacent Geogia.  Originally they
      extended farther east, perhaps even to the coast, but moved westward
      under early European pressure.
    The Creek were first visited by De Soto in 1540.  From 1565 on, the Lower
  Creek maintained close relations with the Spaniards in Florida, and begin to
  moved into Florida, displacing the indigenous tribes there; Florida was
  ceded to Great Britain in 1763.  The Upper Creek  were  long allied with the
  English, but in 1813-14 they joined the rebellion of the Shawnee chief,
  Tecumseh, against, the American; the Lower Creek abstained.  The famous
  Creek confederacy probably existed in embryo form at the time of De Soto,
  but it was in full flower when South Carolina was colonized in 1670. In
  addition to both divisions of the Creek, the Confederacy accepted other
  tribes.  Thus the Apalachicola and Hitchiti, later the Yuchi, joined the
  Lower Creek, while the Alabama, Koasati, a detachment of the Shawnee, later
  the Yuchi, and for a period the Yamasi joined the Upper Creek towns. In 1825
  the Creek ceded their remaining lands to the United States, and in 1836-40
  they moved to Oklahoma.  In 1832-33, just prior to their removal, their
  removal, the Creek numbered about 18,000.  In 1857 there were 15,000 of
  them, and in 1923 about 12,000.

Selection of focus: The Upper Creek were chosen because the best described.

Time: The date of 1800 was selected as prior to Tecumseh's rebellion and the
  removal to Oklahoma, and as subsequent to a number of the best early
  accounts.

Coordinates: Those for the Upper Creek are given above under focus.  The Lower
  Creek extended eastward well into Georgia, while the Alabama and Koasati
  were found farther west in Alabama.



Standard Sample Unit 146 (GPM 7/6/68)

Sampling province 158: Lower Mississippi.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 325:  Natchez, Ng7:385.  (Note
  that the Natchez have been transferred from Province 159, where they
  appeared in "World Sampling Province").

Focus: The Natchez proper, centered at abount 3130'N and 9125'W,in 1718.

General Area: The Natchez belong to the Natchesan subfamily of the Natchez-
  Muskhogean linguistic family.  They were located aboriginally in nine
  villages along St.Catherine's Creek just east of the present city of
  Natchez, Mississippi.  The  linguistically kindred Avoyel and Taensa were
  close neighbors,  across the Mississippi River to the west, the Taensa to
  the Avoyel to the south.  South and east of the Natchez were the Muskhogean
  Huma (Houma) and Choctaw, respectively.  The first contacts with Europeans
  were with La Salle in 1682.  Tonti in 1686, and Lemoyne d'Iberville in 1698.
  Also in 1698 arrived the first missionaries, including dumont de Montigny.
  Natchez soon began a major French colonial settlement, and English traders
  are reported to have first appeared there in 1713.  Although relations were
  on the whole friendly between the Natchez and the French, there were breif
  periods of hostility in 1714, 1722, and 1723.  In 1729, the Natchez
  participated in a massacre of the French settlers at Natchez, killing 200-
  250 men and enslaving 150 women, 80 children, and nearly as many Negroes,
  only 20 white men escaping.  In 1730-31 the french took massive vengeance,
  nealy destroying the Natchez, who had numbered well over 5,000 aboriginally,
  about 3,500 in 1698, and 2,100 in 1730, and were reduced to 825 in 1734.
  In 1800 there were still 470 Natchez, but in 1907 Santon found only five
  individuals who could still speak the aboriginal language.

Selection of Focus: Since the Natchez were organized politically under an
  absolute king, there were no siginificant local differences.  The Taensa and
  Avoyel, however, are excluded.

Time: The date of 1718 is selected as that of the arrival of the first
  missionaries, including Dumont de Montingny, one of the principal
  ethnographic sources.

Coordinates: Given  above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 147 (GPM 8/7/68)

Sampling Province 160: Southern Plains.

Representative of the Province and Cluster 316: Comanche, Ne3:177.

Focus: The Comanche as a whold, located from 30 to 38N and from 98 to
  103W, in 1870.

General Area: The Comanche, who speak a Shoshonian language, entered the
  Plains relatively late, coming from the northwest.  As early as 1705,
  however, they were already raiding the Spanish settlements in
  northeastern New Mexico.  They dominated the southern Plains--northwestern
  Texas, western Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, and southeastern Colorado--
  from about 1725 to almost 1875.  They acquired horses in the seventeenth
  century and by the eighteenth were raiding the Spaniards in New Mexico and
  Texas.  They were hereditary enemies of the Ute, and in 1838 decimated the
  pueblo of Pecos an dforced its abandonment.  By 1870 the range of the
  buffalo was being seriouly curtailed,and the herds completely disappeared
  about 1878.  In 1875 the Comanche capitulated and were assigned a
  reservation in weastern Oklahoma.  The population of the Comanche was
  estimated by Mooney to be about 7,000 in 1690.  Bent estimated them at
  12,000 in 1846.  They numbered 4,700 in 1866, 1,380 in 1884, 1,170 in 1910,
  and 1937.

Selection of Focus: The entire tribe, which was culturally undifferentiated.

Time: The date of 1870 was selected as just prior to the removal to Oklahoma.
  The last Sun Dance was held in 1878.

Corrdinates: Given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 148 (GPM 7/6/68)

Sampling Province 161: Apache-Tanoan.

Representative of the Province and Cluster 327: Chiricahua apache, Nh1:81.

Focus: The Central band or Chiricahua proper, centering in the Chiricahua
  Mountains (32N, 10930'W) in southeastern Arizona, around 1870.

General Area: The Athapaskan-speaking Chiricahua Apache are located in
  southwestern New Mexico, southeastern Arizona, and northern portions of the
  Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua.  They are divided into three local
  bands, as follows:
   1. The Northeastern band, called in Apache the "Red Paint People," east of
      the Continental Divide in New Mexico.  They are otherwise called the
      Warm Springs Apache, Ojo Caliente Apache, Coppermine Apache, Mimbrenoa
      Apache, and Mogollones Apache.
   2. The Central band or Chiricahua proper also called the Cochise Apache,
      located west of the Continental Divide in the extreme southwestern
      corner of New Mexico and southeastern Arizona.
   3. The Southern band, also called Pinery Apache, located south of the
      border in Mexico.  This was Geronomo's band.
    The Chiricahua were encountered by the Spaniards prior to 1600 and have
  been in contact with themand the Americans ever since.  Reservations were
  estabilished for them around 1870, but in 1875 they were abolished and the
  Chiricahua were settled with their traditional enemies, the White Mountain
  Apache, on the reservation of the latter.  They were seriously discontented,
  however, and from 1883 to 1886 engaged in a series of military operations
  against the American Army, culmintating in the surrender of Geronimo.  The
  entire Chiricahua tribe, then numbering more than 400, was transported as
  prisoners to Florida in 1886, thence to Alabama, and thence to Fort Sill,
  Oklahoma in 1894.  They were released from captivity in 1913, when fewer
  than 100 stayed in Oklahoma and the rest removed to the Mescalero
  Reservation in New Mexico.

Seleciton of Focus: Although the Central band or Chiricahua proper, are chosen
  as the focus, differences between the three bands were apparently slight.
  The principal authority, Opler, visited them all and treats all of them
  together.

Time: The date of 1870 is selected as immediately prior to the reservation
  period.

Coordinates: The Chiricahua extended from 107 to 110W and from 30 to 34N.
  Their eastern neighbors were the Mescalero Apache, and they bordered the
  Western Apache in the west.  The coordinates for the center of the territory
  of the Central Band of Chiricahua are given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 149 (GPM 8/7/68)

Sampling Province 162: Pueblo-Navaho.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 330: Zuni, Nh4:183.

Focus: The one village of Zuni, located at 35 to 3530'N and 10830' to
  109W, in 1880.

General Area: The Zuni, a Pueblo people speaking an independent Zunian
  language, are derived form the archeological Anazazi culture, dating from
  about 200 A.D.  They occupied seven pueblos in western New Mexico when
  first seen by Marcos de Niza in 1539.  In 1598 they were visited by onate,
  the colonizer of New Mexico.  The first missionaries arrived in 1629 but
  were murdered in 1632.  They joined in the great Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and
  were conquered in 1692, when their villages were concentrated into one.  A
  new mission was estabilished in 1699, lasting until 1821.  Contact with the
  Spaniards brought Catholicism, wheat, horses, and donkeys, cattle and sheep,
  and firearms.  The Zuni were economically self-sufficient until the 1880's,
  when the railroad reached Gallup.  They were estimated to number 2,500 in
  1680, and are reported as numbering about 1,600 in 1888, 1,500 in 1805,
  1,530 in 1871, 1,547 in 1889, 1,667 in1910, 1,900 in 1923, 2,080 in 1937,
  and 2,850 in 1950.

Selection of Focus: The single pueblo of Zuni.

Time: The date of 1880 is selected as approximately that of the beginning of
  the field work of both cushing and Stevenson and as shortly prior to the end
  of Zuni economic self-sufficiency.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 150 (GPM 8/19/68)

Sampling Province 145:  Yumans.

Representative of the Province and Cluster 306:   Havasupai, (Supai), Nd3:175.

Focus:  The Havasupai tribe as a whole, located between  3520' and 3620'N
  and between 11120' and 113W, in 1918.

General Area:  The Havasupai are a Plateau Yuman tribe, speaking a language of
  the Yuman branch of the Hokan family.  They live in the bottom of the Grand
  Canyon and its southern affluent, Cataract Canyon, and range over the
  adjacent plateau in north central Arizona.  Archaeology indicates that they
  have occupied this habitat since about 600 A.D.   They are first reported by
  Garces in 1776.  Their isolation in the canyon depths has effectively
  protected them from acculturative influences, and spier reports that their
  indigenous culture was still "practically intact" at the time of his field
  work in 1918-21.  The havasupai Reservation was established in their own
  territory in 1880.  Cushing in 1881 reported their population as 235.  Spier
  counted 177 in 1919 and states that their numbers probably never exceeded
  250 or, at the most, 300.

Selection of Focus:  The tribe being small and homogeneous, no finer
  pinpointing is required.

Time:  The date of 1918 is selected as that of the beginning of Spier's field
  work.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 151 (GPM 8/11/68)

Sampling Province 163: Northwest Mexico.

Representative of the Province of Cluster 333: Papago, Ni2: 184.

Focus: The Papago proper or Eastern Papago of southern Arizona in 1910.
  Coordinates are available only for the tribe as a whole (see under
  Coordinates below), but Sells, near which Underwood did her field work, is
  located at about 32N, 112W.

General Area: The Papago, who speak a language of the Piman family of the Uto-
  Aztecan phylum, live south and xoutheast of the Gila River and the basin of
  the Santo Cruz River in southern Arizona and extend southward into the
  Mexican state of Sonora.  They are divided into four dialect divisions as
  follows:
   1. The Archie division or Papago proper in the east.  This is the focus.
   2. The Kubratk division in the north, adjoining the Pima.
   3. The Huhubra division in the extreme west.
   4. The Kokoloti division in the Mexican state of Sonora.  They have been
      missionized since the late 17th century and are heavily Hispanized.
    The Papago are presumably descende from the people of the archeological
  Hohokam culture.  They were first visited by the hesuit missionary Kino in
  1687, but Jesuit and later Fanciscan missionary activity was confined to the
  Sonora papago except for the small San Xavier mission among the eastern
  Papago. Otherwise the Papgo were not reduced until they came under the
  jurisdiction of the United States in 1854 under the Gadsden Purchase, and
  did not have a reservation of consequence until 1917.  Mooney estimated the
  population of the Papago at 6,000 in 1680.  In 1906 they numbered about
  5,000 in the United Sates plus perhaps a thousand in Sonora.

Selection of Focus: The Eastern Papago of the Archie dialect division are
  selected because the principal ethnographer, underwood, worked among them in
  the eastern part of the Sells Reservation.

Time: The date of 1910 is chosen as the date of the first important
  ethnographic description, that by Lumholtz.  Underhill's work was done over
  15 months in 1931-35.

Coordinates: Those for the Papago as a whole are from 30 to 33N and from
  111 to 114W.


Standard Sample Unit 152 (GPM 7/7/68)

Sampling Province 164: Western Mexico.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 337: Huichol, Ni3: 282.

Focus: The Huichol as a whole, located in the vicinity of 22N, 105W, around
  1890.

General Area: The Nahuatlan-speaking Huichol inhabit the rugged wouthern
  Sierra Madre occidental in the state of Nayarit in Mexico.  Their neighbors
  on the west are the Cora and on the north the Tepehuan; to the east and
  south are mexican mestizos.  They are divided into several independent
  districts--seven according to Zingg, five according to Grimes.  Their
  population is about 4,000.  The Spaniards conquared the Huichol country in
  1722, and missionization began almost immediately thereafter.  Acculturation
  and syncretism are far advanced.

Selection of Focus: The field workers have worked in different communities:
  Lumholtz in and around Santa Catarina.  Klineberg at San Sebastian, Zingg at
  Tuxpan, and Grimes at Guadalupe Ocotan.  In view of this fact, and of the
  advanced state of acculturation, the tribe as a whole is taken as a focus.
  Its territory, moreover, is quite restricted, extending about 50 miles north
  and south, and about 35 miles east and west.

Time: The date of 1890 is selected as that of the beginning the Lumholtz's
  field work.  Data are lacking for an earlier date.

Coordinates: None of the sources contain good maps, the coordinates given
  under Focus above being derived from a Lumholtz map.  Kroefen gives 22-23N,
  104-105W.


Standard Sample Unit 153 (GPM 8/11/68)

Sampling Province 165: Central Mexico.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 341: Aztec (Acolhua, Mexica,
  Tenochca), Nj2: 185.

Focus: The Capital city of Tenochtitlan, located at about 19N, 9910'W, and
  its immediate vicinity, in 1520.

General Area: The Aztec, who spoke a language of the Nahuatlan or Mexicano
  branch of the Uto-Aztecan family, arrived in the valley of mexico in the
  early 14th century, establishing their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on an
  island in Lake Texcoco.  In about 1440, undeer Izcoatl, their fourth
  monarch, they formed a tripartite alliance with the Tepanec and Texcocans,
  which gradually subdued the surrounding Nahatl peoples, the Tarasco to the
  west, the Otomi to the north, the Huaxtec farther north, and Mixtec and
  Zapotec to the south and southeast, forming an empire with a complex culture
  and political organization.  When the Spaniards under Cortez arrived in
  1520, Tenochtitlan had an estimated population of about 300,000, and the
  empire as a whole probably numbered several millions.  The conquest was
  completed in 1521.

Selection of Focus: The capital city of Teenochtitlan is selected because it
  was the cultural nucleus of the Aztec empire and because it is much the best
  documented area.

Time: The date of 1520 is chosen as that of the arrival of the Spaniards, when
  the indigenous culture was in full flower.

Coordinates: Those of Tenochtitlan are given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 154 (GPM 7/7/68)

Sampling Province 166: Tehuantepec.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 344: Sierra Popoluca, Nj3: 284.

Focus: The Populuca of the Pueblo of Soteapan and vicinity, located at about
  1815'N, 9450'W, in 1940.

General Area: The Popoluca of the state of Veracruz are to be sharply
  distinguished from the Mazatec popoluca of Pueblo (there is no relationship
  between them).  The Veracruz Popoluca speak four mutually unintelligiable
  dialects of a Mizocuavean language.  Thease divisions are the Sierra
  Popoluca, the Texistipec Popoluca, the Oluta Popoluca.  The last three
  number about 3,000 each, and each occupies only one village( in the general
  vicinity of 1750'N, 9450'W).  The much more numerous Sierra Popoluca
  numbered about 10,000 in 1941 and occupied mountainous country to the north.
  The Spaniards first settled the region in 1522, and the Popoluca weere
  missionized at an early but unreported date.  Acculturation and syncretism
  are far advanced.  The language of the Sierra Popoluca is closer to Zoque
  than to Mixe.

Selction of Focus: The town of Soteapan was the principal locale of the field
  work of George Foster, the chief source of information.  The three small
  southern divisions are ruled out because of their linguistic differences as
  well as the absence of good information.

Time: The date of 1940 is selected as that of the first visit of Foster.

Coordinates: The Sierra Popoluca villages occupy an oval territory bounded by
  19 and 1820'N and by 9440 and 9515'W.  The coordinates of the town of
  Soteapan are given under Focus above.


Standard Sample Unit 155 (GPM 8/12/68)

Sampling Province 167: Maya.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 347: Quiche, Sal3: 1166.

Focus: The Quiche of the town of Chichicastenango, located at about 15N,
  91W, in 1930.

General Area: The Quiche, who belong to the Quichoid branch of the Mayan
  linguistic family, are located in central Guatemala, where they extend from
  the headwaters of the Rio Motagua around the west side of Lake Atitlan and
  thence southward to the Pacific coast.  The town of Chichicastenango is
  located in the highlands.  Shortly after thee conquest of Mexico, the Quiche
  were reduced by Alvarado, who slaughtered their chiefs and armies.  During
  the 16th century, the Highland Maya tribes were relatively isolated and
  escaped the establishment of plantations and large landholdings.  They
  gradually abosorbed Christianity and other aspects of Hispanic culture,
  including sheep and pigs but not cattle or the plow, and commerce has always
  been important.  Shortly after the field experience of Bunzel and Schultze-
  Jena, the government initiated far-reaching changes in economic and
  political conditions, which were followed by intensification of culture
  change.  The district of Chichicastenango had a population of about 25,000
  in 1930 (Bunzel) and about 30,000 in 1933 (Schultze-Jena).

Selction of Focus: The town of Chichicastenango is selected because both of
  the principal authoritiees worked there.
Time: The date of 1930 is chosen as the year when both Bunzel and Schultze-
  Jena began their field work.  It was also shortly before the modern
  intensification of culture change.

Coordinates: The Quiche as a whole are located between 14 and 1520' and
  between 9030' and 9150'N.  The coordinates for Chichicastenango are given
  above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 156 (GPM 7/8/68)

Sampling Province 168: Honduras and Nicaragua.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 349: Miskito (Mosquito),
  Sa9:390.

Focus: The Miskito in the vicinity of Gape Gracias a Dios on the Caribbean
  coast of Nicaragua (15N, 83W) around 1920.

General Area: The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua and adjacent Honduras, called
  the Mosquito Coast, was occupied at the time of first contact by scattered
  groups of semi-nomadic indians ancestral to the present-day Sumu and
  Miskito.  They were first seen by Columbus in 1502.  In the eary 16th
  century the Spaniards made several unsuccessful attempts to occupy the
  Mosquito coast, but they gave up when they found nothing there to attract
  settlers, and throughout the 17th and early 18th century it was frequented
  largely by pirates.  Considerable miscegenation occurred between the coastal
  Indians and the pirates, escaped Negro slaves, and reefugees from the West
  Indies plantations, including many Black Carib who fled there from British
  honduras after their transplantation there in 1796.  This intermixture,
  coupled with the trade which they intermediated between the British and the
  Indians of the interior resulted inthe differentiation of the coastal
  Miskito from the interior Sumu.  A treaty with Spain in 1786, by which the
  British agreed to evacuate the Mosquito Coast and relinquish sovereignty,
  was nullified by the resistance of the settlers and traders and by the
  weakness of Spain.  Previously, in 1687, the British found it convenient to
  justify their intrusion into what was admittedly Spanish territory by
  setting up a local Miskito leadeer as "king" and obtaining recognition from
  him of a British protectorate over his "independent" kingdom.  The Miskito
  throve as intermediaries between the British and the Sumu and Maintained
  their special relationship with British even after their country was
  formally attached Honduras an Nicaragua in 1859 and 1860, respectively.  The
  Central American states had declared their independence of Spain in 1821.
  Helms calls the Miskito a "colonial tribe" because their differentiation as
  a separate "tribe" was the direct result of colonial influences, especially
  their recognition, however fictitious, as a kingdom.  The Miskito numbered
  about 15,000 in 1921, although Exquemelin in 1679 had estimated them at only
  1,500.

Selection of Focus: Cape Gracias a Dios has been the main center of contact
  with the Miskito from the earliest period.

Time: The date of 1920 is selected as immediately prior to the field work of
  the principal ethnographer, Conzemius.

Coordinates: The Miskito extend along the eastern coast of Nicaragua and
  Honduras from 1140' to 1530'N and from 83 to 84W.  The coordinates for
  Cape Gracias a Dios are given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 157 (GPM 8/12/68)

Sampling Province 169: Costa Rica.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 350: Bribri, Sa5: 287.

Focus: The surviving Bribri, located at about 9N, 8315'W, in 1917.

Gerneral Area: The Chibchan-speaking Talamanca nation lived aboriginally in
  southern Costa Rica and a strip of adjacent western Panama.  They included
  the Boruca, Bribri, Cabecar, Changuena, Coto, Dorasque, Quepo, and Terraba
  (Triub, Chirripo) tribes, who became known collectively as the Talamanca as
  early as 1675.  The Spaniards, attacted by the fact that the Talamanca
  worked in gold, settled the country early, founding the town of Santiago de
  Talamanca in  1605.  The Talamanca revolted three times between 1610 and
  1619, destroying the Franciscan missions and massacring many Spaniards.  The
  subsequent history of the Talamanca is not well recorded, but there is a
  tradition that in 1827, as the result of a war with the kindred Terraba, the
  Bribri rose to political dominance over the rest of the Talamanca.  in 1874,
  however, Gabb reported 1,226 Talamanca, including 172 Bribri.

Selection of Focus: The Bribri are selected as much the best described of the
  Talamanca tribes.

Time: The date of 1917 is selected as that of Skinner's field work.  Stone
  reports that religious customs which had become obsolete at her time (1956-
  59) were still alive in Skinner's time.  Possibly the material in Gabb 1876
  will make possible the use of a still earlier date.

Coordinates: The aboriginal talamanca inhabited the region between 8 and
  930'N and between 82 and 8430'W.  The coordinates of the surviving Bribri
  are indicated above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 158 (GPM 7/9/68)

Sampling Province 170: Panama.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 351: Guna (Tule), Sal: 85.

Focus: The San Blas Cuna of the San Blas Archipelago, 9 to 930'N and 78-
  79W, around 1927.

General Area: The Cuna Indians aboriginally occupied most of Panama.  They are
  Chibchan in linguistic affiliation.  The Spaniards arrived on the San Blas
  coast in 1501, and established their capital near the Rio Tarena in 1510,
  removing it to Panama in 1524.  The Spaniards settled mainly in Darien, the
  region of the present Panaman Canal, leaving much of the region south
  thereof (mainly tropical forest and coast) to the Indians.  The Indians
  gradually retreated, and after 1850 most of them removed to the San Blas
  Archipelago, which had been largely unoccupied theretome.  The San Blas
  coast was visited by Dampier and other English pirates in the 17th century.
  In 1698 a short-lived Scottish colony was established in Darien, and in the
  late 17th an early18th century numbers of French Huguenots settled among the
  Cuna and intermarried with them.  From these sources the tribe received a
  strong infusion of Caucasian blood, which in the 1920's led to considerable
  popularization of the "White Indians" of Panama.  The Spaniards attempted
  unsuccessfully to conquer the Cuna in the early 17th century and again in
  the early 18th century, finally concluding a treaty in  1741 with the
  Huguenot residents of the Cuna country.  In 1757 the Cuna massacred most of
  the surviving Grench at the instigation of an englishman who supplied them
  with firearms.  In the late 18th century the Spaniards again occupied part
  of the Cuna territory, but shortly withdraw (in 1790).  Contact with whites
  remained minimal until the arrival of the Americans in the late 19th century
  to build the Panama Canal.  The political independence of Panama from
  Columbia was accomplished with American connivance in 1904.  As late as 1925
  the Cuna revolted again and massacred all Panamanians in their territory;
  they declared their political independence, which they preserved thereafter
  for a period with American protection.  There were no missions among the San
  Blas Cuna until 1907, and they have lived for the most part in "splendid
  isolation."  They total Cuna population was officially reported in 1940 as
  20,831, the large majority but by no means all being San Blas.

Seleciton of Focus: The San Blas Cuna of the San Blas Archipelago and an
  adjacent strip of mainland coast are selected as the best described and
  probably least acculturated Cuna, though there are smaller groups surviving
  on the Pacific as well as the Caribbean sides of the mainland peninsula.

Time: The date 1927 is chosen as that of the beginning of Nordenskiold's field
  work.

Coordinates: The original territory of the Cuna extended from 8 to 930'N and
  from 77 to 80.  The coordinates for the San Blas Cuna are given above under
  Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 159 (GPM 8/12/68)

Sampling province 172: Northern Colombia and Venezuela.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 356: Goajiro, Sb6:391.

Focus: The Goajiro as a whole, occupying the Goajira Peninsula in northern
  Colombia (1130' to 1220'N, 71 to 7230'W), in 1947.

General Area: The Goajiro, an Awawakan-speaking people, have long inhabited
  the arid Goajira Peninsula.  They are first alluded to by juan de
  Castellanos in 1550, at which time they had already adopted cattle and a
  pastoral mode of life.  They were hostile to the Spaniards throughout the
  colonial period, but peaceful relations have prevailed since 1830 as a
  consequence of better treatment by the Whites, due largely to the effords of
  Juan MacPherson.  The missionary acculturative veneer.  Foreign influences
  include the introduction of iron implements, firearms, and textiles as well
  as cattle.  Their population was estimated at about 18,000 in 1948.

Selection of Focus: No closer pinpointing is needed since the tribe, being
  nomadic, is culturally homogeneous.

Time: The date of 1947 is selected as that of the beginning of the field work
  of the principal authorites.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 160 (GPM 8/19/68)

Sampling Province 174: Caribbean Negroes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 413: Haitians, Sb9:1237.

Focus: The Haitian peasantry of Mirebalais, 7210'W and 1850'N, and the
  Western (Ouest) Department, above 1940.

General Area: Aboriginal Arawaks were exterminated within a century of
  Columbus' 1942 landing on the island of hispaniola.  By 1664 French
  buccaneers had wrested the western end from the Spanish, and the French
  colony of St.Dominique prospered by slaves and exports during the 18th
  century . After a twelve year struggle for independence, ending with the
  proclaimation of Dessalines as emperor in 1804, whites were killed or
  expelled form the island.  Struggles between colored and black groups of
  elites marked the 19th century, to be interrupted by U.S. occupation between
  1915 and 1933.  In the 1950 census there were over three million inhabitants
  of Haiti, of these about 5% belonged to the elite. Of Haiti's five regions,
  the Ouest and Nord departments have received the most intensive ethnogeaohic
  study.  The Ouest department contains Port-au-Prince, the towns of
  Mirebalais and Marbial, which were studied by Herskovits and Metraux, and
  Gonove island, studied by R.B. Hall.  In the Nord department, Simpson has
  studied the commune of Plaisance, Mintz the market system around Saint
  Raphael.  Mintz has also studied markets in the Sud department, where little
  other owrk has been done.

Focus: Herskovits' excellent work makes Mirebalais the principal focus, but
  the peasantry must be considered in the perspective of the national
  economic and political systems.  His description of the peasantry may be
  supplemented by Metraux and Simpson, who treat similar towns, and
  by Mintz' work on marketing systems.  Simpson's (1941) work on national
  social structure, Leyburn's(19410 general description, and Moral's (1959)
  discussion of the economy are useful supplements at the national level.

Time: The date of 1940 is used to reconcile Herkovits' field  work in 1935
  with that of Matraux (1948) and Mintz (1957).


Standard Sample Unit 161 (GPM 7/10/68)

Sampling Province 173: Antillean Indigenes.

Representativeof the Province and of Cluster 354: Callinago (Island Carib),
  Sbl:87.

Focus: The Callinago of the island of Dominica, at 1530'N, 6030'W, about
1650.

General Area: The Cariban-speaking Callinago had dispossessed an earlier
  Arawakan population from the Lesser Antilles perhaps a century before the
  arrival of the Europeans (the Arawakan-speaking Igneri continued to occupy
  Trinidad; the Boriqueno, Puerto Rico, and the Taino, Hispaniola).  Columbus
  on his second voyage made the first contact with the Callinago in 1493.
  Since the Lesser Antilles had no gold, the Spaniards avoided them, and they
  were occupied after 1623 by the British, French, and Dutch.  By 1700 the
  Calinago had been driven from all the islands except Dominica and
  St.Vincent. In the late 1600's the French (include Breton) attempted to
  missionize the Callinago, but had little success and departed in 1706 (to
  avoid being massacred).  By 1700 the population of the intractable Callinago
  had fallen of 4,000, half on Dominica and the rest on St.Vincent.  Here they
  survived in small numbers to the end of the 19th century, when they were
  removed to a reservation.  In the 1940's the survivors numbered about 500--a
  third of them pure-blood, the rest intermixed with Negroes.  Other Island
  Carib, heavily mixed with African slave refugees, had been removed to
  British Honduras before 1800; their descendants are known as the Black
  Carib.

Selection of Focus: The Callinago of Dominica are selected because they are
  the best described for both the colonial and the modern period.

Time: The date of 1650 is chosen because this was shortly before attempted
  missionization and because both Rouse and Taylor reconstruct aboriginal
  Callinago culture for this period.

Coordinates: The Callinago occupied the Lesser Antilles from 12 to 1840'N
  and from 5930' to 65W.  The coordinates for the island of Dominica are
  given aobve under Focus.


Standard Sample Unit 162 (GPM 7/30/68)

Sampling Province 176: Lower Orinoco.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 367: Warrau (Guarauno, Waro),
  Scl:88.

Focus: The Warrau of the actual delta of the Orinoco, located form 830' to
  950'N at 6040' to 6230'W, in 1935.

General Area: The Warrau occupy the delta of the Orinoco River in eastern
Venezuela, and formerly extended eastward toward the Pomeroon River.  They
were first visited by Sir Walter Raleigh, and the first missions were
established among them in 1682.  They are reported to number about 8,000 in
1941 according to the Franciscan missionaries then working in the delta.

Selection of Focus: Most of the early sources deal with the Warrau outside the
  delta in the Pomeroon region.  Emphasis, however, should be given to the
  relatively untouched and unacculturated Warrau of the actual delta of the
  Orinoco River, who depend much less strongly on agriculture and more on
  gathering, hunting, and fishing.  One such group is the Winikina subtribe
  of the Western Warrau studied by Wilbert.

Coordinates: The aboriginal Warrau are reported to have extended from 7 to
  10N and form 60 to 63W, i.e., apprecialby beyond the actual delta of the
  Orinoco in all directions.  The three villages sutdied by Wilbert were
  located at about 910'N and 615'W.