Standard Sample Unit 81 (GPM 5/31/68)

Sampling Province 8: Malagasy.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 184: Tanala (Antanala), Eh3:144.

Focus: The Menabe subtribe, centering at 20S, 48E, at about 1925.

General Area: The Malagasy or inhabitants of Madagascar, who speak closely
  related dialects of a Malayo-Polynesian language akin to the Maanyan of
  Borneo, fall into four regional groups: (1) the tribes of the interior
  Plateau (Merina, Betsileo) who  depend on irrigated rice cultivation with
  auxiliary animal husbandry; (2) the tribes of the East Coast(Antaisaka,
  Betsimisaraka) who subsist primarily by the swidden cultivation of dry rice;
  (3) the tribes of the Escampment cultivation; and (4) the tribes of the
  Plains to the south and west (Antandroy, Bara, Mahafaly, Sakalava) who are
  pastoral cattle herders with a secondary dependence on fishing near the
  coast and to a lesser extent on agriculture.  The Merina, who are supposed
  to have arrived from Java or Sumatra in about the tenth century, established
  a caste and chiefdom organization which led to their hegemony over the
  island by 1600 and unification by 1800, after which the interior was also
  opened to Europeans.  The Tanala are divided into two subtribes-- the Ikongo
  and Menabe--who, together with the neighboring Bezanozano (Antankay), number
  about 200,000.

Selection of Focus: The Menabe subtribe, with seven subordinates groupings,
  are chosen as the focus because they are the primary subjects of Linton's
  published worked.  He also refers to an unpublished manuscript by Sabatoff
  (?) on the Ikongo.  The Menabe, in the north, are less acculturated than the
  Ikongo and lack the complex political organization and caste system of the

Time: The date of 1925 is chosen as that immediately prior to Linton's field
  work (1926-27).  The data are observational.

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 82 (DRW 2/21/69)

Sampling Province 102: Malaya and Sumatra

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 214: Negri Sembilan

Focus: Rembau District, 101 40' to 192 15'E and 2 20' to 2 35'N, about 1870.

General Area: The language of Negri Sembilan is a mixture of a proto-Malay
  aboriginal language and the Minangkabau language of Sumatra, both closely
  related branches of the Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family.  The Malays and
  Minangkabau are Mongoloid stock who migrated to Indonesia from southwestern
  China over 3,000 years ago.  There has also been a very slow trickle of
  immigrants into Negri Semblan from Sumatra, Java, and adjacent Malay states
  going back 500years or more.  The fact that Negri Sembilan was a direct
  dependency of Malacca (1400-1511) prevented establishment of  a Sultanate
  while other Malay states were coalescing in the 16th century.  After the
  fall of Malacca a decentralized system prevailed with balance of power
  between the new Muslim converts, who took up wet rice cultivation along the
  river banks, and the indigenous pagan dry rice groups.  Thereafter, the
  trickle of immigrants augmented the Muslim groups.  Muslim social and
  political organization probably changed under the new ecology of wet rice,
  but the formation of matrilineal suku with revolving headmanship among
  Minangkabau immigrants gradually became the model of social organization not
  only of the Muslims, but even the surviving dry rice (aboriginal) groups.
  There were three resultant socio-political components of this culture
  contact: aboriginal batin headmanship and waris organization' Muslim or
  biduana waris groups with penghulu headmen originally granted authority by
  the batin' and the immigrant Minangkabau suku, weak politically but
  culturally pervasive.  In the late 18th century the loose confederation of
  Nine Districts (Negri Sembilan) faced internal strife among Muslim groups,
  and external conflict from the Sultanate of Selangor to the north.  The four
  outlying districts of Kland, Ulu Pahand, Segamat and Naning were
  appropriated by the adjacent Sultanates, respectively, of Selangor, Pahand,
  Johore, and Malacca.  The remaining districts or petty states decided to
  send to Minangkabau for a raja or Sultan to maintain peace and stop
  incursions (he also later served important functions in the external trade
  with the Europeans).  This Minangkabau prince decided to settle in the
  interior district of Jelai at Seri Menanti, and then installed penghulu in
  Muar, Gunong Pasir, Terachi and Jempol, thereby creating a new set of
  smaller districts or "enclosed lands" surrounding Seri Menanti.  Jelai, one
  of five remaining outlying districts, was thereby considerably reduced and
  its power broken.  At the time of first contact with the British, the Sultan
  dispensed new titles to the outlying districts (excluding Jelai), as a means
  of political reorganization.  New Minangkabau immigrants were also absorbed,
  in the 19th century, into existing clans or into new clans with lesser
  political rights.  As of 1870, just prior to British protection (1874),
  Negri Sembilan was at its fullest social and political complexity.  The
  Malayan federation was formed in 1894.  Districts of Negri Sembilan differ
  in terms of distance from the coast, where Minangkabau migration and
  acculturation is strongest, relationship to the Royal capital, and the
  extent of Chinese penetration in tin mining in the 19th century:
   1. Rembau, on the coast (although the coastal area later became the Port
      Dickson District), population 10,000 in 1880, is probably the best
      example of th eouter chiefdoms under Minangkabau influence but semi-
      autonomous from the Sultanate.
   2. Sungei Ujong, an outer district further north along the coast with a
      Malay population of 2,j000(1879) much less influenced by Minangkabau
      culture, but with a large influx of Chinese (about 8,000 by 1880) in the
      villages and in tin mining.,
   3. Jelebu,  an outer district in the interior with a population of about
      2,000 Malay (1891), also an area of conflict between the local chiefs
      and a segment of the royal family who sought to establish there.
   4. Johol, an outer district in the southeastern interior (population circa
      2,000 Malays in 1880), perhaps least well known of the districts.
   5. Sri or Sei Menanti, the central and royal districts, surrounded by four
      districts or "enclosed lands" under Roual jurisdiction (see above).
   6. Jelai or Inas, formerly of equal status with the other eight Negri
      Sembilan chiefdoms (#1,2,3,4 and four other lost to adjoining states--
      see above),but eclipsed in the introduction of the Sultanate, losing
      much of its land to the Sultan and to neighboring Johol.
    The entire Malay population about 1880 was close to 34,000.  With rapid
  growth through immgration, the census figures of 1891 rose to 48,50 Malays
  and 22,000 Chinese, and by 1957 to a total of 365,000, 42% Malays, 41%
  Chinese, and 15% Indians.  The moslem or dominant Malay population is
  located in smaller villages and along roads and rivers, while aboriginal
  (dry rice) Malays are found only in restricted areas of Inas and Johol.

Selection of Focus: Although there are several other well-described
  alternatives (Sungei Ujong, Jelebu, Inas and Seri Menanti), Rembau is chosen
  because the fullest information is available from  early sources, and the
  descriptions of Gulick and Josselin de Jong probably apply more fully to
  Rembau than other areas because of the fuller penetration of Minangkabau

Time: 1870 is the period to which Gulick's reconstruction and much of Josselin
  de Jong's data pertain, as well as a point of maximal development of the
  autonomous Negri Sembilan state structure prior to the European period, and
  a date which corresponds reasonably well to the early descriptions by
  Hervey, Parr and Macray, and Taylor.

Standard Sample Unit 83 (DRW 1/6/69)

Sampling Province 103: Java

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 217: Javanese, Ib2:54.

Focus: the town of Modjokuto (oseudonym*), 112 13'E and 7 43'S, in 1955.

General Area: Javanese, the language of Indonesia, is a member of the Malayo-
  Polynesian linguistic family.  Malay is also a widely known trade language.
  Java has been the focal area within Indonesia where wet-rice sawah
  cultivation and inland urban-based kiingdoms arose over 1,500 years ago, in
  contrast to the dry-rice and sparsely settled areas of Outer Indonesia.  In
  the region of Modjokuto, the regional capital of Kediri, in the fertile
  Brantas River basin, was the center of one of the early kingdoms.  Modjokuto
  itself, northeast of Kediri, is at the edge of the basin in the foothills of
  the volcanic mountain area, where wet rice and dry rice villages are
  clustered about a small urban center.
    Like all of Central Java, Modjokuto was strongly affected by the Corporate
  Plantation System of the Dutch, under which sugar production was mechanized
  and extensive cash crops in tea, coffee, and rubber were exploited in the
  latter half of the 19th century up to the crash in 1930.  Chinese merchants
  also gained economic dominance as middlemen and landowners under the Dutch
     The Dutch dominated the Netherlands East Indies from 1619 to 1942, and
  developed various mechanisms for organizing the merchantile export economy
  with capital, produce, or labor of the peasant population. The importance of
  the Dutch East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries gave way from
  1830-70 to a system of tax reduction and government estates worked by
  peasants on a part-time basis known as the "Culture system."  With prospects
  of mechanization of production in 1850, this system declined, and the  laws
  changed in 1870 so that the transition to private plantations was possible';
  by 1915 this had completely replaced the Culture System.
    The shift in the agricultural export sector did not affect peasant
  landholdings but the latter part of the 19th century marked the
  establishment of Modjokuto as a population center, with heavy sugar
  production, and the virtual monopolization of local trade by the Chinese.
  Modokuto population was recruited from four main migrations: 1) Orthodox
  muslim santri from the north  coast of Java, who were the first to obtain
  lands inModjokuto, and whose trading activity prior to Chinese dominance
  made them the wealthiest local group; 2) Hinduistic Prijaji, or aristocratic
  sotck, from the Central Java regions of the earlier kingdoms, who form the
  white-collar urban bureaucracy; 3) and 4) Abangan or syncretistic Javanese
  peasantry from around Brantas (Kediri) and other parts of the River Valley.
  Although the Dutch export economy collapsed in 1930, the Chinese maintained
  their monopoly until the occupation by Japanesse from 1942-45.  The Muslim
  Santri aligned themselves with the Japanese, which for strong
  conflictbetween Muslim and syncretistic groups in the post-war ZIndependence
  period.  After achieving Independence in 1949, the country was wrought by
  civil war, which included massacres of the Muslims and the emergence of the
  Communist party, followed by inflationary spirals.  Modjokuto, then studied
  in the mid-1950's, has all of the elements of the Central Javaneses society
  at the end of the colonial period; this is not to be thought of as a
  "traditional" society, as this discussion makes clear.

Focus: Modjokuto, intensively studied by six members of the M.I.T. Center for
  International Studies, had a population of about 20,000 in 1957, including
  2,000 Chinese, and is the center for a district with about 87,000 persons.
  The specific focus will be on the sub-group of Abangan syncretistic
  peasantry residing in the wet-rice village culsters colsely packed around
  the town.

  *Note (not for publication): Modjokuto is actually the town of Pare; the
  pseudonym Branang is actually Kediri, and Tebing is actually Djombang.
  Modjokuto should not be confused with the actual city of Modjokerto, some 30
  miles to the northeast.

Time: 1955 is the mid-point of the M.I.T. study by C. and H. Geertz, Dewey,
  Jay, Ryan and Fagg.  The effects of expulsion of the Chinesse in 1959 have
  not as yet been described.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, are the exact location of the town.

Standard Sample Unit 84 (DRW 12/22/68)

Sampling Province 104: Western Lesser Sundas

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 218: Balinese, Ib3:l52

Focus: The village of Tihigan, former kingdom and present district of
  Klunghung, 115 20'E and 8 30'S, in 1958.

General Area: The Balinese language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian
  linguistic family.  In mountainous areas of the island (total population of
  2,200,00 in 1930) there are a few wallet villages orgainzed in the Old
  Indonesian pattern, Bali Aga, which in other areas was transformed by the
  immgration of theJavanese high castes after the fall of the Java kingdom of
  Madjapahit at the hands of Mohammedans in the 14th century.  intermarriage
  and Buddhist and Sivaite priests had slowly been migrating into Bali.  By
  the 14th century the Javaneses kingdom included Bali.  The refugee nobles
  priests, artisans, artists, dancers, et al, converted Bali into the
  stronghold of Hinduism, and transplante the caste system.  The Balinese
  people were either referred to as Sudra, lower caste or as casteless (Anak
  Bali).  From the 14th century up to 1906 Bali was independent of Java and of
  European coloization; they were rice producers and traded mainly with the
  Chinese.  There were seven kings or radjas in 1906, at which time the Dutch
  landed troops over a shipping incident, and members of the nobility
  committed mass suidice in protest.  In 1908 Dutch indiredt rule was
  establish with continuity in the hereditary lines of ruling Balinese radjas.
  Following the Japanese occupation from 1942-46, the Dutch set up the
  Balinese prince at the head of a new administrative center in the island of
  Celebes; legitimate local kings still head the local regency administrations
  in most parts of Bali today.
    The various districts and local villages of Bali show a tremendous
  ideosyncratic variation in structure, although Geertz finds that the
  underlying components of village organization are unified.  Geertz and his
  wife have worked in a court town and outer district of Tabana, in the
  southwest-central part of the Island, and in the complex high-caste village
  of Njalian and the commoner village of Tihingan in the kingdom of Klunghung.
  Mean, Bateson, and Belo apparently worked in the central mountain districts
  of Kintamani and Gianyar, and the east and southeast districts of Intaraxn
  and karangasen, most in villages with upper castes.  Several Covarrubias
  survvey the entire island from a home base in the post-colonial city of
  Ubua, Gianyar district.

Selection of Focus: the village of Tihingan (population 720) is chosen as the
  closest representative (although certainly not to be regarded as typical) of
  "commoner" Balinese who are yet part of the caste system introduced from
  Java.  This is also the best described local community, and is supplemented
  by Geertz' material on nearby Njalian village in the same district.

Time: 1958 is the date of the Geertz' three month period of field work in
  Tihingan, where they resided with a commoner family (they had spent four
  months the previous year in Tabana district).

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, pertain to the village.

Standard Sample Unit 85 (DRW)

Sampling Province 101: Borneo.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 212: Iban (SEa Dayak), Ibl:54.

Focus: The Iban of the Ulu Ai group along the Baleh River and its tributaries
  in central Sarawak, 2 N and 112 30' to 113 30'E, in 1950.

General Area:  The Iban, who speak a language of the Hesperonesian or Western
  subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian, are the most numberous ethnic group of
  Sarawak and are found in all five of its districts or divisions.  In 1947
  they numbered 190,000 out of Sarawak's total population of 550,000, the
  other major groups being the Chinese with 145,000, the Malays with 97,000,
  the Land Dyak with 42,000, and the Melanau with 36,000.  Sarawak was ceded
  in 1841 by the sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, the first of a succession
  of "white rajahs."  Though it became a British protectorate in 1888, it
  remained under the control of the Brooke family until 1946, when it became a
  British colony.  It has recently become part of the Federation of Malaya.
  The Ulu Ai group of Iban number some 11,000.

Selection of Focus: The Ulu Ai were chosen because the principal authority,
  Freeman, worked among them.

Time: The date of 1905 is selected as that of the beginning of Freeman's field

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.  The Iban as a whole extend from about 1
  to 5 N and from 110  to 116 E.

Standard Sample Unit 86 (GPM 5/11/69)

Sampling Province 100: Badjau or Sea Gypsies.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 207: Tawi-Tawi Badjau, Ial3:

Focus: The Badjau of southwestern Tawi-Tawi Island and the adjacent islands of
  Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, Simunal, and Bilatan in the Sulu Archipelago (5 N, 120
  E) in 1963.

General Area: The Badjau or Sea Gypsies, who speak languages of the
  Hesperonesian subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian, are widely distributed in
  maritime Southeast Asia.  Their principal divisions are the following:
   1. The Badjau, locally called Selung or Mawken, of the mergiu Archipelago
      in extreme southern Burma.
   2. The Badjau of southern Malaya, eastern Sumatra, and the offlying islands
      to the southeast, especially the Ripuw Archipelago, Singga, Bangka, and
   3. The Badjau of North Borneo and the sulu Archipelago in the Philippines.
      They numbered about 12,000 in 1960 and speak the Samal dialect.  The
    Tawi-Tawi Badjau of the fourth of the above divisions numbered 1,425 in

Selection of Focus: The Tawi-Tawi Badjau were chosen because of the quality of
  Nimmo's field work.

Time: The date of 1963 was selected as that of Nimmo's field work.

Coordinates: See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 87 (GPM 1/19/69)

Sampling Province 105: Celebes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 221: Toradja, Ic5: 254.

Focus: The Bare's subgroup of eastern Toradja, located at about 2 S and 121 E,
  around 1910.

General Area: The Toradja, who speak a language of the western or
  Hesperonesian branch of Malayo-Polynesian, inhabit the mountainous central
  portion of the island of Celebes and the southern portion of the northern
  peninsula.  They are divided into an eastern and a western dividion, which
  exhibit considerable local cultural variation.  They number in all about

Selection of Focus: The Bare's are selected because thay are fully described
  in the classic work of Adriani and Kruyt.  At the  end of 1968 this work was
  being processed for the Human Relations Area Files, and closer pinpointing
  must await the availability of this source in the Pittsburgh HRAF files.

Time: The date of 1910 is chosen as about that of the completion of the field
  work of Adriani and Kruyt.

Coordinates: To be defined more exactly when the HRAF file is available.

Standard Sample Unit 88 (GPM 1/8/69)

Sampling Province 106: Moluccas.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 228: Tobelorese (Tobelo),

Focus: The Tobelorese tribe as a whole, located at about 2 N and 128 E, in

General Area: The Tobelorese, who speak a non-Malayo-Polynesian or "Papuan"
  language, are located in the northeastern part of the island of Halmahera or
  Gilolo in the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia just northwest of the Vogelkop
  of New Guinea.  Riedel names nine villages which they occupy, and Hueting
  states that they are divided into four subtribes, each a separate
  administrative district, all of which were subject to the sultan of Ternate.
  Halmahera became known to Portuguese and Spanish spice traders as early as
  1525.  The dutch arrived about 1660 and assumed political control.  For
  centuries, until subdued by the Dutch around 1878, they were confirmed
  pirates, feared for their depredations from Celebes in the west to Papua in
  the east. Riedel reports in 1885 that they had been partially converted to
  Islam by the inhabitants of Ternate.

Selection of Focus: It is possible that the work of Hueting, not available in
  Hill, may enable a closer pinpointing, perhaps to one of the four subtribes.

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as just prior to the beginning of the
  missionary activities of Hueting, the principal authority.  Perhaps an even
  earlier date may be possible on the basis of the work by Riedel, who was a
  Dutch resident in the area.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.  A closer determination may be possible
  from the work of Hueting.

Standard Sample Unit 89 (DRW 12/15/68)

Sampling Province 107: Southeastern Indonesia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 223: Alorese, Ic2:l54 (the
  proper name of the society is Abui).

Focus: The inland five-village complex of Atimelang, in the north center of
  Alor Island, 124 40'E and 8 20'S, in 1938.

General Area: The Abui, as the Alorese mountain people studied by Dubois call
  themselves in opposition to the coastal dwellers, speak a  language of the
  Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family.  It is one of innumerable dialects of
  at least eight related languages on alor, spoken by peoples of predominantly
  Oceanic Negroid stock.  There are about 10,000 coastal Mohammedans, and
  60,000 inhabitants of the interior; Malay is the lingua franca of the area.
     The Portuguese had settlements on the island in the 16th century, but
  were dislodged by the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries.  Portuguese
  claims were not dropped, however, until the Netherlands-Portuguese treaty of
  1859.  The Dutch introduced a political heirarchy into the area, with Alor
  being divided into four radjahships, each assisted by kapitans and field
  police who administer the smaller districts.  Local village chiefs have been
  appointed, and friendly villages unified under a headman.  This hierarchy
  and the system of litibation had been readily accepted at the  time of
  Dubois' field work (less so the taxation).  In contrast to the pre-colonial
  settlements, located on ridges or spurs in the mountainous terrain of Alor
  as a defensive measure against local warfare, the Atimelang complex studied
  by DuBois had been relocated at the insistence of the government following
  one of the more severe wars of pacification in 1918.  There was a general
  pressure by the administration for villages to relocate in more accessible
  locations on level Sundas, and in 1949 this became part of the independent
  Indonesian nation. The five villages of
      the complex studied by DuBois include Atimelang and its two hamlets,
  numbering 180 people, Lawatika village (100), Dikimpke and one hamlet
  numbering 114 people, Alurkovati (95), and Karieta (56), with about 50
  people scaltered in homesteads for a total population of the valley floor of

Selection of Focus: Four of the five villages (excluding Lawatika) formed the
  focusof DuBois' study.

Time: 1938 marks the beginning of DuBois' ons-year field study.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, pertain to the translocated village

Standard Sample Unit 90 (GPM 1/11/69)

Sampling Province 108: Tropical Australia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 229: Tiwi, Id3:157.

Focus:  The Tiwi as a whole, located at 11   to 11 45's and 130  to 132 E,
  with special reference to the less acculturated subgroups, in 1929.

General Area: The Tiwi, who speak a language of the Australian linguistic
  family, reside on Bathurst and Melville Islands off the coast of Northern
  Australia.  They are divided into nine subtribes: the Malanila, Mingwila,
  Rangwila, and Tiklauila of Bathurst Island, and the Mandiimbula, Munupula,
  Turulula, Wilrangwik, and Yeimpi of Melville Island.  They numbered 1,062 in
  1929.  Alathough thge coasts of Australia were explored by Captain Cook in
  1770, the Tiwi were isolated and unacculturated until the nineteenth
  century, when a Catholic mission was established in southeastern Bathurst
  Island in 1991.  From the middle 1920's to 1941, they were repeatedly
  visited by Japanese pearl fishermen, who had sex relations with Tiwi women
  and brought about considerable acculturation and disintegration.

Selection of Focus: Because of the influence of the Japanese, no one subgroup
  can be selcted as particularly representative of the tribe, which was, in
  any event, an intermarrying group.

Time: The date of 1929 is selected as that of the field research by Hart.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 91 (DRW 12/18/68)

Sampling Province 109:  Central and Southern Australia

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 230: Aranda (Arunta), Id:56.

Focus: The Arunta mbainda, or main camp of Aranda, flanked by the Arunta
  iknura and Arunta aldorla, or eastern and western local groups, from 132 30'
  to 134 20'E and 23 30' to 25 S, about 1896.

General Area: The Arunta, in dead center of the continent, speak a language of
  the Australian linguistic family.  They are athe southernmost of the cluster
  of Central Australian groups characterized by patrilineal moieties.  To the
  southeast and east are groups with the opposite rule of descent.  Totemic
  groups and marriage classes criss-cross the main geographical divisions, as
   1. Arunta mabainda, or main camp, which extends from the heartland in the
      Macdonnell Range around Alice Springs, southward over 140 miles to the
      Finke River.
   2. Arunta Yirirra, or northern group, extending across the BurtPlains north
      of the Macdonnell range to the northern boundary with the Iliaura tribe.
   3. Arunta iknura, or eastern group, extending from the western border with
      the Luritcha tribe in the Macdonnel range all the way east to
      Claraville, northeast of group #1, south of group #2.
   4. Arunta aldorla, or western group, running from the Macdonnell range in
      the north (bordering on #3), south to the Finke river just above group
   5. Arunta illyair-winna, in the far south, below group #1 on the Finke
   6. Arunta uldma, on the southeast, from the Eastern Macdonnells south
      through unmaped country on the Hale and Todd Rivers.
    The total population of the Arunta as estimated in 1896 was 2,000; by 1926
  this had dropped to 3-400.  One of the local groups studied at Alice Springs
  by Spencer and Gillin in 1896 when they numbered 40 persons had died out by
  the return trip in 1926.  Aboriginal organization was severely disrupted by
  the Europeans, who set up the first mission post at Alice Springs at the
  time of Spencer and Gillin's visit.  Their field account is one of the most
  valuable for the entire continent because of their extensive work during the
  aboriginal period.
     European colonists have now settled in the area, and the Macdonnell range
  is dotted with more than a score of places with scheduled air service.

Selection of Focus:  The Arunta Mbainda of Alice Springs were most closely
  studied by Spencer and Gillen in 1896, restudied in 1901, and visited by
  Spencer in 1926 for some follow-up reconstruction work with several

Time: 1896 marks the observations of the culture under aboriginal conditions.

Coordinates: The territory of the Arunta mbainda as a whole are given under
  Focus, above.  Alice Springs, the specific focus, is located at 133 50'E and
  23 45'S.

Sampling Province 110: Vacated

Standard Sample Unit 92 (GPM 1/9/69)

Sampling Province 111: Southeastern New Guinea.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 240: Orokaiva, Ie9:457.

Focus: The Aiga subtribe, 8 20' to 8 40'S, 147 50' to 148 10'E, in 1925.

General Area: The Orokaiva, who speak a language of the Papuan phylum, inhabit
  the coast and hinterland of the Northern District of Papua in eastern New
  Guinea.  They are divided into 12 subtribes: Aiga, Binandele, Wasida,
  Bakumbari, Hunjara, Sangara, Sauaha, Jeve-Buge, Taindaware, Yega, Dirou, and
  Mambare.  In addition, the Okeina, who occupy the coast and interior
  immediately to the southeast, are closely related to and culturally almost
  indistinguishable from the Orokaiva.  In 1925 the population of the Orokaiva
  was about 9,000, of whom the Aiga, the subtribe in the west central part of
  their territory, numbered 1,300.  The island of New Guinea was discovered
  and explored by JPortuguese and Spanish voyagers in 1511 and the following
  few years,  and in the following two centuries was visited by numerous
  Europeans.  The first European to penetrate the Orokaiva, however, was
  MacGregor in 1894.  Papua was politically annexed by Queensland in 1883;
  became a British protectorate in 1884 and a colony in 1888; and was
  established in 1906 as an Australian territory, which it still remains.  The
  Orokaiva were still relatively occupies nearly 50 scatered villages on the
  Opi and Kumusi Rivers.

Selection of Focus: The Aiga are chosen as the subtribe studied most
  intensively by Williams, though he visited all the other subtribes as well.

Time: The date of 1925 is chosen as that of the conclusion of the fourteen
  months of field work by Williams.

Coordinates: The Orokaiva as a whole extend from 8  to 9 S and from 147 45' to
  148 30'E.  The corrdinates of the Aiga subtribe are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 93 (GPM 5/11/69)

Sampling Province 112: Southern New Guinea.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 236: Kimam, Ie18: 1101.
  (Replacing the Keraki (Ie5: 257), which becomes an alternative.

Focus: The village of Bamol (7 30's, 138 30'E) in 1960.

General Area: The Kimam, who speak a Papuan language of the Kiwai family,
  inhabit Frederick Hendrik Island (now called Kolepom) in West Irian.  They
  are divided into three language groups: (1) Ndom in the west, (2) Riantana
  in the north, and (3) Kimaghama in the south, center, and east.  The village
  of Bamol, located in the northeast central part of the island, belong to the
  Kimaghama language group.  Frederik Hendrik Island was discovered by
  Carstensz in 1623 and was visited by several subsequent explorers.  It was
  first explored, however, in the early 1930's by Father Thieman, who
  established a mission in Kimam village in the east, and a government office
  was also established there a little later.  The island has a total
  population of about 7,000, distributed among about 30 villages.  Bamol
  village had 731 inhabitants in 1959.  Western New Guinea fell under Dutch
  rule in 1884, but its administration was assigned to Indonesia in 1963.

Selection of Focus: The village of Bamol was chosen as the chief site of the
  field work of Serpenti.

Time: The year 1960 was selected as that of the beginning of Serpenti's field

Coordinates: See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 94 (GPM 1/10/69)

Sampling Province 114: Northwestern New Guinea.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 238: Kapauku, Iel:57.

Focus: The Kapauku village of Botukebo in the Kamu Valley in 1955. The Kapauku
  tribe is located between 3 25' and 4 10'S and between 135 25' and 137 E, but
  the sources do not give the exact coordinates of the village of Botukebo.

General Area: The Kapauku, who speak a language of the Papuan phylum, are
  located in the Wissel Lakes region of the highlands of West Irian
  (Indonesian New Guinea).  They numbered about 45,000 in 1955.  Although the
  island of New Guinea was discovered in the early sixteenth century, where
  was little contact with Europeans until about 1884, when it was divided
  between Great Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands.  The administration of
  western or Dutch New Guinea wastransferred to Indonesia in 1963.  The
  highlands of the interior were not penetrated until nearly the middle of the
  twentieth century.  The Dutch first established an outpost at Paniai Lake in
  the Wissel Lakes region in 1938, but it was abandoned during World War II.
  In 1954, when Pospisil began his field world among the Kapauku, the tribe
  had not yet been brought under administrative control, and missionary
  penetration was minimal.  The village of Botukebo had a population of 181 in

Selection of Focus:  The village of Botukebo, in the Kamu Valley southwest of
  Lake Paniai, is selected as the site of Pospisil's most intensive field

Time: The date of 1955 is selected as that of Pospisil's first field trip, and
  is the date as of which he describes Kapauku culture.

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 95 (GPM 1/10/69)

Sampling Province 113: Northeastern New Guinea.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 241: Kwoma, Ie12: 655.

Focus: The small Jwina tribe as a whole, located at 4 10'S and 142 40'E, in

General Area: The Kwoma, who speak a language of the Papuan phylum, live just
  north of the Sepik River about 265 miles from its delta in the territory of
  New Guinea.  Their territory includes about 20 square miles, with a
  population of about 900 in 1937.  They are divided into four subtribes - the
  Hongwam, Koriasi, Tangwishamp, and Urumbanj (populations respectively
  374,116,300, and 108).  At the time of their study by Whiting they were
  unmissionized and relatively unacculturated.  New Guinea was discovered in
  the early 16th century, but was largely overlooked by Europeans until about
  1884, wheb it was divided among Great Britain (Papuan in the southeast),
  Netherlands (in the west), and Germany (in the northeast). German rule in
  the northeast lasted until British conquest in 1914.  Since 1920 the
  Territory of New Guinea has been administered under a mandate of the League
  of Nations (later the United Nations) by Australia

Selection of Focus: The tribes as a whole, being very small, will serve as the
  focus, but in cases of local differences the Hongwam subtribe will  be given

Time: The date of 1937 is selected as that of the conclusion of the field
  workof Whiting.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 96 (GPM 1/25/69)

Sampling Province 120: Admiralty and Western Islands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 253: Manus, Ig9:373.

Focus: The village of Peri, c.2 10'S and 147 10'E, in 1929.

General Area: The Manus, who speak a language of the Melanesian division of
  Malayo-Polynesian, inhabit the southern coast and off lying islands of
  Manus, the largest of the Admiralty Islands in the western part of the
  Bismarck Archipelago.  They are a mercantile and fishing people who contrast
  with the Usiai or principal population of the mainland fo Manus, and with
  the Matankor of the smaller surrounding islands.  The Admiralties were
  discovered by the Dutch navigator Willem Schouten in 1616 and named by
  Carteret in 1767.  They were held by Germany from 1885 to 1914, when they
  were occupied by the Australians  Since World War I they have formed part of
  the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea.  In World War II they were
  occupied by the Japanese in 1942.  In March 1944 the Japanese were ousted,
  and Manus became an important American military base.  In 1929 the Manus had
  a population of about 2,000 in eleven villages.  At the time of Mead's field
  work in 1928-29 the only one of these villages which was Christianized was

Selection of Focus: The village of Peri is selected as the site of Mead's
  field work in all three periods.

Time: The date of 1929 is selected as that of the first field trip by Mead and
  her then husband Reo Fortune.

Coordinates: The Manus as a whole are located between about 2  and 2 30'S and
  146 50' to 14740'E.  See above under Focus for the coordinates of the
  village of Peri.

Standard Sample Unit 97 (GPM 1/14/69)

Sampling Province 121: New Britain and New Ireland.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 254: Lesu, Ig4:163.

Focus: The village of Lesu in northeastern New Ireland, 2 30'S, 151 E, in

General Area: The island of New Ireland, in the Bismarck Archipelago of
  Melanesia, is divided into nine linguistically differentiated districts,
  of which one includes the five villages of Lesu, Ambwa, Langania, Libbe,
  and Tandis with a population of 1,200 in 1930.  Though discovered in 1615,
  it was largely ignored until the late nineteenth century, when Germany
  established a protectorate over the Bismarck Archipelago in 1884.  In 1920,
  after World War I, it became part of the Australian mandated Territory of
  New Guinea.  The first field work in the Lesu district was undertaken by
  Powdermaker in 1929-30.  The language is Malayo-Polynesian.

Time: The date of 1930 is selected as that of Powdermaker's field work.

Selection of Focus: The village of Lesu is selected as the site of
  Powermaker's field work, although she also visited the other four
  villages. of the district.

Coordinates: See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 98 (GPM 1/16/69 - proofed DRW 88)

Sample Province 122: Massim.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 256: Trobrianders, Ig2:62.

Focus: Kiriwina Island, 838'S, 1514'E, in 1914.

General Area: The Trobrianders, who speak a Malayo-Polynesian language,
  inhabit the Trobriand Islands in the Massim area of Melanesia about 95
  miles south of New Guinea.  The archipelago consists of the large central
  island of Kiriwina or Boyowa and of the smaller islands of Kitava to the
  east, Vokuta to the south, and Kaileuna to the west.  It was first
  discovered by Denis de Trobriand of the D'Entrecasteaux expedition but was
  undisturbed until 1880, when a British trading post was established there.
  It was annexed by Great British as a protectorate in 1884 and was visited by
  British administrators from 1900 on.  As part of the Territory of Papua it
  was transferred to Australia in 1905.  A medical officer was established on
  Kiriwina in 1907 to counteract the inroads of venereal disease contracted
  from traders.

Selection of Focus: The central island of Kiriwina is selected as the most

Time: The date of 1914 is chosen as that of the beginning of the field
  work by Malinowski, which covered a total period of two years in three
  periods from 1914 to 1920.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 99 (GPM 1/19/69)

Sample Province  123: Solomon Islands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 259: Siuai (motuna), Ig1:61.

Focus: The northeastern Siuai of southern Bougainville, 7 S, 155 20'E, in

General Area: The Siuai, who speak a language of the Papuan phylum, live in
  southwestern Bougainville Island in the Solomons.  They are most closely
  akin in language and culture to the Rugara or Terei tribe in Buin to the
  east and southeast, who are well described by Thurnwald and others.  Of
  the other peoples of Bougainville, some speak Papuan ad others Malayo-
  Polynesian languages.  Although the central and southern Solomon Islands
  were discovered by the Spaniard Mendana in 1568, the first European to
  visit Bougainville was the French navigator Bougainville in 1768.  Other
  early visitors to the region included Guppy in 1882 and Woodford in 1884,
  but their accounts deal, not with the Siuai, but with the Terei or the
  Nasioi in the hinterland of Kieta to the northeast.  The Germans
  established a protectorate over Bougainville in 1884, which was
  transferred to the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea after World
  War I.  The Germans established a Catholic mission at Kieta in 1902 and a
  government post at Kieta in 1905, but acculturation was minimal among the
  Siuai until the advent of the Australian administration  In 1938 the Siuai
  numbered 4,658, of whom 1,072 resided in the northeastern part of their
  territory studied by Oliver; the population of the entire island was about

Selection of Focus: Oliver worked most intensively among the northeastern
  Siuai, but the society is so small that regional differences are
  presumably slight.

Time: The date of 1939 is selected as that of the conclusion of Oliver's
  field work.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 100 (GPM 6/25/68)

Sample Province 124: Polynesian Outliers

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 273: Tikopia (Ii2:66)

Focus: The Island of Tikopia, 12 30'S 168 30'E, around 1930

General Area: Tikopia lies on the "Polynesian Ringe" in Melanesia, in the
  British Solomon Islands Protectorate.  Although the missions established
  churches there, and a portion of the population is Christia, the island
  was rarely visited by Europeans and had no white residents at the time of
  Firth's visits in 1929 and 1952.

Selection of Focus: This small island community of approximately 1,300
  people is described in numerous works by Firth.

Time: 1920 is selected as the date of Firth's first field trip (1929-30)

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above.  The island is about two and one-
  half miles in diameter, and atoll with an interior lagoon and  a highest
  elevation of 1200'.

Sample Province 125: vacated

Standard Sample Unit 101 (GPM 5/10/69)

Sample Province 126: New Hebrides and Banks Islands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 265: Pentecost, Ih3:164.

Focus: The village of Bunlap and neighboring intermarrying pagan villages
  in southeastern Pentecost Island (16 S, 168 E) in 1953.

General Area: Pentecost Island, whose inhabitants speak a language of the
  Melanesian subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian, is located in the eastern and
  north central region of the New Hebridges, which is an Anglo-French
  condominium.  Southeast Pentecost, on the eastern slope of the island from
  its southern tip to Barrier Bay 10 miles up the east coast, has a percent
  population of fewer than 500, having suffered heavy depopulation.  A Roman
  Catholic mission was established at Barrier Bay about 1919, and most of the
  natives are converts to either this church or to missions of the Church of
  Christ and Anglicans, but the focal group of four villages, with a
  population of about 200, are still pagans.

Selection of Focus: Bunlap and its neighboring pagan villages were chosen
  because of their relatively unacculturated state.

Time: The date of 1953 was selected as that of the Lanes' first period of
  field work.

Coordinates: See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 102 (GPM 2/19/68)

Sampling Province 128: Fiji

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 269: Mbau Fijians (not in

Focus: The chiefdom of Mbau, Mbau island just off the eastern end of Viti
  Levu, 178 35'E and 18 S, about 1840.

General Area: The Fijian language is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian
  family. There are three main population movements and subcoutures prior to
  European contact which should be distinguished:
   1. Older tribes who were largely pushed into the interior with the expansion
      of the later Nakauvadra peoples, now known as hill or mountaineer people.
   2. Nakauvadra people, whose occupancy of the Islands dates back between 3-
      400 years, and who trace migration outwards from the Kauvandra Mountains
      in northern Viti Levu, occupying nearly all coastal areas and adjacent
   3. Tongan immigrants, migrant carpenters or roving warriors, who settled
      in the Lauan islands and formed a minority in the chiefly centers around
      the two  main Islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Lavu (about 1800).
    At the time or first European contact there were seven large chiefdoms on
  the main Islands; Lakeba in the western Lau Islands, Bua on Vanua Levu, and
  Verata, Bau and Rewa in the southeastern corner of Viti Levu (the other two
  being Lau and Dama, presumably of lesser importance).   Rewa and Verata had
  been the largest powers in the mid-18th century, and Bau, originally located
  between them on the mainland, gradually grew and formed an alliance with
  Rewa.  About 1760 the fishermen of a tiny island called Mbau angered the war
  chief, and were deposed, with the result of resettlement of the chiefly
  capital at Mbau (hence the name of the chiefdom)  In the early 19th century
  the power of Verata was destroyed in war with Bau, and Bau expanded its
  territory.  By this time a few whites had joined the chiefly settlements,
  adding the power of musketry to traditional Fijian patterns.  The amity
  between Bau  and Rewa triumphed.  Thereafter, missionary activity and
  descriptions concentrate upon Bau.

Selection of Focus: Since the greatest amount of early material comes from
  the description of the dominant Bau chiefdom at a time when European
  influence had as yet been slight, the  focus on Bau seem far preferable to
  much later ethnographic descriptions of Lau, Moala, Moturiki, Vanua Levu,
  or other areas.  It should be noted that Mbau was first occupied by
  fishermen who resettled on the mainland in 1760, and that the focus in upon
  the chiefdom which moved to the island at that time.  The origin of these
  chiefly lineages was from Nakauvadra (group #2 above), representing the most
  numerous Fijian subculture.

Time: 1840 represents the earliest good European descriptions, and is just
  prior to the great Bau-Rewa war.

Coordinates: under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 103 (DRM )

Sample Province 127: New Caledonia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 268: Ajie, Ih4:263.

Focus: The petty chiefdom of Neje,(Meje), south of mouth of the Houailor
  River, comprised of the villages of  Neweo and Parawie, about 21 20'S and
  165 40'E, in 1845.

General Area: The Ajie are a language group of the Malayo-Polynesian family,
  heavily Australoid in physical makeup, and Melanesian in general cultural
  affiliations.  The language is spoken in a band about 40 miles wide cutting
  across New Caledonia at about the middle of the island.  Their population in
  1930 of 2,900 compares with a total Melanesian population of 42,500 (1963)
  for New Caledonia.  The aboriginal populations has been estimated at 70,000,
  but  by the time of the first census in 1887 (42,000 indigenes) the
  population had already been considerably reduced.  The petty chiefdom of
  Neje comprises but a tiny part of the total Ajie territory, confined to two
  villages and a population in 1930 of about 160 persons.
    Cook's party was established in 1843, paving the way for French annexation
  in 1853.  By 1877 the twin interests of the French administration in
  Houailou, in direct contact with the Ajie chiefdom of Neje, were in
  organized native labor for mining, and in the maintenance of penal colonies
  for exiles and criminals from France.  Colonists also produced crops for
  export with native labor, and even encouraged native revolts such as the
  uprising 1878 against administrative abuses, stepping in later to
  confiscate land.  The use of forced labor was not successful.
    Ajie chiefdoms were miniscule, but the early settlers and administration
  misinterpreted the marriage alliances of the Neje with Neowaw tribesman of
  Karagere village about 20 miles to the interior as an indication of their
  hegemony over the region, and the Neje became recognized by the Europeans as
  the regional chieftaincy.  They aligned themselves with the French in
  battles against rebel tribes, and did in fact extend their dominance over
  the  area.  Much of their territory retained the status as tribal reserves
  under the French, but as the direct power of the administration grew, the
  role of the Neje declined.  At the height of their power, about 1900, the
  Neje chief, called Meje, was converted to Catholicism.  Presently Neweo,
  home of the chielfy lineage, is divided between Catholic and Protestant;
  Parawie, on the coast, is completely Protestant.

Selection of Focus: Leenhardt's description, stemming from his missionary
  work during the 1920's at the Ajie village of Neajie, about 5 miles from the
  mouth of the Houailou River, pertains primarily to the Neje chiefdom.
  Another key informant was from the Meyikweo tribe close to the mission, but
  he generally does not specify locality.  Guiart, who worked closely with
  Leenhardt during 1947-48, clarifies the places of reference of Leenhardt's
  work, and provides a careful reconstruction of the pre-European political
  situation, in which there was no regional chiefdom of the sort that
  developed under colonialism.

Time: 1845 is a reconstruction date prior to European influence which is 75
  years earlier than Leenhardt's field work, and  a century earlier than
  Guiart's visit, so great care must be taken in the inferring the aboriginal

Coordinates: The coordinates above pinpoint the Neje territory, which is
  scarcely more than a square mile containing both villages.

Standard Sample Unit 104 (DRW 1/24/68)

Sample Province 130: Southern Polynesia

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 275: Maori, Ij2:167.

Focus: the Maori tribe of Nga Puhi on the northern Isthmus of Auckland
  especially around the Bay of Islands, from 174  to 174 20'E and 35 10' to
  35 30'S, around 1800.

General Area: The Maori speak a Malayo-Polynesian tongue nearly identical
  with Tahitian.  There may be some Melanesian admixture, but the population
  is Polynesian in stock, stemming from scattered early landings of fishermen
  in the 11th and twelve centuries followed by intentional immigration of the
  "great fleet" about 1350, in which the Yam, taro, a variety of sweet potato,
  and the dog were also transplanted to New Zealand.  Forty or fifty main
  tribes trade descent to one of 10 of the great canoes; the Nga Puhi as
  associated with the Mamari canoe along with the other two tribes of the
  Auckland peninsula, but relations between the tribes, as in most other
  cases, are hostile, and warfare was a dominant motif.  The Peninsula and
  other areas of the upper part of the North Island were the most fertile,
  with elaborate fortifications (pa) around which undefended villages are
    The first extensive European contact was with Captain Cook in 1769, who
  rounded the east coast, and found the Bay of Islands to be the most
  receptive port of call. Heavy European settlement in Auckland was far to
  the south on the peninsula, but numerous traders, missionaries and others
  settled among the Nga Uphi at the Bay of Islands even while they were
  still economically and politically autonomous prior to 1840, the signing
  of the Treaty of Waitangi, which ceded their sovereignty and rights to
  land.  The King movement among the hostile Waikato tribes to the south of
  Auckland was mirrored by the land retention movement among the Nga Puhi in
  the north, but rebellions in both areas (Chief Heke of the Nga Puhi in the
  north in 1845; the Maori wars of 1860-62) were put down.

Selection of Focus: The Nga Puhi focus, representing the most repuent point
  of contact with the Maoris, beginning in 1769 with Captain Cook, requires
  careful handling of the early sources.  A few missionaries settled at the
  Bay of Islands in 1814, but their accounts have been excluded because they
  contain little reliable information on the Nga Puhi.  A few non-missionaries
  settled or visited after 1820, which leaves only three good descriptions,
  those of Cruise, Clarke, and Earle, prior to 1830, when European settlement
  began to severely disrupt Maori life.  Problems of extensive acculturation
  must be taken into account in post-1830 sources.  The Nga Puhi were
  resilient to the Europeans and continued to make war on other Maori tribes,
  pushing as far as the East Coast with the aid of firearms; but they were
  also promoters of change, and backed the treaty of Waitange in 1840 with the
  Europeans, later leading in a land retention  movement.  Of the later
  sources, Hawthorn describes a Nga Puhi village  formed after 1850 under
  European land pressure; it must be used with caution.  Vayda's
  reconstruction of the 1800 period pattern of warfare is extremely valuable,
  but specialized.  E. Best is the primary later authority on the Maori in
  general, and can be supplement by Buck and Firth, but none of these is
  pinpointed to any specific group.

Time: 1800 represents the mid-point between the contact with Cook and the
  observations made after settlement by Europeans in 1814 in the Bay of

Coordinates: In addition to the coordinates for the Bay of Islands area,
  listed above, the Nga Puhi are distributed from 35  to 36 S, between 174 E
  and the coast.

Standard Sample Unit 105 (DRW 2/26/69)

Sample Province 131: Eastern Polynesians

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 276: Marquesans, Ij3:168.

Focus: The Te-i'i chiefdom of Hakaui Valley, southwest Nuku Hiva Island,
  from 140 08' to 140 12'W and 8 54' to 8 58'S, about 1800.

General Area: The Marquesans, with a language of the Malayo-Polynesian
  family were apparently one of the earliest dispersal points of the Eastern
  Polynesian of Maori cluster  which includes Tahiti, New Zealand, Hawaii,
  Mangareva, and Easter Island.  The Marquesans were apparently settled about
  700 B.C. from Tonga, or perhaps the Samoa-Fiji area.  Nuku Hiva was the
  first of the Marquesan islands to be settled, and dispersal to Maori,
  Hawaii, etc. probably took place from there.  Of the nine islands in the
  Marquesas group, six (those with valleys) are inhabited.  Those in the
  southeast (Hiva ca, Tahu Ata, Fatu Hiva) differ in dialect, greater extent
  of warfare, and greater social stratification from the northwestern group
  (Ua Pou, Ua Huka, Nuku Hiva), with the exception of the eastern (Taipi,
  Haapa tribes) end of Nuku Hiva who are dialectically similar to the
  southeastern groups, and more warlike and cannibalistic.  The southeastern
  islands were also the area of greatest population concentration in spite of
  lower fertility; they probably represent a later migration to the Marquesas
  than the more peaceful northwestern group.  On Nuku Hiva and the
  southeastern islands, rival chiefdoms fought pitched battles, but there were
  few inter-island wars.  Eighty per cent of the chiefdoms (all islands,
  totaling about 60), were restricted to a single valley; only 4 chiefdoms
  recorded ever grew to control more than one valley.  Depopulation was more
  rapid in the southeastern group after European contact in the 19th century,
  as shown below: Northwestern Group (population 21,000 in 1798, 12,000 in
   1. Ua Pou, population (1798) of 3,000, dropped to 2,000 by 1842.
   2. Nuku Hiva, population (1798) of 15,000, dropped to 8,000 in 1842, 5,000
      in 1848, 980 in 1890.  On the eastern half of the island, an alliance
      bloc between the Haapa, Taipi and other tribes.  On the western half
      Te-i'i is the dominant tribe; the Taiohae Valley tribe just to their
      east were destroyed by famine and Haapa predations in 1807, and Te-i'i
      later took over that territory.
   3. Ua-Huka, population (1798) of 3,000 dropped to 2,000 by 1842.
   Southeastern Group  (population 49,000 in 1798, about 10,000 in 1842)
   4. Hiva Oa, population30,000 (1798), dropped to 6,000 in 1848.
   5. Tahu ata, population 3,000 (1798), dropped to 700 in 1842.
   6. Fatu-Hiva, population 16,000 (1798), dropped to 1,500 in 1842.
    First western contact was with the Spanish (Quirosj) in 1595, but the
  voyage of Cook (1774) provides the first extensive description.  Killing,
  disease, and abduction for maritime labor were the major external causes of
  the rapid depopulation of the islands (although there were internal factors
  as well) which reached its low point in 1929 at about 2,000  and has since
  climbed slowly.  Early missions, the first in 1798, accounts but did not
  stay long, being rather overwhelmed with the native generosity and sharing
  of sex and property.  Not until the French military occupation of 1842-59
  did missions take hold.   As early as 1820-30, however, acculturation had
  been extensive from contact and trade with ships.

Selection of Focus: The Hakaui Valley, Te-i'i chiefdom on southern Unku
  Hiva was the area visited by nearly all the early authorities prior to
  1842, when Melville went to live with the reputed cannibals of Taipi at the
  eastern end of the island. Linton also worked in Taipi Valley; Handy on the
  island of Hiva Oa.  the Te-i'i tribe is clearly the best and earliest

Time: 1800 corresponds to the early accounts by Fleurieu (1791), Crook
  (1797-99), Langsdorff (1804), and Lisiansky (1804), preceded by Forster
  (1777), and succeeded by Porter (1813), Gillis (1825), and Steward (1829),
  all dependable sources prior to acculturation.

Coordinates: See under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 106 (DRW 2/25/69)

Sample Province 129: Western Polynesia

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 274: Western Samoans.  (Note
  the change in focus from American Samoa in the Atlas, Iil:65).

Focus: the Kingdom of Aana, western part of Upolu Island, from 171 54' to
  172 03'W, and 13 48' to 14 S, about 1828.

General Area: Samoans speak a Polynesian dialect of the Malayo-Polynesian
  linguistic family, and are physically of Polynesian stock.  Striking
  cultural similarities to the Tongans were reinforced by a successful Tongan
  invasion of Savaii within recent centuries, although the attack was
  repulsed on Upolu.  Ruling families fo Savaii are mostly of external
  origin (Tonga or Upolu), and villages are organized into six districts
  with a chief in each head village, but power is balanced between local-
  origin and external-origin groups through the district fono or assembly,
  in which the principal orators are of the local lineages.  On Upolu ruling
  families, village clusters, and the fono share power over the section of a
  king.  The three kingdoms of Upolu, from west to east, are: Aana, with
  greatest centralization, Sangana or Tuamasaga, somewhat decentralized with
  major blocs in inter-village districts, and Atua, the most decentralized
  with the capital geographically marginal to the three major blocs of
  village districts.  This picture is matched in mythology, where the three
  kingdoms were founded upon liffering emphases: war in Aana, oratory in
  Sangana, and agriculture in Atua.  Traditionally, Aana were the dominant
  power in Western Samoa and Tutuila, with the greatest maritime canoe fleet, an
  alliance with the Muangututia, one of three great ruling families, and
  territorial alliances with the district of Faaotafe in southern Savaii, and
  Atua in eastern Upolu.  Often the titles to kingship in each of the three
  upolu kingdoms and in Savaii were controlled in the single person of an Aana
  king.  The last such king (O le Tupu) was killed in 1829, followed by war in
  which Sangana and its allies on Savaii were able to break the power of Aana.
  From 1830-41 the royal titles were in the hands of the other great ruling
  family, the Malietoa, who take their name from Malie, old capital of
  Sangana, but who settled in Savaii and dominanted much of that island.  The
  capital of Sangana, however, was later shifted to Afega.
    The first white settlement was a mission established in 1830 on Upolu,
  followed by other missions on both islands, the influx of traders, and
  government representative of Britain, the U.S., and Germany, with rival
  claims.  In 1900 a partition was made giving Western Samoa (Savaii and
  Upolu) to German, and the smaller eastern islands of Tutuila and the Manua
  Islands.  After WWI, New Zealand took over the German sector.

Selection of Focus: Kramer and Buck cover all the islands comprehensively,
  Bulow writes on Savaii, Stair on Upolu (Aana), Turner on Savaii and Upolu,
  Mead and others on Manua and American Samoa, so the choice of the Aana
  kingdom of Upolu is in terms of: a) most complete early descriptions
  (which narrows down to Western Samoa); b) choice of the most distinct
  Samoas culture not influenced by the Tongans (which eliminates Savaii);
  and c) the best described local area, for which Stair's work gives the
  greatest specificity within the three Upolu kingdoms.  Aana is also the
  most politically centralized of the three Upolu kingdoms. all of which are
  of much greater political complexity than Savaii.  Stair resided at the Aana
  capital village of Leulumoega.

Time: 1828 is selected as just prior to the beginning of Stair's missionary
  work (1838-45), Turner's missionary work (1840-ca. 1880), and before the
  defeat of Aana at the hands of Sangana and the beginning of intensive
  European contact.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 107 (DRW 12/24/68)

Sampling Province 119: Gilbert Islands

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 251: Makin, If14:634.

Focus: Gilbertese of Butaritari and Makin Islands, 172 20'E and 3 30'N, about

General Area: The Gilbertese are Micronesians, and their language a member of
  the Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family.  There are 16 Gilbert Islands, from
  north to south: Butaritari (Makin), Makin(Little Makin), Marakei, Abaiang,
  Tarawa, Maiana, Abemama(Apamama), Aranuka, Kuria, Nonouti, Tabiteuea,
  Onotoa, Beru, Nikunau, Tamana, and Arorae.  Of the Islands that have been
  studied, there are apparently important differences between the Northern
  Gilbertese of Butaritari and Makin, and the Southern Gilbertese of Onotoa
  and Beru (the latter have been studied by Goodenoug, Maude and Maude,
  Townsend, and Lundsgaarde).  All of the islands are low-lying coral seldom
  rising above 12 feet, with reef, atoll, or lagoon formations and coverage of
  coconut palms and pandanus.  Butaritari is a a true atoll, supporting eight
  villages, one being the residence of the high chief reigning over both
  islands.  Makin, two miles to the northwest, consists of five small islets
  and two villages.  The total population in 1960 was about 3,400, and was
  rapidly expanding.
    Probably sighted by the Spanish in the 16th century, and discovered by
  British shipmasters in the 18th, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands became a
  protectorate of Great Britain in 1892, and annexed at the request of the
  native governments as a colony in 1915.  The Japanese took the gilberts in
  19451 and were expelled in 1943.  The end of succession wars over local
  chiefdoms was brought about by the Colonial administration, as well as
  repartition of land rights, which took away the basis of social
  stratification in the traditional society.   The traditional picture should
  therefore be reconstructed for about 1890.

Selection of Focus: Butaritari and Makin islands are described and treated as
  a  single society and cultural system (as well as political) by Bernard

Time: 1890 is the date of Lambert's reconstruction of the traditional society.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, pertain to the island cluster.

Standard Sample Unit 108 (GPM 1/18/69)

Sampling Province 118: Marshall Islands and Nauru.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 250: Marshallese, If3:160.

Focus: The atoll of Jaluit, located at 6 N, 16530'E, about 1900.

General Area: The Marshallese, who speak a language of the Carolinian or
  Micronesian branch of Malayo-Polynesian, inhabit the Marshal Islands.  This
  archipelago, which has a total land surface of 74 square miles (about 5% of
  that of the state of Rhode Island), is composed of two parallel chains of
  coral atolls and low coral islands about 130 miles apart, extending in a NW-
  SE direction.  The component atolls and island (the latter marked by
  asterisks) are listed below, from NE to SE: the Ralik or western chain:
  Eniwetok, Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Wotho, Ujeland, Kwajelein,
  Ujae, Lae, *Lib, Namu, *Jabwot, Ailinlapalap, Jaluit, *Kili, Namorik and
  Ebon. The Ratak or eastern chain: Pokaakku, Bikar, Utirik, Taka, Ailuk,
  *Mejit, *Jemo, Likiep, Wotje, Erikub, Maloelap, Aur, Majuro, Arno, Mille and
  Knox.  On the average, adjacent atolls or islands are separated by about 50
  iles.  The marshalls were first sighted by the Spaniard Loyasain 1526, and
  during the next 40 yearswere briefly visited by other Spanishnavigators:
  Saavedra (1529), Villalobos (1542), Legaspi, Arellano, and martin in 1564,
  Pericon and Martin in 1566, and Mendana in 1567.  Thereafter they were lost
  to the western world for two centuries until visited briefly by Byron (1765,
  Wallis and Carteret (1767), Gilbert and marshall (1788), Bond (1792), Dennet
  (1797), and Patternson, the discoverer of Jaluit, in 1809.  The first
  extended contact with Europeans came in 1816, when the islands were
  systematically explored by the Russian Kotzebue (in the case of Jaluit by
  Duperyin 1824).  Sporadic trade and visits by whalers, not infrequently
  marked by hostile contacts, began after Kotzebue, and the Germans began to
  develop the copra trade intensively after 1860.  Germany established a
  protectorate over the Marshalls in 1885 and made Jaluit their capital in
  1887.  German administration was succeeded by Japanese (1914-1945), and this
  by American in 1945 as part of the mandated Trust Territory of the Pacific.
  The Boston Mission (Congregational) established a temporary station on Ebon
  in 1857, and between 1874 and 1896 established 2 preaching stations with
  native catechists.  After the Rjoman Catholics established a full-fledged
  mission on Jaluit in 1899, the Protestants did likewise in 1906.  From 1874
  to the coming of the Americans in 1945, the population fluctuated narrowly
  around 10,000; in 1936 the population of Jaluit atoll was just under 700.

Selection of Focus: The atoll of Jaluit is chosen as the center of operations
  of Erdland and most other early ethnographers.  Recent American research has
  been most intensive on Majuro (Spoehr), Bikini (Mason), and Arno.

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as approximately that of the field work by
  Erdland and as a mean date for most of the other field work of the early

Coordinates: The Marshall Islands extend from 4 30' to 14 45'N and from 160
  50' to 172 10'E.  The coordinates for Jaluit are given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 109 (GPM 1/17/69 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 117: Central and Eastern Carolines.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 247: Trukese, If2:60.

Focus: The island of Romonum (Ulalu), at 724'N and 15540'E, in 1947.

General Area: The Trukese, who speak a Malayo-Polynesian language of the
  Carolinian or Micronesian branch, occupy the complex atoll of Truk in the
  central Carolines.  The atoll is roughly circular in shape with a diameter
  of 30 to 40 miles.  It includes 100 named islands with a total land surface
  of nearly 50 square miles.  Of these, about 17 are inhabited - mainly
  volcanic islands in the center of the atoll lagoon, but including one flat
  coral island (Pis) on the peripheral fringing reef.  The island of Romonum
  has a land area of three-eights of a square mile, an elevation of 167 feet
  at its highest point, and a population of about 235 (in 1947).  Truk as a
  whole had, in 1935, a native population of 10,344 plus 2,000 Japanese
  (subsequently repatriated to Japan).  Truk was discovered by Arellano in
  1565 and was later visited by Legaspi (1569), Dublon (1838), and numerous
  whalers of American and other nationalities from the 1830's to the 1860's.
  The island was under Spanish rule from 1886 to 1899, under German rule from
  1899 to 1914, under Japanese rule from 1914 to 1945, and after 1945 under
  American trusteeship.  Before European contact Truk was a center of an
  active indigenous inter-island trade.  The first mission contact was by the
  Boston Mission (Congregational) in 1879, but after 1910 German Lutherans
  were in charge of Protestant prosetylization.  Catholic missionaries arrived
  in 1912.  Today about half the Trukese are nominal Protestants and half
  nominal Catholics (in Romonum the latter predominate about three to one).

Selection of Focus: The island of Romonum is chosen as the site of the most
  intensive modern field research.

Time: The date of 1947 is selected as that of the Yale CIMA expedition to Truk
  (Murdock, Dyen, Gladwin, Goodenough, and LeBar).  For some purposes it may
  prove useful to choose an earlier date (such as 1910) on the basis of the
  work of Krmer, Bllig, and Matsumura.

Coordinates: The atoll of Truk as a whole is located between 77' and 741'N
  and between 15125' and 152E.  The coordinates for Romonum Island are given
  above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 110 (GPM 1/17/69)

Sampling Province 116: Yap.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 245: Yapese, If6:260.

Focus: The island of Yap as a whole, at 9 30'n and 138 10'e, in 1910.

General Area: The Yapese inhabit the high island of Yap in the western
  Caroline Islands.  Their language, though Malayo-Polynesian, is not closely
  related to other Carolinian languages nor indeed to others outside of the
  Carolines.  The island, which is 83 square miles in area, was sighted by the
  Portuguese Diego da Rocha in 1526, briefly visited by the Spaniards Saavdra
  in 1528 and Villalobos in 1543, and was rediscovered by Lazeano in 1686.  It
  was little known until described by Cheyne, Kubary, O'Keefe, and Tetens in
  the late 19th century.  In 1886, by an agreement between the British,
  Germans, and Spaniards, the sovereignty of Spain was reaffirmed, and the
  Spaniards opened a government administrative office and a Capuchin mission.
  Spain sold Yap with its other Micronesian colonies to Germany in 1899, Yap
  becoming the headquarters of German Michronesia.  The island was captured by
  Japan in 1914 and was governed by them under a mandate from the the League
  of Nations until 1945, when it was occupied by the United States, becoming
  part of the latter's Trust Territory of the Pacific.  In 1935 there were
  3,713 natives, 392 Japanese, all 11 foreigners in Yap. The native population
  had undergone serious depopulation pregressively, checked only very

Selection of Focus: The sources do not indicate any notable regional
  differences in culture within Yap, although social class differences are

Time: The date of 1910 is selected as that of Muller's definitive field

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 111 (GPM 1/12/69)

Sampling Province 115: Palau and Marianas.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 244: Palauans (Pelew Islanders),

Focus: The village of Uliman, Ngarard District, northern Babelthuap
  (Babeldoab) Island, located at about 7 30'N, 134 35'E, in 1947.

General Area:  The Palauans, who speak a Malayo-polynesian language of the
  western or Hesperonesian branch (more closely akin to the languages of
  Celebes and the Philippines to the west than to those of the Caroline
  Islands to the east),  inhabit the Palau or Pelew Islands in western
  Michronesia.  The Palau archipelago embraces eight large islands (from N to
  S Babelthuap, Arakabesan, Koror, Aurapushekaru, Malakal, Urukthapel, Eik
  malk, and Peleliu), eighteen lesser islands, and numverous islets, exclusive
  of the detached island of Angaur to the south and atoll of Kayengel to the
  north.  The land surface of the archipelago is 171 square miles, of which
  Babelthuap, the largest island, accounts for 143.  Palau was discovered by
  the Spaniard Villalobos in 1543 and rediscovered b Padilla in 1710.  It was
  tacitly recognized as subject to Spain from the beginning, although between
  1783 and 1797 a series of British visitors - Henry Wilson in 1783, McCluer
  in 1790 and 1794, and James Wilson in 1797--attempted to establish British
  sovereignty.  After 1800 it was frequented by Spanish traders seeking
  trepang and by various traders of other natioinalities, notably the
  Britisher Cheyne (1843-67) and the Irishman O'Keefe (1872-80).  The Germans
  established a trading station in the 1870's.  In 1886, the conflicting
  claims of Spain, Great Britain, and Germany were settled by a treaty, which
  recognized Spanish Sovereignty.  At this time Spanish administrators and a
  Spanish Catholic mission were established, but Spanish influence still
  remained tenuous.  After the Spanish-American War, 1899, Spain sold Palau
  and its other Micronesian territories to Germany, which established its
  administrative headquarters to Palau on Koror Island and began to develop
  the islands economically.   Spanish Capuchin missionaries were reolaced by
  German Capuchins in 1902-08, and these again by the Spanish Capuchins in
  1921.  Japan seized Palau and the rest of German Micronesia byarms in 1914,
  and retained them until 1945, when the United States took over the areas as
  the Trust Territory of the Pacific.  Under the Japanese Koror became a
  mercantile and administrative center, and Japanese immigration gradually
  came to outnumber the natives.  In 1935 the population of Palau included
  5,327 natives (3,380 of them on Babelthuap) and 7,465 Japanese (mainly on
  Koror).  In 1956, the Japanese had withdrawn, and the population of Palau
  had risen to 7,783 (700in the Ngarard district of northern Babelthuap)
  exclusive of a now relatively insignificant number of aliens.

Selection of Focus: The village of Ulimang is selected as the site of the nine
  months of field work by Barnett and because it is relatively remote from
  Koror, the entering point of German, Japanese, and American influences.

Time: The date of 1947 is selected as that of Barnett's field work and as the
  ethnograpphic present for his descriptive date.  Possibly a much earlier
  date and focus may ultimately be substituted on the basis of the early
  sources - perhaps even as early as 1783 on the basis of Keate's description
  based on the reports of Captain Henry Wilson and his shipwrecked crew.

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 112 (DRW 1/11/69)

Sampling Province 99:  Philippines

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 209: Ifugao, Ia3:150 (Ifugaw).

Focus: Kiangan and Central Ifugao of the Upper Ibulaw River valley, from 121
  5' to 121 12'E and 16 45' to 16 52'N, about 1910.

General Area: The Ifugao are one of related peoples of Northern Luzon speaking
  languages of the Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family.  They apparently only
  entered the mountainous region of central Luzon in the last 4-500 years,
  which is all the more remarkable because of the extensive wet rice terracing
  that has been built up in all of western Ifugaoland.  Barton feels they came
  from the west, however, while Keesing and Lambrecht feel they came from the
  east up the Cagyan valley and Magat River.  Within the easter, or wet-rice
  area, there are six main territorial-dialect groups, listed below, and a
  small number of Ifugao speakers of another language (tentatively called
  Lagawej) more closely related to the Isinay lowland Filipinos to the east
  (this group is not listed below):
   1. Kiangan dialect, after the capital town just south of the central area.
   2. Central Ifugao dialect, in the upper Ibulaw River, including the town of
   3. Hungduan-Hapo dialect, in  the west.
   4. Banawe dialect, in the northwest.
   5. Kambulo-Ayangan dialect, in the north.
   6. Mayawyaw dialect, in the northeast. The total population of the Ifugao,
  including these six areas, the eastern foothills dry-rice area, and the
  southwest Lagawe language area, was given  by Barton as 129,380 for 1937.

Selection of Focus: Barton was a Supervising Teacher at Ayangan from 1908-14
  and returned to Ligauwe, Central Ifugao for six months in 1941 to study the
  Hudhud, of Ifugao epic literature (he also visited Bityu, apparently in the
  Banawe area, priest of Banawe from 1931-41, but his main studies (1929,
  1960, 1967) concern the Central and Kiangan areas which are the focus of the
  Hudhud epics.  Villaverde also describes the Ifugao of Kiangan, circe 1905.

Time:  1910 corresponds to Barton's field work.

Coordinates;  Those under Focus, above, specify the Central and Kiangan areas.

Standard Sample Unit 113 (DRW 12/11/68)

Sampling Province 98: Formosa

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 208: Atayal, Ial:51.

Focus: The Atayal of northern Formosa, from 120 20' to 120 50'E and 23 50' to
  24 50'N, about 1930.

General Area:  The Atayal speak a language of the Malayo-polynesian linguistic
  family, and occupy the north central mountainous terrain of Formosa.  The
  western and northern coasts of Formosa have been overrun by Chinese
  immigrants, and other aboriginal groups such as the Ami and Puyama in the
  south have adopted irrigated rice from the Chinese in the 19th century.  The
  Atayal and Sedeq, just to the southeast, show a very close resemblance, and
  their combined numbers in the 1931 census to totaled 33,000.  Atayal have
  apparently expanded from their homeland in the southwest of their present
  territory into a 3,000 square mile area, which is that of nearly all the
  other surviving twelve Formosa tribes altogether.  The agricultural
  techniques, depending on cereals (millet and dry rice) and tubers, have
  recently changed with the introduction of wet rice on the lower mountain
  slopes and foothills. Within the Atayal, there are two sub-groups: the
  Seqoleq and the Tseiole.

Selection of Focus: The Atayal proper (excluding the Sedeq) are chosen focus.
  Coders will have to decide from Okada (not available to the pinpointer)
  whether specification of a sub-groups: the Seqoleq and the Tseole.

Time: 1930 is chosen as a date when aboriginal culture was relatively intact;
  coders should indicate the presence or effects of wet-rice agriculture if
  mentioned in the source.

Coordinates: Those under focus, above, indicate the extent of Atayal