Standard Sample Unit 114 (DRW 12/13/68)

Sampling Province 83: Chinese

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 164: Yangtze Chinese (not in the
  Ethnographic Altas).

Focus:  Village of Kaihsienkung, south of lake Tai, northern Chekiang
  Province, at 120 05' and 31 N, 1936.

General Area: The Wu dialect of Chinese, a language of the Sinitic linguistic
  family, is spoken in southeastern Kiangsu and most of Chekiang province.
  This area formed the Wu kingdom in the 5th century (capital at Soochow), but
  has since fluctuated as part of larger or smaller kingdoms or provinces of
  larger empires.  The region and the adjacent province of Anhwei form the
  Lower Yangtze River plain, one of the most densely populated and
  economically productive areas of China, completely criss-crossed by
  waterways and irrigation ditches, controlled by dikes, with a vast water
  transport system.  The zone is transitional between wheat and rice
  dominance, the former grown in the winter, the latter, with cotton, soybean,
  and mulberry, dominant in the summer.  Five of China's largest cities--
  Shanghai, Nanking, Soochow, Wusih, Changchow--are in southern Kiangu
  (although Shanghai is politically independent), and with Huchow and Hangchow
  in Chekiang province, provide the silk factories for the silkworm crop of
  the countryside.
    The Ch'ing dynasty of the Manchus (1644-1912) was the last of the Chinese
  empires.  The nineteenth century was marked by revolts and the entry of
  European trade, two wars with the European powers (1839-44 and 1856-60),
  compromising treaties, and war with Japan over the status of Korea.  In the
  scramble for foreign priviledges that ensued after Japanese victory, Britian
  obtained the rights over the Yangtze area, and played an important part in
  construction of railroads and factories.  With the weakened position of the
  Manchus, and the Boxer anti-foreign uprising of 1900, revolt in the
  provinces ushered in the Republic in 1912.  The radical Kuomintang party was
  brought into power in 1916 after the spread of rebellion form the southern
  provinces.  The period from 1916-1927 was one of increased difficulties with
  foreign in powers and internal dissent in the nascent split between
  Kuomintang and Communists.  After 1927 the Communists gained control of the
  south central provinces of Kiangsi, Fukien, Hunan and Hupeh, just to the
  southwest fo Chekiang province.  Entry of the Japanese forced a temporary
  coalition, and Japan captured the Shanghai and Yangtze area in 1937
  (destroying, among other things, the silk industry in the village of
  Kaihsienkung surdied by Fei), including the capital of Nanking.  During
  World War II, Japanese held only the coasts and cities, with other regions
  of China divided between Nationalists and Communists.  After the war ended
  in 1945, civil war broke out, the Communists being pushed into the northern
  and Manchurian hinterlands.  In 1948 they began the southward march, and in
  1949 captured the entire country.

Selection of Focus: Fei's village, studied just before the Japanese invasion
  which led to its destruction, was selected by him for study because of its
  interest as a center for domestic silk industry (not factory) in a densely
  settled peasant area with an elaborate water transport marketing system and
  system of agriculture. Although only able to remain in the field for two
  months (before the invasion), this is his native region; his sister was
  leader of the silk reform, and he had visited the village several times
  before.  The village population was 1,500.  The village was restudied by
  Geddes in 1956.

Time: 1936 is the date of Fei's field work.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 115 (DRW 10/18/68)

Sampling Province 81: Tungusic Peoples.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 159: Manchu, Ed3:137.

Focus: The Manchu of the Aigun district of northern Manchuria, centered on
  50N, 12530'E, in 1915.

General Area: The Manchu, who speak a language of the Tungusic subfamily of
  the Altaic family, inhabit Manchuria and extend into China.  They have a
  civilization dating back more than 1,000 years, and provided the rulers of
  the conquest Liao and Manchu dynasties of China.  Manchuria, though fertile,
  was largely a sparsely settled wilderness until the late 19th century, but
  the construction of railroads in 1900 stimulated heavy immigration and
  settlement by Chinese.  The Northern Manchu, including those of the Aigun
  district, are the least Sinicized.  They moved into this district in the
  17th century, settling among Tungus and Dagor Mongols and adopting
  agriculture; later they suffered great losses from the Cossacks in the Boxer
  Rebellion of 1900.  To the north, across the Amur River in Siberia, dwell
  the still less acculturated Tungus proper.  The sources do not estimate the
  numbers of the Manchu, which are doubtless large.

Selection of Focus: The Aigun district is chosen because of its larger degree
  of Sinicization and because Shirokogoroff, almost the only Manchu
  ethnographer, did the bulk of his field work there.

Time: The date of 1915 is selected as that of the beginning of Shirokoroff's
  field work.

Coordinates: The sources do not specify the extent of the territory occupied
  by the Manchu.

Standard Sample Unit 116 (DRW 11/14/68)

Sampling Province 80: Korea

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 160: Koreans, Ed1:39.

Focus: village of Sondup'o and town of Samku Li, Kanghwa Island, at 12625'E
  and 3737'N, about 1950.

General Area: Korean constitutes an independent language family, although it
  is distantly related to the Tungusic family of the Altaic group, and has
  remarkable grammatical affinity with Japanese.  The peninsula was settled by
  Tungusic stock about 3000 B.C., with later Tungusic immigrants up to about
  400 B.C., when a division emerged between the groups in the south (Han) who
  had developed agriculture and the independent Korean language, and the
  northern groups who were still primarily hunters and gatherers, and much
  more heavily influenced by the Chinese.  At the end of the 1st century B.C.,
  the three Han groups had consolidated into two kingdoms (Chinhan and
  Pyonhaninto the Silla kingdom; Mahan into Paekche) and the northern (more
  recent Tungustic) Koguryo had formed a kingdom and later conquered the
  Chinese colony of Lolang which had been founded in about 108 B.C..  The
  period of Three Kingdoms continued until the 660's A.D., when Silla
  conquered the
      other two kingdoms, aided by China.  Until 935 the Silla kingdom was
  heavily Chinese influenced. The revolt of a general Wang in 918 led to his
  overthrow of the kingdom in 935, and the establishment of the Koryo or Wang
  Dynasty, which stressed Buddhism and the examination system.  In 1231 the
  dynasty at Songolo was overrun by the Mongols, and the Koryo family took
  refuge on Kangwa island.  But the overthrow of the Mongols brought general
  Yi to power, and the Yi Dynasty again made close alliances with China.  This
  dynasty lasted until 1910, although invaded twice in the first half of the
  16th century, first by the Japanese Shogunate, which was defeated, and then
  successfully by the Manchus on their way to conquest of China (the Manchu
  Ch'ing dynasty was established in China in 1644, with an 'older brother'
  relationship to Korea).  Korea was closed to the outside until the 1880's,
  when Japan and the West forced it into trade agreements.  But conflicts
  between China and Japan gave Japan the excuse, in 1894, to send troops to
  Korea as an act of war against China.  By a variety of maneuvers, Japan
  retained power in Korea until the end of WWII, in 1944.  Unification of the
  northern and southern territories occupied by Russia and the U.S. after the
  war was not accomplished, and two independent nations were formed in 1948.
  The population of Korea in 1945 was 27,000 (double that of 1910 and four
  times that of 1780), with 16,500 in South Korea.  South Korea population has
  increased dramatically and the Northern population had dropped as of 1960,
  due to refugee migrations from the north.  Rice agriculture, and fishing in
  coastal villages, is the dominant characteristic of the South Korean

Selection of Focus: Kangwa, historic fortified retreat of Dynastic families,
  with a royal capital and elaborate tombs and monasteries, is nonetheless a
  somewhat more luxuriant version of the peasant culture of the mainland, and
  was chosen by Osgood as the focus of his research.  From a field residence
  in the monastery of Chondung Sa he studied the small village of Sondup'o
  (pop. 169) and the market town of Samku Li (pop. 800) in the Kilsan Myon
  (township), total population 93,000.

Time: 1947 is the date of Osgood's field work, but 1950 should be taken for
  the total society as the independent Republic of South Korea.

Coordinates: Those above are for the specific communities which Osgood
  studied.  The island is 15 miles long, from 3735' to 3748'N and 12618'
  to 12630'E.

Standard Sample Unit 117 (DRW 11/3/68 - proofed 88)

Sampling Province 79: Japan.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 161: Japanese, Ed5:237.

Focus: Southern Okayama Prefecture, especially Niiike hamlet (primary focus)
  and Okayama city (secondary focus) in Bitchu and Bizen Provinces, from
  3430' to 3435'N and 13320' to 13420'E, in 1950.

General Area: The Japanese language is a member of the Japano-Ryukyuan
  linguistic family, and is the language of the peasants, townsmen, and
  urbanites of Okayama Prefecture.  As in Japan as a whole, the population of
  Okayama Prefecture is about evenly divided between the urban centers
  (including larger towns) and the countryside.  Okayama is classified by
  Beardsley as one of eleven which make up the core area of Japan (out of 46
  total, others being either peripheral or frontier areas) which has had a
  close connection with the Asiatic mainland through the Inland Sea between
  Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu Islands.  The core area is characterized by
  intensive agricultural production, the concentration of urban populations,
  and the major industries, plus the advantage of large areas of fertile
  upland basin areas bordering on the sea.  As in Japan as a whole, almost 96%
  of the rural population in Okayama is agricultural, mainly rice irrigation.
  Smaller economic sub-types can be distinguished in coastal fishing villages,
  and mountain villages which depend more on forestry and small scale cattle
  raising.  There is also a small percentage of outcaste agricultural
  communities, numbering about 43,000 persons in 300 communities (1920), as
  compared to the total Okayama Prefecture population of 1,670,000 in 1960
  (the term buraku designating these outcastes should be distinguished from
  the more general meaning of small rural settlements).  Both the population
  density and the political alignment of Okayama Prefecture fall in the middle
     Historically, the reign is known as Kibi, after the ruling group of a
  Prince based in Yamato city in the fourth century, when the area was first
  united politically.  There is a continuous record of 5,000 years of Japanese
  occupancy of the reign, however.  From the 5th to the 7th centuries,
      Imperial Japan was consolidated and ruled from the city of Nara, with
  local Kibi domination in the Okayama area, which was now divided up into
  several provinces, the dominant one being Bitchu in the southwest.  A system
  of equal land distribution under state ownership was instituted, but by the
  9th century land reverted to hereditary and private ownership and the Empire
  began to decline into the "feudal" period of militarized petty states which
  lasted until the 16th century.  The Bizen or southeastern province grew in
  importance over Bitchu, ending with the ward of consolidation (1560-1600) in
  which the two were split by major powers to the west and east.
      Reunification of Japan under the Tokugawa family (1600-1868) brought
  pacification and reorganization to rural areas, and administrative control
  through mura units down to the community level, and chiefdoms at the
  regional level.  Extensive irrigation works were constructed during this
  period.  With the new government from 1868-1890, the number of mura in Japan
  were consolidated by a five-part reduction, and the term "buraku" came to
  designate the smaller community unit; stratification and landholding
  patterns were also changed.  It is the Tokugawa and latter period which have
  given village Japan much of its organization form, including the long-
  standing close relation between the rural and urban populations in the core

Selection of Focus: The village of Niiike (pop. 130) in the fertile upland
  basin only eight miles from Okayama city was selected by Beardsley et al
  (1959) as a representative agriculture community, and has also been the
  focus of psychological studies by DeVos (1960a, 1960b) and DeVos and
  Wagatsuma (1959, 1961, 1962).  Variations in village (buraku) structure can
  be seen in the study of a buraku of fishermen on Takashima Island in the
  Kojimo port city (Norbeck, 1954), and the mountain village of Matsunagi in
  the northern part of the Preference (Cornell, 1956), which also happens to
  be an outcaste community.  For the wider urban and political spheres, there
  are the studies by Hall (1952, 1966) of other Bizen villages and Bizen
  history, and of Dull (1957), Kokoris (1964) and Hall (1966) on Okayama city
  (pop. 270,000 in 1960).

Time: 1950 is selected as the beginning of the University of Michigan Japanese
  Project, which is acceptable because post-war changes had not been extensive
  in the rural areas such as Niiike, and the pre-war political structure was
  more or less extent in the urban areas.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, are the southern portion of the
  Prefecture.  Niiike is located at 13348'E and 3440'N, Okayama City at
  13350'E and 3438'N, Takashima at 13342'E and 3430'N, and Matsunagi at
  35N and 13335'E.  Bizen Province covers eastern half; Bitchu the western.

Standard Sample Unit 118 (GPM 11/9/68)

Sampling Province 78: Ainu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 157: Ainu, Ec7:325.

Focus: The Ainu of the basins of the Tokapchi and Saru rivers, 4240' to
  4330'N and 142 to 144E, in southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, about

General Area: The Ainu, who speak languages which constitute an independent
  linguistic family, fall into three principal divisions, as follows:
   1. The Ainu of the Kurile Islands between Japan and Kamchatka.
   2. The Ainu of southern Sakhalin Island in southeastern Siberia.
   3. The Ainu of Japan.  The original inhabitants of most or all of Japan,
      they are today confined to the island to Hokkaido in the north, where
      their principal concentration is in the districts of Tokapchi and
      Hitaka, especially along the small rivers which are the spawning grounds
      of salmon.
    The Ainu of Hokkaido have a population of about 17,000, which has remained
  fairly stable since the mid-nineteenth century.  The Japanese policy of
  colonization in the Ainu zone, however, brought loss of exclusive fishing
  rights and depletion of game by Japanese hunters with firearms, causing a
  radical disruption of the aboriginal mode of life.  The Aboriginal
      Protection Act of 1899 reserved to the Ainu land rights over cultivable
  land, encouraging a shift to agriculture, a further fundamental economic
  shift.  Lack of success in agriculture resulted in attempts at commercial
  fishing, the formation of associations, and a new economic structure for
  productive activities and marketing.   The Ainu number about 1,500 in the
  Tokapchi and 5,000 in the Hitake district.

Selection of Focus: Watanabe reconsturcts Ainu culture and society in the
  districts of Tokapchi and Hitaka from the memory of his informants, and his
  work is supplemented by the observations of Monro and Sugiura for the Saru
  River basin of Hitaka district.   Where differences are found between the
  Ainu of the Tokapchi and Saru basins, coders should give preference to the

Time: The date of 1880 is selected as approximately that of Watanabe's
  reconstruction, but the influences of the Japanese immigration policy, which
  began around 1870, should be discounted.  The observations of Batchelor date
  from about the same period, whereas those of Munro and Sugiura are slightly
  more recent.

Coordinates: The Ainu extend to about 50N in Sakhalin and the Kuriles, and
  respectively to about 142 and 155 E.  The coordinates for the Ainu of the
  Saru and Tokapchi basins are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 119 (DRW 11/4/68)

Sampling Province 77: Gilyak

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 156: Gilyak, Ec1:37.

Focus: Gilyak of Sakhalin Island, from 5330' to 5430'N and 14150' to
  14310'E, about 1890.

General Area: The Gilyak speak a language of an independent linguistic family,
  and are apparently intrusive to the Manghu and Tungus area of the mainland
  and the Ainu area of the Sakhalin Island.  They probably originate from the
  Siberian arctic or sub-arctic, dating back more than 400 years (ice-floe
  migrations are not uncommon, according to Shternberg).  Their population of
  about 4,500 boundaries at the Kol' River in the north and the Chowa River in
  the south, and the Chowa River in the south, and the northern tip of
  Sakhalin Island.  On the western shores of the island, important settlements
  include Lyrkryvo (pop. 144), Viskivo (pop. 116), Nyur (pop. 163) and others;
  on the eastern shore there is a large penetration of the Tungus in the heart
  of Gilyak settlement; in the interior settlement is restricted to the Tym'
  River.  They are a fishing and hunting tribe with an arctic type technology.

Selection of Focus: The settlements in Sakhalin were the most intensively
  studied by Shternberg in his first seven years of field work (as an exile),
  although on a return trip in 1920 he made a lengthy survey of the Amur
  region.  Sealand and Schrenck focused on the Amur mainland, with some data
  on Sakhalin, but the two areas  are fairly homogeneous, and inferences can
  be made for the mainland where data is lacking on the Island, unless there
  is reason to suspect otherwise.

Time: 1890 is chosen as the initial date of Shternberg's Island, while the
  coordinates for the entire group, including the mainland, are from 139 to

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, specify Sakhalin Island, while the
  coordinates for the entire group, including the mainland, are form 139  to
  143 10' E.

Standard Sample Unit 120 (DRW 10/24/68 - proofed 88)

Sampling Province 75: Northern Siberia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 154: Yukaghir, Ec6:236

Focus: The Upper Kolyma River Yukaghir, from 150 to 157E and 6330' to 66N,
  about 1900.

General Area: The Yukaghir speak a language with no established relationship
  to any other, and are classified as Paleo-Asiatic along with four other
  languages which do not show relationships with other Russian or Turkic
  stocks.  They are centered around the Kolyma River, although their
  distribution to the east and south was creator in the 17th century, and a
  few scattered settlements remain in the Indighirka and Yana rivers.
  Yukaghir of the lower Kolyma River are highly Russianized, and mainly speak
  the Russian language.  The Yukaghir of the Indighirka River to the west are
  highly Tungusized, and those of the Yana-Omoloi Rivers are largely
  Yakutized, most of them being herders for the Tungus or Yakut.  Between the
  Alasseya and the Kolyma Rivers are Tundra Yukaghir and Yukaghirized Tungus,
  who are nomadic (tent dweller) reindeer breeders.  The Upper Kolyma Yukaghir
  may represent the more traditional way of life, however, with semi-
  subterranean log huts in the winter, where domestic reindeer are kept, and
  use of tents for hunting wild reindeer and fishing in the spring and summer,
  respectively.  Of this group, only about 500 remained in 1900.

Selection of Focus: The Upper Kolyma Yukaghir are selected from the more
  comprehensive work of Jochelson because they are well described and the less
  acculturated of the Yukaghir groups.

Time: 1900 is chosen as the date of Jochelson's second trip to Yukaghir
  territory.  (note: this is the date used for CCCCC coding, although the 1969
  article specified a reconstructed date of1850, prior to marked decrease of
  the population.)

Coordinates: The coordinates under focus, above pertain to the Upper Kolyma
  groups living on the Korkodon, Popova and Yasschnaya tributaries, as
  specified by Jochelson.

Attached: GPM notes on the Yukaghir. Note: The Yukaghir (Ec6:236) may not be
  included in HRAF, but were included in the original Cross-Cultural Survey.

Sampling Province 75: Yukaghir.

  Combined with province 74 (Yakuts) to form the Northern Siberia Province.

Standard Sample Unit 121 (DRW 10/27/68 - proofed 88)

Sampling Province 76: Paleo-Siberians.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 155: Chukchee (Chukchi),

General Area: The Chukchee, who speak a Luorawethan language closely related
  to Koryak, inhabit extreme northeastern Siberia.  In the eighteenth century
  they were east of the Yukaghir on the Kolyma River and of the now extinct
  maritime C'ac'ct and now almost extinct Reindeer Chuvantzy on the upper
  Inatyr River.  They remained independent and unacculturated until very
  recently, since the Russians were defeated in 1730 and 1747 and failed to
  renew their attempts at conquest.  They were traditionally a maritime
  people, with marginal reindeer herding, but they have expanded successfully
  in the 18th and 19th centuries following the life-ways of herding, and
  pushing their frontiers to the west and south.  They have expanded to the
  upper Olomon River in the 18th century, and in the 1860 crossed over
  Yukaghir territory into the steppe land between the Kolyma and Alaseza
  River, some groups pushing as far as the Indighirka River.  Other groups
  pushed southwest to the Opuka and Pakhacha Rivers along the Pacific coast,
  and on into the Kamchatka Peninsula occupied by the Koryak, were they have
  become largely acculturated to the Koryak way of life.  Maritime Chukchee
  are found along the Arctic coast from Chaun Bay to the East Cape, and around
  the Bering Sea (Pacific side) to Anadyr Bay.  Interspersed among them are
  Yuit of Siberian Eskimo whose technology and maritime economy are almost

Selection of Focus: Reindeer Chukchee are chosen over their maritime brethren
  because Bogoras spent the major portion of his time visited nearly all of
  the inland communities, and very little along the coast.  Although he
  visited almost all of the Reindeer camps from the upper Olomon River and
  Kamchatka Peninsula to the East Cape, the area chosen for the focus is the
  traditional heartland from the Chaun and Inatyr Rivers eastward; this is the
  area that was designed by the Russians in the 18th century as "Chukchee
  Territory" because it was still autonomous.

Time: 1900 is the date of Bogoras' ethnographic work (1900-1901).

Coordinates: Those listed under Focus, above, correspond only to the 18th
  century heartland of the Reindeer Chukchee.  The territory covered after
  their expansion runs west to about 152E and south to about 57N in the
  Kamchatka peninsula.

Standard Sample Unit 122 (GPM 6/16/68)

Sample Province 135: Yukon.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 286: Ingalik (Ten'a, Tinneh),

Focus: The Ingalik of the village of Shageluk (c.62 30'N, 159 30'W) around

General Area: The Ingalik are divided by Osgood into four local groups:
  (1) the inhabitants of the villages of anvik and Shageluk, (2) those of
  the village of Bonasilla, (3) those of the villages of Holy Cross and
  Georgetown, and (4) those occupying the upper drainage of the Kuskokwim
  River.  They are Athapaskan in language but adjoin and have been strongly
  influenced by the neighboring Eskimo.  They came into contact with the
  Russians in 1829, and their earliest description, by Glazunov, dates from
  1834.  After 1867 the American replaced the Russians in Alaska.  The
  period of missionary influence began in 1885, although a one-man trading
  post was established at Anvik around 1870.  The population of the Ingalik
  (first three of the four local groups only) is estimated at about 1,500 at
  the time of the first contact in 1834; at 900 in 1844, following a
  terrible small pox epidemic; at 600 in 1900, following an influenza
  epidemic; at about 500 in 1934 at the beginning of Osgood's field work.

Time: The date of 1885 is selected as just prior to missionzation.
  Osgood worked almost exclusively with one truly exceptionally informant,
  Billy Williams, who was born in Shageluk in 1884.  He never became
  converted to Christainity and made a special hobby of knowing the
  aboriginal culture in every detail, acquiring this knowledge in youth from
  his family and informed older people.

Coordinates: Those given are for the village of Shageluk.  Anvik lies about
  one degree directly to the west and shares the same culture.

Standard Sample Unit 123 (GPM 8/13/68)

Sample Province 132: Western Eskimo.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 277: Aleut, Na9:458.

Focus: The Unalaska branch of the Aleut, located between 53  and 57 30'N
  and between 158  and 170 W, in 1824.

General Area: The Aleut inhabited the Aleutian Islands and the western tip
  of the Alaska Peninsula of the Mainland.  They were divided into two
  divisions marked by dialectic divisions, as follows:
   1. The Unalaska Aleut to the east, inhabiting the Fox and Shumagin Islands
      and the northwestern portion of the Alaska Peninsula, as well as the
      Pribilof Islands.  Two of the largest  islands are Unalaska and Unimak.
   2. The Atka Aleut to the west, occupying (from W to E) the Near Islands
      (including Attu and Agattu), the Rat Islands (including Kiska and
      Amchitka), and the Andreanof Islands (including Atka, Adak, Tanaga, and
      Amlia ids.).
    The two Aleut dialects form a divergent branch of the Eskimauan linguistic
  family.  The Aleut were discovered by Bering and Chirikov in 1741.
  Thereafter they were repeatedly visited by Russian traders, who practically
  enslaved them, and decimated the population, which probably numbered around
  16,000 in 1740 according  to Mooney.  The Russian government made efforts to
  protect the Aleut from exploitation between 1794 and 1818, but it was not
  until the advent of the missionary Veniaminov in 1824 that their condition
  was appreciably improved.  In 1867 the Aleut passed into the control of the
  United States.  In  1840 Veniaminov estimated the Aleut population at 2,250-
  -about 750 Atka and 1,500 Unalaska.  In 1848 they totalled 2,000 before and
  900  after a serious small pox epidemic.  By 1910 they had recovered to
  approximately 1,450.

Selection of Focus: The Unalaska branch is selected because they are
  described  by more of the early ethnographers.

Time: the date of 1824, is selected as the beginning of the ten years of
  missionary expericence by Veniaminov.

Coordinates: The Atka were located at 51 30' to 53 N and 170 E to 168 W.
  The coordinates for the Unalaska Aleut are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 124 (DRW 8/23/68)

Sample Province 133: Central and Eastern Eskimo

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 279: Copper Eskimo, Na3:169.

Focus: Copper Eskimo of the Arctic Mainland (#2,3,and 4 as defind below),
  between 17 --108 W and 66 40'N--69 20'N, about 1915.

General Area: The Central or Copper Eskimo inhabit the Coronation Gulf
  region and parts  of huge Victoria Island further to the north.  The
  language is uniform throughout the region, and is closely related to the
  Mackenzie dialect, both of Eskimo family, Eskaleut phylum.  They are
  separated from the Mackenzie Eskimo by some 500 miles of uninhabited coast
  to the west, although they formerly had trade relationships.  The Copper
  Eskimo generally concentrate in winter camps o the frozen Arctic Sea, where
  they hunt seal, and the travel extensively in bands in the spring before
  the ice breaks up.  In the summer they break up into smaller groups and
  move inland to hunt Caribou.  Families change their locale from group to
  group freely each year, but fall and winter assembly grounds and certain
  summer camps are relatively fixed.  Twelve winter, and additional summer
  camps, fall into five major regional divisions, with a population of about
   1. Western Victoria Island groups, Kanghiryaumiut at Prince Albert Sound
      (112 W, 70 40'N), and Kanghiryatjagmiut at Minto Inlet (115 W, 71 30'N).
      Stefansson worked among these groups in 1912, estimating their
      populations at 200 and 15, respectively.  In 1915 enough families from
      Prince Albert moved north to equalized the size of the two groups.
   2. Dolphin and Union Strait groups, numbering about 100, Akulliakattungiut
      from stapylton and South Bays (117 W, 68 40'N0, Noahognirmiut of Cape
      Krusenstern (114 W, 68 30'N), and Puivlirmiut of Simpson Bay on Victoria
      Island (113 W, 69 20'N).  Hunneragmiut, of the southwest corner of the
      Island (115 W, 69 20'N), were no longer a winter band at the time of
      Jenness' field work in 1914-16.
   3. The Walliak groups, numbering about 100, who wintered at the Richardson
      River (116 W 67 50'N).  In 1915 Jenness visited these groups, and
      several families of informants followed him back to his station at
      Stapylton Bay.  The summer camps included Pallirmiut at Rae River (117 W,
      68 N), Kogluktomiut on the Coppermine River (116 W, 67 20'N0, Asiagmiut
      between the Coppermine and Tree Rivers (115 W, 67 30'N), and Nagyuktomiut
      at Lady Franklin Point across the Gulf (112 W, 68 40'N).
   4. East Coronation Gulf groups (Kivalirmiut or Eastern People), numbering
      about 150, comprised by Pingangnaktomiut at Tree River (114 W, 67 30'N),
      Nenitagmiut behind Gray Bay (112 , 67 30'N), Kiglingilmiut at Murray
      Point across the Gulf (110 W, 68 50'N), and a few (Kiluhiktormiut)
      south of Bathurst Inlet (108 W, 66 40'N).  Jenness visited these groups
      with the same results as  in #3 above.  Rasmussen studied them in 1923.
   5. Dease Strait groups, estimated at 100, Asiagmiut east of Kent Peninsula
      (105 W, 68 N), Ekalluktomiut at the southeast extremity of Victoria
      Island (107 W, 69 20'N).  Little is known about these groups.
    First white contact with the Copper Eskimo was in 1771, when the Indian
  guides of an expedition staughtered an Eskimo party.  Intermittant contact
  with ships was intensified in the early 1900's, together with several
  ethnographic expeditions. The Anglican Church was established in Dolphin and
  Union Strait, simultaneously with Jenness' field work in 1915.  This first
  white settlement in the area brought an influx of traders and western

Selection of Focus: The Copper Eskimo groups #2, 3, and 4 above are selected
  from the ethnographic work of Jenness.  Stefanson, although with the same
  expedition, worked with group #1, and will be treated as a subsidiary

Time: 1915 is the date of Jenness' field work.

Coordinates: Those listed under Focus above are the pinpointed group.  The
  Copper Eskimo as a whole cover the territory from Stapylton Bay (117 W) to
  Kent Peninsula (106 W), and from  66 40'N on the mainland to 71 30'N on
  Victoria Island.

Standard Sample Unit 125 (GPM 10/25/68)

Sampling Province 151:  Cree-Montagnais.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 280: Montagnais, Na32:495.

Focus:  The Mo tagnais of the Lake St. John and Mistassini bands, 48 to 52N
  and 73 to 75W, around 1910.

General Area:  The Montagnais, who speak a Northern Algonkian language akin to
  Cree, inhabit the interior of the Labrador Peninsula, mainly in northern
  Quebec.  They have been known to the French since the early 1600's, and
  trading posts were already established by 1700 among them.  They have
  undergone centuries of acculturation.  The Lake St. John band numbered 670 in

Selection of Focus:  The Lake St. John and Mistassini bands are probably the
  most fully described of the Montagnais-Naskapi.

Time:  The date of 1920 is selected as approximately the beginning of Speck's
  field work.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 126 (GPM  8/4/68)

Sampling Province 152: Maritime Algonkians.

Representative of The Province and of Cluster 281:  Micmac (Souriquois),

Focus:  The Micmac as a whole (except those in Newfoundland), located from 43
  30' to 50N and from 60 to 66W, around 1650.  The early sources provide
  little basis for closer pinpointing.

General Area:  The Micmac are an Algonkian-speaking tribe of the Wabanaki
  division, which also includes the Abnaki, Malecite, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot,
  and Wawenock.  At the time of their discovery they occupied all of Nova
  Scotia and Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick, and the Gaspe
  Peninsula in Quebec (see coordinates under Focus above), as well as portions
  of adjacent Newfoundland where they had displaced the indigenous Beothuk.  The
  first European contact was with Cartier in 1534.  Port Royal (now Annapolis
  Royal) was found in 1605. Missionary activity began in 1610,was discontinued
  in 1923, and resumed in 1635.  Cod fishing was a major European interest in
  the early period, and there was strong competition for the Maritime Provinces
  between Great Britain and France, with the British finally displacing the
  French in 1763.  The descriptive record of Micmac culture begins with
  Lescarbot in 1606 and terminates with Maillard in 1739 until its resumption in
  the 20th century.  The population of the Micmac is reported as about 3,000 in
  1611 and again in 1760, as about 4,000 in 1884 and again in 1949.

Selection of Focus:  None except for the exclusion of Newfoundland.

Time:  The date of 1650 is selected as midway in the governorship of Denys,
  the earliest of the principal authorities except for Lescarbot.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 127 (GPM  8/5	68)

Sampling Province 153:  Ojibwa.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 282:  Northern Saulteaux,
  Na33:496 and Na34:497.

Focus:  The Berens River, Little Grand Rapids, and Pekangekum Bands of
  Northern Saulteaux, located from 5130' to 5230'N and from 94 to 97W along
  the Berens River, in 1930.

General Area:  The Algonkian-speaking Ojibwa nation is scattered in scores of
  bands in southern and western Ontario, northern Wisconsin and Minnesota,
  southern Manitoba, and SE Saskatchiwan.  The best described groups are the
  1.  Northern Saulteaux (Na33:496), including the Rekangekum (Na34:497), of
      western Ontario, and southeastern Manitoba, the focus.
  2.  Nipigon or Southern Saulteaux (Na35:498) of south central Ontario,
      described by Grant and Cameron.
  3.  Eastern Ojibwa (Na39:502) of Parry Island in southeastern Ontario,
      described by Jenness.
  4.  Katikitegon or Wisconsin Chippewa (Na38:501) of northern Wisconsin,
      described by Kinietz.
  5.  Chippewa (Na36:499) of northern Minnesota, described by Densomore, Hilger,
      and Hoffman.
  6.  Emo or Rainy Lake Ojibwa (Na39:502) of southwestern Ontario, described by
  7.  Bungi or Plains Ojibwa (Ne14:621) of  southeastern Saskatchewan, described
      by Hesketh and Skinner.
  There are about 30,000 Ojibwa in the United States today, and 20,000 more in
  Canada.  The focus bands of Northern Saulteaux numbered 633 in 1917, 900
  in 1930, and 1,123 in 1949.  They are located in three reservations along the
  Berens River, from Pekangekum in the east to the mouth of the river on Lake
  Winnepeg in the west.  The first trading post on the Berens River was not
  established until the early 19th century.  The first missionaries appeared in
  1873, and a large proportion of the population are still not Christianized.
  The territory in question was originally populated by Cree,  who were replaced
  by Ojibwa around 1870's, and there has been less intermarriage with whites
  than among other ojibwa.  The three present reservations (Berens River, Little
  Grand Rapids, and Pekangekum) were established by treaty with the Dominion of
  Canada government in 1875.

Selection of Focus:  Based on the high quality of the field work by Hallowell
  among the Berens River band and more recently by Dunning among the Pekangekum.

Time:  The date of 1930 is chosen as that of the beginning of Hallowell's
  field work.

Coordinates:  The Ojibwa as a whole occupy an enormous territory extending
   from about 52  to 45 N and from about 82  to 105 W.  See under Focus above for
   the coordinates of the selected bands of Northern Saulteaux.

Standard Sample Unit 128 (GPM 6/16/68)

Sample Province 134: Northeastern Athapaskans.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 283: Slave (Slavey,
  Etchareottine), Na17:466.

Focus: The "band" in the vicinity of Fort Simpson (c. 62N, 122W) around

General Area: The Slave are a tribe of Northern Athapaskan Indians, who are
  surrounded by the Dogrib, Yellowknoce, and Chipewyan to the east, by the
  Beaver to the south, by the Kaska and Mountain to the west, and by the Hare
  to the north.  They are divided into politically independent bands, of which
  the following have been studied  with some intensiveness by the
   1. The Fort Simpson Slave (pseudonym "lynx Point Indians"), around 62 N,
      122 W, studied by Helm.
   2. The Fort Nelson Slave, around 58 50'N, 122 30'e, studied by Honigmann.
   3. The Slave of Great Slave Lake, studied by Mason.
   4. The Satudene or Slave of Great Bear Lake, around 64 30'N, 123 w, studied
     by Osgood.
    A trading post was established at Fort Simpson in 1802, and others at Fort
  Nelson, Fort Rae, etc. not long afterwards,  and the Indians became
  adaptated to the fur trade.  Missionization began with the arrival of the
  Obalte Fathers in 1857, and since then all the Slave have been nominally
  Catholic.  Relative isolation ended in World War II with the building of the
  Alcan Highway and the construction of an airfield at Fort Simpson.  Since
  the Slave are nomadic, population figures are few and uncertain.  Hongmann
  reports 73 Slave at Fort Nelson in 1943, representing a decline from the 120
  reported in  1924.  The population at Fort Simpson is not reported but
  cannot be more perhaps  a couple hundred.

Selection of Focus: The Fort Simpson Slave are chosen as the site of the work,
  of Helm, the principal ethnographer.

Time: The date of 1940 is selected as just prior to the heavy acculturation
  following World War II.  No direct information in available for the period
  before the development of the fur trade or missionization.  The work of the
  principal authority, June Helm (MacNeish), came about a decade later and
  that of Honigmann in 1943.  Mason and Osgood worked in the area earlier,
  but their data are much less full.

Coordinates: Those for Fort Simson are given under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 129 (GPM 6/18/68)

Sample Province 138: Carrier-Nahani

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 284: Kaska (Easter Nahani),

Focus: The Upper Kaska or Natitu'agotena, centered around 60 N, 131 W, at
  about 1900.

General Area: The Kaska are a Northern Athapaskan tribe located on the
  eastern side of the Rocky Mountains in British Columbia.  They are divided
  into five local divisions, as follows:
   1. Upper Liard Kaska or Natitu'agotena in the west on the Dease River
      immediately south of the Upper Liard River.
   2. Dease River Kaska or Kistagotena in the southwest on the Dease River
      immediately south of the Upper Liard group.
   3. Frances Lake kaska or Tutcogetena in the northwest around Frances Lake
      immediately north of the Upper Liard group.
   4. Nelson Indians or Tselona in the southeast on the Lower Liard River.
   5. The Espatodena in the northeast--the only group not visited by
      Honigmann.  There is a good tribal map in Honigmann 1949, page 34, and in
      Honigmann 1956, p.12.
    The first contacts with Europeans occurred shortly after 1800.  Trading
  posts were established for a period on Dease lake in 1838 and on Frances
  Lake in 1843.  There were gold rushes in 1873-74 and 1879-98.  A Protestant
  mission was established in 1900 and a Catholic mission about 1925.  When
  studied by Honigmann, the Kaska were rather heavily acculturated and to some
  extent racially mixed.  They numbered 200 in 1945, perhaps 300 aboriginally.

Selection of Focus: The Upper Liard group are selected because Honigmann
  did much more work with them than with any other group.  However, data on
  the Dease River group can be used with caution.

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as just prior to intensive
  missionization.  Honigmann's 1954 monograph is a specific attempt at
  ethnographic reconstruction.  He was in the field from June to September,
  1944, and from June to December, 1945.

Coordinates: The tribal territory lies between 59 and 61 N and between 126
  and 132 W.  The center of the Upper Liard distribution is given above
  under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 130 (GPM 6/17/68)

Sample Province  136: South Central Alaska.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster  287: Eyak (Iggiak), Nb5:270.

Focus: The entire tiny Eyak tribe, located between 60  and 61 N and between
  144 and 146 W, at around 1890.

General Area: The Eyak are located on the coast west of the Yakutat Tlingit
  and east of the Eskimo of Prince William sound, extending up the Copper
  River valley as far as the Childs and Miles glaciers.  They formerly
  occupied four villages, but their few survivors live at Old Town, Cordova.
  They were first visited by the Russians in 1783.  The Copper River was
  explored by the U.S.  Army in 1884 and 1885, and between this time and
  1890 a cannery was opened at Cordova.  By 1900 acculturation is reported
  to have been complete, and the tribe to have ceased to exist as a
  separate entity.  The language is Nadene.

Selection of Focus: Owing to the small size of the tribe (150 in 1834
  according to Veniaminov; 27 houses and 28 families according to the census
  of 1890; about 38 survivors in 1933), there is no need of selecting a
  more restricted focus.  Eyak village has been the only occupied site in
  recent times--until the removal to Cordova.

Time: The date of 1890 is selected as the last period before complete
  acculturation and detribalization.  The culture of this period is
  reconstructed from memory in 1933.

Coordinates: Eyak village is located at about 60 45'W.  The coordinates for
  the tribal territory are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 131 (GPM 6/18/68)

Sample Province 137: Northern Northwest Coast.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 288: Haida, Nb1:70.
  (Substituted for the Tlingit (Nb22:505), who were indicated as the
  representative in "World Sampling Provinces; the Haida are much easier to
  pinpoint and probably more fully described than any one subgroup of the

Focus: The northern part of the Queen Charloote Islands, centering around
  the village of Masset (c.54 N, 132 30'W), around 1875.

General Area : The  Haida tribe occupies the Queen Charlotte Islands and
  the southern portion of Prince of Wales Island in British Columbia and
  Alaska respectively.  They are divided into three subtribes:
   1. The Skidegate Haida centering around the village of Skidegate in the
      central Queen Charlotte Islands (c.53 N, 132 20'W).  The Haida of the
      southern Queen Charlotte Islands became extinct before their culture was
   2. The Masset Haida centering around the village of Masset in the northern
      Queen Charlotte Islands, chosen as the focus (see above).
   3. The Kaigani or Alaskan Haida centering on the village of Masset in the
      northern Prince of Wales Island (c.55 15'N, 133 W).  They conquered
      their territory from the Tlingit somewhere around 1725-1750.
    The first contact with Europeans came in 1774, when the Haida were visited
  by the Spanish explorer Perez.  There were later visits by Bodega in 1775,
  La Perouse in 1786, and Dixon in 1787.  Shortly thereafter they were visited
  by scores of English and  New England fur traders, who denuded them of their
  valuable sea otter furs and introduced smallpox, which reduced the
  population from an estimated 8,000 in 1841 to about 2,000 in 1888.  Later
  population estimates are 900  in 1905 and 800 bin 1932.  The first mission
  was established at Masset by the Church of England in 1876, and before long
  there were Methodist missionaries at Skidegate and Presbyterians at

Selection of Focus: The Masset Haida are selected because they are probably
  the best described and because, when visited by Murdock in 1934, they were
  much less acculturated than the Skidegate and Naigani Haida, though even
  they had long since abandoned their aboriginal villages and settled in the
  native village of Masset, where they numbered well over 300.  Culturally,
  the Skidegate Haida are substanially different, the Kaigani less so.  The
  Haida speak closely related languages of the Skittage family, which is
  remotely related to  Eyak,  Koluschan, and Athapaskan.

Time: The date of 1875 is selected as immediately prior to missionization.
  Both Swanton , who did his field work at Skidegate and Masset in 1903, and
  Murdock, who worked mainly among the Masset Haida in 1932 but also made
  brief visits to the other two settlements, were interested in the
  indigenous culture and used informants who had lived before

Coordinates: The habitat of the Haida lies between 52  and 55 20'N, and
  between 131  and 133 W.  See Focus above for the coordinates of Masset.

Standard Sample Unit 132 (GPM 6/18/68)

Sampling Province 139: Wakashan-Bellacoola.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 290: Bellacoola (Belhoola,
  bilqula, Vilxula), Nb9:471.

Focus: The central Bellacoola along the lower Bella Coola River (52 20'N, 126-
  127 W) around 1880.

General Area: The Bellacoola are a Salishan-speaking tribe on the lower Bella
  Coola River in central British Columbia with a northern extension on the
  Kimsquit River and a southern one on South Bentinck Arm.  These three
  divisions of the tribe apparently differed very little in culture.  Their
  neighbors were the Athapaskan-speaking Carrier to the east and the Wakashan-
  speaking Haisla and Bellabella to the northwest and southwest respectively.
  Aboriginally they occupied about 26 villages.  Their population is reported
  at 311 in 1902 and approximately the same in 1922, but it may have been well
  in excess of 1,000 aboriginally.  The visit of Alexander Mackenzie in 1793
  was their first contact with Europeans.  In the late nineteenth century
  acculturation became intensive, as elsewhere on the Northwest Coast.

Selection of Focus: The tribe as a whole, being small, may be treated as a
  unit.  If differences are noted among the three local groups, the central
  group, namely those along the lower Bella Coola River, should be given

Time: The date of 1880 is selected as immediately prior to the early field
  work of Franz Boas.

Coordinates: Those of the tribe as a whole are from 52  to 53 N and from 126
  to 127 W.  Those of the central Bellacoola are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 133 (GPM 6/18/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 140: Coast Salish.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 292: Twana, Nb2:71.

Focus: The Twana as a whole, located between 4720' and 4730'N and between
  12310' and 12320'W, at about 1860.

General Area: The Twana are a Salish-speaking society located on the coast and
  drainage area of Hood Canal, a salt-water inlet west of Puget Sound in the
  state of Washington.  Their neighbors, all likewise Spanish-speaking, are the
  Klallam in the north, the Suquamish of the Nisqualli-Puyallup nation to the
  south and east.  Smallpox epidemics in the early nineteenth century reduced
  the population to a reported 500 in 1841 and 264 in 1875.  The Skokomish
  Reservation was established for the Twana in 1859-60, and a Protestant
  mission and reservation school were established there about 1870.  The 1870's
  saw a nearly complete culture breakdown.

Selection of Focus: Nearly all of Elmendorf's information comes from the
  Twana of the Skokomish River drainage basin in the southwest part of their
  territory, but Elmendorf states specifically states specifically that there
  were only very slight cultural differences between the nine distinct Twana
  local communities.

Time: The date of 1860 is selected as that given by Elmendorf as the close of
  the first period of contact and the beginning of the reservation period.  It
  is prior to missionization, which began about 1870.  Elmendorf's book
  represents a specific attempt to reconstruct the culture of the Twana in the
  mid-nineteenth century.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 134 (GPM 8/19/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 141: Central Pacific Coast.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 295: Yurok, Nb4:172.

Focus: The small Yurok tribe as a whole, centering on 41 30'N and 124 W, and
  124 W, in 1850.

General Area: The Yurok, who speak a language of the Ritwan family of the
  Macro-Algonkian phylum, reside on the lower Klamath River and the adjacent
  shores of Trinidad Bay in northwestern California.  They share an almost
  identical culture with their neighbors the Karok to the east and the Hupa to
  the southwest.  Aboriginally they occupied 54 villages with an aggregate
  population estimated by Kroeber to have been about 2,500 in 1852.
  Subsequent population figures are 668 in 1910 and 471 in 1930.  They were
  first seen from offshore in 1595 by the Portuguese Cermeo, and Trinidad Bay
  was explored by the Spaniards in and after 1775.  Vancouver stopped there in
  1793.  By 1800 merchants from half a dozen nations were trading there for
  sea otter furs, but the fur trade fell off after 1817.  Gold was discovered
  on the Trinite River in 1850, and shortly thereafter the area was swamped by
  white settlers.  An American military post was established in nearby Hupa
  territory in 1855, and a reservation was set aside for the Yurok in 1864,
  after which acculturation was accelerated still further.

Selection of Focus: Since the Yurok tribe was culturally homogeneous, more
  minute pinpointing is not required.  However, early information is
  particularly full on the southernmost village, Tsurai.

Time: The date of 1850 is selected as that of the first influx of settlers and
  of the beginning of the residence of Loeffelholz, the first ethnographer.

Coordinates: Given under Focus above.  The village of Tsurai was located at 41
  03'N, 128 08'W.

Standard Sample Unit 135 (GPM 8/19/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 143: Central California.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 298: Pomo, Nc18:533.

Focus: The Eastern Pomo of Clear Lake (c.39 N, 123 W) in 1850.

General Area: The Pomo, who speak languages of the Kulanapan or Pomo branch
  of the Hokan family, are located in north central California between Cleone
  and Duncan's Point on the Pacific coast inland to Clear Lake.  They are
  divided into seven dialectic division, as follows:
   1. Northern Pomo--in the drainage of the Russian and Eel Rivers.
   2. Central Pomo--on the coast and the upper Russian River.
   3. Southern Pomo--on the coast and the lower Russian River.
   4. Southwestern Pomo--on the coast and the Gualda River.
   5. Eastern Pomo--on Clear Lake (main portion).
   6. Southeastern Pomo--on the lower portion of Clear Lake.
   7. Northeastern Pomo--a detached enclave on Stony Creek in the Sacramento
      valley drainage.
    Although California was discovered in 1542 by Cabrillo, and the southern
  coast was colonized by the Spaniards beginning in 1769, the peoples of
  northern California were left undisturbed until a flurry of fur trading on
  the coast after 1800.  The Pomo, however, were relatively unaffected until
  after the discovery of gold in northern California were left undisturbed
  until after the discovery of gold in northern California in 1850 brought an
  influx of settlers who swamped their country.  The aboriginal population of
  the Pomo has been estimated at about 8,000. By 1910, however, their numbers
  had been reduced to 1,200.  In 1930 their population was about 1,150.

Selection of Focus: The Eastern or Clear Lake Pomo are chosen as the most
  fully described.

Time: The date of 1850 is selected as immediately prior to the inrush of white

Coordinates: The Pomo as a whole are located between 38 20' and 39 20'N and
  between 122 45' and 123 40'W.

Standard Sample Unit 136 (GPM 8/20/68)

Sampling Province 144: Southern California.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 299: Yokuts, Nc24:539

Focus: The Chunut, Tachi, and Wowol subtribes, constituting the Lake Yokuts,
  who are centered on the Tulare Lake (35 10'N and 119 20'W), in 1850.

General Area: The Yokuts, who speak languages of the Mariposan or Yokuts
  branch of the Penutian family, occupy the southern portion of the San
  Joachin Valley in California.  They are divided into the following
   1. Lake Yokuts, including the Chunut, Tachi, and Wowol subtribes around
      Tulare Lake.
   2. Southern Valley Yokuts to the southeast of the above.
   3. Northern Valley Yokuts to the north of the Lake Yokuts.
   4. Northern Foothills Yokuts, including the Chukchansi and Gashowa subtribes.
   5. Central Foothills Yokuts, including the Wukchumni and Yaudanchi subtribes.
   6. Southern Foothills Yokuts.
    The arrival of the Spaniards on the coast in 1769 did not disturb the
  inhabitants of the San Joachin Valley, who were first by Estudillo in 1819.
  American settlers began to arrive in the Valley by 1840, and poured in after
  the 1850 gold rush.  Kroeber estimates the aboriginal population of the
  Yokuts at 18,000, but careful research by Cook suggests this estimate to be
  too low.  Cook estimates the population of the Lake Yokuts at 6,500
  aboriginally and at 1,100 in 1850.

Selection of Focus: The Lake Yokuts were selected because of their
  distinctive lacustrine adaptation, although they are not quite as well
  described as some other subgroups, particularly the Wukchumni.  Gayton
  reconstructs for about this time.

Time: The date of 1850 is chosen as just prior to the heavy influx of white
  settlers following the gold rush.

Coordinates: The Yokuts as a whole extended from 34 30' to 37 50'N and from
  118 40' to 121 40'W.  The coordinates for the Lake Yokuts are given above
  under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 137 (GPM 6/23/68)

Sampling Province 146:  Great Basin.

Representative of the Province and Cluster 304:  Wadadika (Harney Valley
  Paiute, Wadadokado), Nd22:564.

Focus:  The Wadadika tribe as a whole, located between 43 and 44N, 118 and
  120W, at about 1870.

General Area:  The Wadadika are a Shoshonean-speaking group of Northern Paiute
  in central Oregon, with their center near the town of Burns.  They formerly
  occupied the Harney Valley, centering on Malheur and Harney Lakes and
  extending north to the headwaters of the Silvies and Silver Rivers, south to
  Catlow Valley, E along the basin of the Malheur River, and west to the
  vicinity of Wagontire.  They were visited by fur traders as early as 1826.
  In 1867 Camp Harney was established to protect miners and westbound
  immigrants.  The first white settlement occurred in 1869, and the Malheur
  Reservations was established in 1872.  The population was reported as 110
  in 1938.

Selection of Focus:  The tribe as a whole, being small, may be treated as a
  unit.  The Wadadika were completely surrounded by other Northern Paiute
  local groups except in the northeast, where they bordered the Cayuse.

Time:  The date of 1870 is selected as just prior to the establishment of the
  reservation and only one year after white settlement began.  Acculturation
  occurred later among the Northern Paiute than among most western Indians.

Coordinates:  The tribal territory is nearly rectangular, with slight bulges
  in all directions beyond the coordinates listed above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 138 (GPM 6/19/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 142: Northeast California.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 308: Klamath, Nc8:523.

Focus: The Klamath tribe as a whole, located between 42  and 43 15'N and
  between 121 20' and 122 20'W, at about 1860.

General Area: The Klamath belong to the Lutuamian subfamily of the Sahaptin
  family of the Macro-Penutian linguistic phylum.  They are located in south
  central Oregon, where their territory is bounded by the Cascade Range in the
  west, the closely kindred Modoc tribe to the south, Northern Paiute bands to
  the east, and at some remove to the north the Tenino.  They are divided into
  four local groups:
   1. The Klamath proper or Aukchni of Klamath Marsh and the Middle Williamson
      River to the north and northeast.
   2. The Dukwakni in the center on the delta of the Williamson River to the
      northeast of Klamath Lake.
   3. The Gumbotkni to the west around Klamath Falls and the east shore of
      Klamath Lake and in the marshes north thereof.
   4. The Iulalongkni in the south around Klamath Falls and the east shore of
      Klamath Lake.
    There is a map in Spier 1930, opposite page 8.  Spier estimates that the
  Klamath numbered about 1,200 in 1854.  In 1905 their population was reported
  as 755.  The first contact with Whites occurred around 1825.  The Klamath
  were visited by Ogden in 1826 and by Fremont in 1843 and 1846.  Relations
  with White Americans were in general friendly, and an important treaty was
  concluded with them in 1864.

Selection of Focus: Cultural differences between local groups were slight, or
  perhaps unreported.  Where such occur, data on the Klamath proper in the
  north should be given preference.

Time: The date of 1860 is chosen as just prior to intensive acculturative
  influences.  A military post was established in Klamath country in 1863; the
  treaty with the American government came a year later.  Within the next few
  years came the first permanent white settlers in Klamath country, then the
  establishment of a sawmill (1870) and a school (1873), missionary activity
  by Methodists, etc.  The Ghost Dance movement reached the Klamath in 1871.

Coordinates: Those of the Klamath proper are 42 30' to 43 15'N and 121 30' to
  122 W.  Those for the Klamath tribe as a whole are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 139 (DRW 8/19/68)

Sampling Province 149: Northern Plateau

Representative for the Province of Cluster 312:  Kutenai, Nd7:380. (Kootenay).

Focus:  The lower Kutenai of Creston, B. C., and Bonners Ferry, Idaho, 11640'W,
  From 4840'N to 4910'N, at about 1890.

General Area:  The Kutenai, whose language constitutes the independent
  Kitunahan family, inhabited Kootenay River and Lake, and most of the upper
  course of the Columbia River in southeastern British Columbia, northwestern
  Montana, and the northern tip of Idaho.  During the 19th century Flathead
  lake, Montana, was settled, later to become a reservation shared with the
  Flathead Indians. Arrow Lake and northeastern Washington were used as hunting
  and fishing territories by the western group, although the area was never
  settled.  There were two main cultureal and linguistic divisions:
   1. The Upper of eastern Kutenai, east of longitude 115 30'W, depended
      Chiefly on buffalo hunting, and their culture had a strong Plains admixture.
      Turney-high believes that the Tobacco Plains group, on the Kootenay River
      at the Montana-Canadian border, were the original band from which all the
      modern bands derived.  There was supposedly a band on the true Plains to
      the east of Rockies, driven out by the Blackfoot tribes and dispersed by
      intermarriage with other Kutenai and Flathead groups.  In addition to
      these two original bands, there were: a) a Tobacco Plains sub-group, 30
      Miles to the north at Fernie, B.C.; b) an extinct band at Ft. Steele,
      B.C., further north along the headwaters of the Kootenai River, whose
      location was later occupied by dissidents from the Libby band (see d
      below); c) a northernmost offshoot at Windemere, B.C., between the
      Kootenay and Columbia Rivers: d) a western offshoot at Libby and Jennings,
      northwestern Montana, who in culture and economy tended toward the Lower
      Kutenai further to the west; and e) the Flathead Lake group, settled in
      the 19th century by offshoots of the Libby-Jennings band.
   2. The Lower or western Kutenai, by contrast, were primarily fishermen and
      hunters of diverse mountain species.  Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and Creston,
      B.C., were the primary, and undoubtedly the oldest groups. Turney-High's
      although it is not ascertained whether they were an early offshoot of
      Tobacco Plains, a later offshoot of Libby-Jennings, or some other
      hypothesis.  Cranbrook, to the northeast, and Nelson, to the northwest,
      represent more recent offshoots of the Lower Kutenai.  These groups used
      Arrow Lake and northeast Washington as fishing and hunting grounds.
  Mooney estimates the aboriginal population at 1,200 in 1780.  In 1904 there
  were 550 reported in Canada and 550 in United States.
      Direct contact of the Kutenai with whites came relatively late.  Thompson
  was sent by the Northwest Company in 1808 to establish fur trade, and a
  trading were sent by Hudson's Bay Company to teach the techniques of fur
  trade, and Catholic missionaries made numerous conversions among the Upper
  Kutenai.  The Lower Kutenai have remained less acculturated.

Selection of Focus:  The Lower Kutenai of Creston and Bonners Ferry are chosen
  as the less acculturated of Kutenai, more representative of Plateau, instead
  of Plains, adaptation.

Time:  1890 is the date of Chamberlin's visit, when the Kutenai were still
  relatively autonomous.

Standard Sample Unit 140 (GPM 8/19/68)

Sampling Province 150: Northern Plains.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 313: Gros Ventre (Atsina), Nel:75.

Focus:  The Gros Ventre tribe as a whole, located between 47 and 49N
  and between 106 and 110W, in 1880.

General Area:  The Gros Ventre are an Algonkian-speaking tribe, closely akin
  in language to the Arapaho.  When first visited-by Le Gardeur de Saint Pierre
  in 1751 and by Cocking in 1772-they were located south of the Saskatchewan
  River.  They first acquired their bad reputation by an attack on Fort Brule in
  1793.  Weakened by a smallpox epidemic in 1780, they were driven from their
  former territory by the Assiniboin and Plains Cree and encroached on Crow
  territory near the Missouri River around 1808.  After further attacks on
  white fur traders and settlers, they fled to the headwaters of the Missouri
  and united with the Arapaho for a period (1818-1823).  After a disastrous
  encounter with the Crow, they moved  north and became neighbors and allies of
  the Blackfoot for a while, but fought them with heavy losses in 1867.
  Thereafter they roamed the Plains on both sides of the Missouri River in north
  central Montana (see coordinated under Focus).  Missionary activity among them
  began in 1885, and soon the tribe was converted to Catholicism (they are still
  Catholics).  The disappearance of the buffalo in 1883 put an end to the
  traditional mode of life, and the tribe has long since been located on the
  Fort Belknap reservation (4830'N, 109W).  The population of the Gros Ventre
  was estimated at 2,500 by Hayden in 1850.  In 1883 it was officially reported
  as 970, and by 1895 was reduced to 600.

Selection of Focus:  The tribe as a whole is selected, being culturally

Time:  The date of 1880 is chosen as shortly prior to missionization and the
  disappearance of the buffalo.

Standard Sample Unit 141 (GPM 7/2/68)

Sampling Province 154:  Upper Missouri.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 315: Hidatsa (Minitari),

Focus:  The village of Hidatsa, located at approximately 47N, 101W, in the
  year 1836.

General Area:  The Siouan-speaking Hidatsa were on of three tribes of "village
  Indians"  located on the Missouri River in North Dakota.  The other tribes
  were the Siouan-speaking Mandan and the Caddoan-speaking Arikara, located
  south or down-river from the Hidatsa.  The aboriginal Hidatsa formed three
  village groups, in order of size the Hidatsa proper, the Awatixa, and the
  Awaxami.  They were located near the junction of the Knife River with the
  Missouri and exploited the immediately surrounding territory for agriculture
  and hunting.  They were first encountered by Thompson in 1797, when their
  population was estimated at 1,330.  They were visited by LeRaye in 1802 and
  by Lewis and Clark in 1804; the former estimated their number at 2,500.
  Catlin in 1832 estimated them at 1832 (?).  They were decimated by a smallpox
  epidemic in 1837, after which the three villages consolidated into one.  In
  1845, the Hidatsa and Mandan combined in one village, and they have been
  closely affiliated ever since.  In 1905 the population of the Hidatsa was
  reported as 471.

Selection of Focus:  Since the three Hidatsa Village groups differed slightly
  in culture, the Hidatsa proper are chosen as the focus, but information from
  the other village groups can be used with due caution.

Time:  The date of 1836 is selected as immediately prior to the smallpox
  epidemic of 1837, when the three local groups combined.  The Hidatsa were
  visited before 1836 by Catlin and Maximilian zu Wien-Neuwied, the major
  monograph of Mathews was published 40 years later, and the recent monograph
  by Bowers specifically seeks to reconstruct Hidatsa culture as of 1836.

Coordinates:  Given above under Focus.  All three village groups were in close