Standard Sample Unit 66 (DRW 12/12/68)

Sampling Province 82: Mongols

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 149: Khalka Mongols, Eb3:135.

Focus: Khalka temple territory of Narobanchin, Sain noin aimak (tribe), Outer
  Mongolia, from 95 10' to 97 E and 47  to 47 20'N, about 1920.

General Area: The Khalka form a separate language group within the Mongolic
  subfamily of the Altaic linguistic family.  Historically, they have been one
  of the more independent Mongol groups, since they were marginal to the
  Manchu empire which overran China in the seventeenth century.  Other Mongol
  groups came under direct Manchu administration (Chahar and Barga; Dagor had
  previously become bassals to the Manchus) or were organized into Leagues
  which regulated inter-tribal relations (Jerim, Josoto, and Jo-oda in
  Manchuria' Siligol in Inter Monglia).  The Khalka, occupying practically all
  of Outer Mongolia, retained a political structure based on smaller tribal
  units called aimak, and subtribal followings around a prince or noble
  family, called hoshio or Banners (these are quite distinct from the regional
  Banners of the Manchu).  The Khalka are also among the post pastoral of the
  remaining Mongol groups.  They originally formed one aimak, but with the
  fission which typified earlier tribal organization, they split up into four
  separate aimak:
   1. Jassakhtu (Jasakto) Khan Aimak, in the northwest, including 19
      Banner groups, and numbering 70,000 persons (census of 1918).
   2. Sain Noin (Noyan) Khan Aimak, in westcentral Outer Mongolia,
      including 24 Banner groups, numbering 134,000 people, and 8 temple
      territories with 70,000 inhabitants.
   3. Tushetu (Yosiyato) Khan Aimak, in east central Outer Mongolia,
      including 20 Banner groups, and numbering 100,000 people.
   4. Tsetsen (Sechin) Khan Aimak, in the far east bordering on
      Manchuria, including 23 Banner groups and 102,000 people.
    Buddhist ecclesiatical groups originated in the seventeenth century, and
  in addition to the temple territories mentioned above, there was a major
  concentration in a special ecclesiatical department of 16,000 inhabitants in
  the Territory of the Living Buddha in the Koso Gol region (102 E, 50 N) just
  north of regions 1 and 2.  The only other major tribal group in Outer
  Mongolia was the Durbet (39,000), clustered in the far northwestern corner
  around Kobdo; this tribe originated from the Olot Mongol group to the west
  in Chinese Turkestan.  Other fragmented groups, numbering about 10,000, also
  inhabited the northwest Altai and Kobdo region.  Khalka Mongols thus formed
  the overwhelming bulk of the population: 492,000 out of a total  542,000.
     Early in the eighteenth century the Manchus commissioned a demarcation
  survey to revamped into an elaborate hierarchical structure; codes and an
  administrative structure based on the Aimak units were set up. The overthrow
  of the Manchus in China in 1912 coincided with the founding of the
  Autonomous Norther Mongolia nation (1911-1919).  Whenbn the Tsarist Russian
  allies were deposed, the Chinese temporarily held the country, but in 1920
  the White Russians entered, followed by the fromation of Mongolian People's
  party, back by the Soviets.   The Mongolians People's Republic was
  established in 1924.

Selection of Focus: The group of Khalka Mongols described by Vreoland's
  informant was part of Jassakhtu (#1) Aimak in the seventeenth century, but
  switched to Sain Noin (#2) with the emergence of their religious leader.

Time: 1920 is the approximate time for Vreeland's reconstruction from a single
  informant, as gathered in 1950-52.  Politically, this corresponds roughly to
  the period of the Autonomous Northern Mongolia nation.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, indicate the territory of Narobanchin.

Standard Sample Unit 67 (GPM 10/24/68)

Sampling Province 84: Southwest China.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 167: Lolo (I or Yi, I-chia, Man-
  tzu, Neissu, Ngosu, Nosu),  Ed2:40.

Focus: The Independent Lolo or Nosu of Liang Shan and the Taliang Shan (Cold
  Mountains) of Szechwan province, 26  to 29 N and 103  to 104 E, about 1910.

General Area: The term Lolo in the broadest sense is used for the speakers of
  a distinct branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages, including the Akha, Lisu,
  and Lahu as well as the Lolo proper, who inhabit the mountainous regions of
  Yunnan province and extending north into southwestern Szechwan, east into
  western Kweichow, and south into northern Vietnam.  The Nosu or Independent
  Lolo are indigenous to the Taliang Shan (Cold Mountains), where they
  remained relatively independent of Chinese control until about 1900.
  Although well relatively independent of Chinese control until about 1900.
  Although well known to the Chinese for about 2,000 years, they were first
  encountered by Europeans about 1900 and attracted attention because of the
  Caucasoid appearance of their ruling class, (the Black Lolo), their horses
  and emphasis on herding, their felt clothing, their pictographic script, and
  their practice of creation.  Estimates of the total Lolo population range
  from one to three millions.  Those of the Liang Shan region were reported by
  Lin in 1961 to number about 200,000, but are reported by  recent Communist
  sources to number closer to 500,000.  About 90 percent are White Lolo
  (commoners or serfs) and slaves, and about 10 percent are the landowning
  Black Lolo or dominant aristorcracy. Outside of the focal area, the Lolo
  have undergone strong acculturation to the Han Chinese.

Selection of Focus: The Nosu or Independent Lolo are chosen because they are
  well described and have been least acculturated tot he Han Chinese.

Time: The date of 1910 is selected approximately that of the earliest
  satisfactory description, by D'Ollone, which Le Bar et al consider
  preferable to the work of Lin, done in the early 1940's.

Coordinates: Those of the Independent Lolo or Nosu are given above under
  Focus.  Other Lolo  groups extend westward to about 100 E and eastward to
  about 106 S, as well as a considerable distance farther south.

Standard Sample Unit 68 (GPM rev. from HTT 10/25/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 85: Tibet.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 171: Lepcha (Meri, Mon, Rong),

Focus: The Lepcha of Lingthem and surrounding villages of the Zongu reserve in
  the state of Sikkim, c. 27-28N and 89E, in 1937.

General Area: The Lepcha, who are Mongoloid in physique and speak a Tibeto-
  Burman language, inhabit the independent state of Sikkim and the Darjeeling
  district of India. They numbered about 26,000 in 1931, of whom about 2,000
  lived in the Lingthem district of Sikkim. In the eighteenth century Sikkim
  was a province of Tibet, since which time they have been subordinate to the
  dominant Bhotia or Sikkimese, who numbered 110,000 in 1931. Under the
  British protectorate in the nineteenth century, with the accompanying
  abolition of slavery, the Lepcha have acquired security. Historically,
  Sikkim has been a buffer state between Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan.

Selection of Focus: The Lingthem are selected on the basis of the field work
  of Gorer and Morris.

Time: The date of 1937 is chosen as that of the field work of Gorer and

Coordinates: Those given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 69 (GPM 10/24/68)

Sampling Province 86: Garo-Khasi.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 189: Garo, Ei1:47.

Focus: The Garo of the intermarrying villages of Rengsangri, Songmagri,
  Misimagri, and Asonanggrti, located about 26 N and 91 E, in 1955.

General Area: The Garo, who speak a Tibeto-Burman language, are the principal
  inhabitants of the Garo Hill District of Assam in northeastern India.  They
  are culturally close to their neighbors to the east, the Khasi, who speak,
  however, a Mon-Khmer language.  The total population of the Garo Hills was
  about 242,000 in 1950, of whom 190,000 were Garo.  About 90,000 other Garo
  live outside of the district in other parts of Assam and in adjacent East

Selection of Focus: The particular group of villages was chosen because of the
  high quality of the ethnographic work of Burling, and of that associated
  with the Abeng group.

Time: The date of 1955 was selected as midway in the field work of Burling.

Coordinates: Those of the focal group of villages are given above under Focus;
  the other villages are located within a radius of 20 or 30 miles from

Standard Sample Unit 70 (GPM 10/26/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 88: Kuki-Chin.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 188: Lakher (Magha, Mara,
  Shendu), Ei4:147.

Focus: The Lakher as a whole, since they are a small tribe, as of 1930. They
  are centered at about 2220'N and 93E.

General Area: The Lakher are one of 44 named groups of Kuki-Chin peoples in
  southern Assam, western Burma, and adjacent East Pakistan, with a total
  population (in 1931) of about 1,200,000. All speak languages of the Kuki-
  Chin division of Tibeto-Burman. European contact with the Kuki-Chin peoples
  began about 1780, Protestant missionary activity began at the end of the
  19th century, and they were annexed by the British in 1885.  Since
  independence from Great Britain was achieved after World War II they have
  been administered in part by India, in part by Burma, and in part by (East)
  Pakistan. The Lakher, who numbered about 10,000 in 1931, are administered by
  India through the government of Assam.

Selection of Focus: See under Focus above.

Time: The date of 1930 is selected as approximately that of the field work by

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 71 (DRW 12/13/68)

Sampling Province 89: South Burma

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 194: Burmese, Ei3:143.

Focus: The village of Nondwin, Sagaing District, Upper Burma (south), at 95
  40'E and 21 58'N, about 1960.

General Area: The Burmese language is closely related to Tibetan (Tibeto-Burma
  linguistic family), within the Sino-Tibetan phylum.  The Burmese proper, who
  occupy the fertile lowlands of Burma, appear to have entered from the north
  (east of Tibet) in about the 9th century, to escape subjugation by the
  kingdom of Nanchao.  They adopted Buddhism and wet rice agriculture from the
  Mon, who had spread north from Thailand.  A Burmese kingdom arose from the
  11th to 13th centuries, followed by invasion of the Mongol Empire of China
  in alliance with the hill tribes of norhtern Burma, and smaller states under
  Shan princes were set up, retaining the Burmese language and Buddhist
  religion.  Burmese leaders who had fled southward and established a dynasty
  at Toungoo reconquered Burma from the Shans in the sixteenth century.  The
  16th-18th centuries were marked by conflict between the Burmese and Mon
  states, resulting with the exodus of the Mon into Thailand.  The late
  eighteenth and early nineteenth century were expansionist, with temporary
  seizure of Thailand and conquest of neighboring states of Akarkan, Assam and
  Mainpur.   The first war with the British led to forfeiture of these areas
  (1926), and the second war (1952) to deposition of the monarch.  The next
  monarch (1853-78) was concerned with modernization, but after his death
    Britain annexed Burma to British India as the province of British Burma.
  The countury was converted into a major exporter of rice (Suez canal was
  opened in 1896), with greatest change in the delta lands of Lower Burma
  (Irrawaddy).  Upper Burma, however, retained the same cultural patterns:
  Nash stresses the suprising lack of innovation of any sort.  The Japanese
  occupied the area from 1942-45 with somewhat disasterous effects on the
  already weakened economy.  Burmese independence came in 1948.  Civil war was
  fought for nearly ten years, but the Upper Burmese peasant villages still
  closely resembled the description of Scott of 1882 (Nash, 1965:8).
    The Upper Burmese political Divisions, Mandalay and SAngaing, have
  populations of 2.5 and 2.3 million, respectively (1962 estimate), as
  compared with 3.5, 1.5 and 4.7 million for the Lower Burmese divisions, 1.6
  and 2.1 million for intermediate or mountainous districts, and 2.8 million
  for the four hill states of Kachin, Karen, Kayah and Shan, and the special
  division of Chin Hills.  The total population of Burma was 21 million,
  estimated in 1962.

Selection of Focus: Nash's work is the most comprehensice ethnographic report,
  but the village which has been selected is the mixed crop dry rice village,
  as contrasted with his other village of Yadaw, in the Mandalay district,
  based on rice irrigation.  These were chosen by Nash to represent to
  representative of the spectrum of village variation in Upper Burmese.  The
  population of Nondwin village is 553 (1960).

Time: 1960 corressponds to the later part of Nash's field work.

Coordinates: Those above pertain to Nondwin village; Yadaw, Nash's other
  village, is located at 96 04'E and 27 55'N, just two miles south of
  Mandalay.  Nondwin is 20 miles west of Mandalay.

Standard Sample Unit 72 (GPM 10/26/68)

Sampling Province 90: Palaung-Wa.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 198: Lamet, Ej1:143.

Focus: The Lamet as a whole, located at about 20 N and 100 40'E in extreme
  northwestern Laos, in 1940.  In cases of minor cultural differences between
  the Upper Lamet in the northeast and the Lower Lamet in the southwest,
  preference is to be given to the latter.

General Area: The Lamet, who numbered 5,800 in 103 villages in northwestern
  Laos in 1940, speak a language of the Khasi-Nicobarese subfamily of the Mon-
  Khmer linguistic family and are closely linguistically to the Palaung and
  Wa.  There are slight cultural differences between the Upper Lamet in the
  northeast and the Lower Lamet in the southwest.  When visited by Izikowitz,
  they had long been relatively isolated.

Selection of Focus: The entire tribe, being small, may be treated as a unit.

Time: The date of 1940 is selected as approzimately that of the field work of

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 73 (DRW 12/68)

Sampling Province 97: Vietnam and Hainan.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 200: Vietnamese  (Annamese,
  Annamites), Ej4:149.

General Area: The Vietnamese, who speak related language of the Annam-Moung
  linguistic family, occupy the present countries of North and South Vietnam
  and are divided into the following three regional divisions:
   1. Tonkin in the north constituting the delta and hinterland of Red River.
      The population of the delta is almost exclusively Vietnamese in
      composition, but other groups, notably Muong, Meo (Mlao), and Thai,
      dwell in the hinterland.
   2. Annam (in a limited sense), occupying a narrow coastal zone in the
      center between the mountains and the South China Sea.
   3. Cochin China in the south, embracing the delta of the Mekong River and
      adjacent low country.  This region was originally populated by
      Cambodians and Cham, of whom substantial remnants survive.
    The Vietnamese, who were formerly often called Annamese or Annamites (in a
  broad sense), were originally confined to the Tonkin or Red River delta in
  north, where they were conquered by the Chinese around 220 B.C.  In 939
  A.D., they gained their independence from China and began expanding to the
  south, fighting the kingdom of Champa in the 11th century and thereafter and
  ultimately overrunning it in 1471.  They did not expand from Annam or
  central Vietnam into Cochin China until the seventeenth century, where they
  were still settling the Mekong delta when the French organized the colony of
  Cochin China in 1859.  The French established protectorates over Annam and
  Tonkin in 1884.  The Japanese occupied the country during World War II.
  Since their expulsion, there has been warfare between the Viet Minh in the
  north and the french, the Americans, and the south Vietnamese in Annam and
  Cochin China.  The Tonkinese are currently subject to the North Vietnam
  government of Ho Chih Minh.  The present population of North Vietnam is
  about 16,000,000 and of South Vietnam about 14,000,000.  The focal area of
  the Tonkin delta had a population of 6,500,000 in 1931, of whom only 350,000
  were urban--in the three cities of Hanoi, Haiphong, and Nam Dinh.

Selection of Focus: The Tonkin delta is selected because of the classic
  geographical study by Gourou.

Time: The date of 1930 is chosen as midway during the field research of

Coordinates: The Vietnamese as a whole extend from about 8 30' to 21 30'N and
  from about 104 E (in the south) to 109 30'E (in the center).

Standard Sample Unit 74 (GPM 10/29/68)

Sampling Province 96: Montagnards.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 202: Rhade (Ewe, Raday),

Focus: The Rhade of the village of Ko-sier on the Darlac Plateau, located at
  approximately 13 N and 108 E, in 1962.

General Area: The Rhade, who speak a Malayo-Polynesian language, are located
  on the Darlac Plateau of South Vietnam, where they numbered about 120,000 in

Selection of Focus: On the basis of the field research by Donoghue.

Time: The date of 1962 is chosen as that of the field research by Donoghue.

Coordinates: The principal authority does not pinpoint the village of Ko-sier
  more precisely.

Standard Sample Unit 75 (DRW 2/11/69)

Sampling Province 95: Cambodia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 203: Khmer (recorded in the
  Ethnographic Atlas at a later time as Cambodians, Ej5:245).

Focus: The city of Angkor, capital of the Khmer Kingdom, 13 30'N and 103 50'E,
  in 1292.

General Area: The language of the Khmer, principal people of Cambodia, belongs
  to the Mon-Khamer or Austroasiatic linguistic family.  The indigenous
  agricultural societies of South East Asia, after the first century, A.D.,
  were in contact with India, with the resultant introduction of Buddhism,
  cities, writing and the arts, and a court structure based on Hinduism (but
  not the caste system) in the ensuing centuries.  Of the numerous Indianized
  kingdoms which arose in the lowland areas, description from Chinese
  travellers exist for the Funan (Cambodian, first to sixth centuries), Champa
  (in present day South Vietnam, second to sixteenth centuries, giving way to
  the Sinicized Norht Vietnamese), and Khmer civilization.  Rivalry between
  religious and military sectors, and between Brahamanic priests and
  proselytizing Buddhists made the kingdom somewhat unstable, and the capital
  was attacked by the Chams late in this century.  The king who led the
  resistence later expanded his power through Siam, Burma, and Malaya, and
  harassed the Chams.  But in the late thirteenth century, the Thais (Siamese)
  captured much of the northern part of the Khmer kingdom.  The definitive
  description by a chinese envoy to Angkor (1292) follows shortly after this,
  when the Khmer had also defeated attack by the Mongol Khans.  Tribute was
  nonetheless paid to Kublai Khan in 1285.
     In the fifteenth century Thai attacks increased in severity, and the
  capital at Angkor was abandoned in favor of a site to the south near Phnom
  Penh.  In the next four centuries, the Thai and Annamites (the latter backed
  by the Chinese) absorbed the hulk of Khmer territory, reducing the remainder
  to a small buffer state between them, a vassal to both.  The French
  pacification of Annam in about 1858 allowed the usurpation of the Kmers by
  the Thai, after which the French interceded and the Cambodians became a
  French protectorate in 1863.  Phnom Penh was established as the new capital
  in 1866.  After World War II and the weakness of the French position
  following Vietnamese independence in 1949, Cambodia was granted
  independence.  The monarchy, which survived French and Japanese occupation,
  became constitutional, with major power residing in the legislature.
     The population of Cambodia in 1960 was 5,738,000, of which 80% were

Selection of Focus: The capital of Angkor, described by the Chou Ta-Kuan in
  1292, provides the earliest picture of Khmer society.  Supplementary data on
  the Khmer empire and ancient customs may be taken from historical or
  archeological sources.  Contemporary descriptions of Khmer life should be
  used to fill gaps,  such as kinship terminology or aspects of ritual, for
  example, only with extreme caution.  Many of the customs of the neasantry
  appear to have had continuity over this seven century Span, but Angkor, as a
  distinctive urban focus, shows numerous differences.

Time: 1292 is the time of Chou Ta-Kuan's visit to Angkor.  The civilization
  had expanded to a peak the century before, and this was the golden age of
  trade and luxury when scholasticism, religion, and the arts where of great

Coordinates: Those given under focus, above, are the location of the now
  deserted city.

Standard Sample Unit 76 (DRW 1/10/69)

Sampling Province 91: Thai

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 196: Siamese, Ej9:367 (Thai).

Focus: Central Thai of the village of Bang Chan, 100 52'E and 14 N, in 1955.

General Area: The Central Thai or Siamese inhabit the vast alluvial plain of
  the Menam Valley which stretches from the Gulf of Siam and the capital city
  of Bangkok 250 miles north, with a b       of about 150 miles.  About 40% of
  Thailand's 26 million (as of 1960) people live here, speaking the Thai
  language, which is part of the Thai-Kadai lingiustic family, distantly
  related to Chinese.  Historically, the Thai were an inland, rice-growuing
  people appearing in southern China.  Many were absorbed into the Chinese
  Empire early in the first millen      AD., and by 650 they had established
  two important kingdoms in the southeastern Chinese provinces.  Colonists
  from these kingdoms entered the area of present-day Thailand, fighting with
  local kingdoms.  In the 13th century the Mongols defeated the rival kingdom
  of Nanchao; the Shan kingdoom was established in Burma and the Lao Kingdom
  in Laos; in 1233 Thai chiefs captured Sudhothai in present Thai land and
  established a third kingdom.  In the fourteenth century the capital shifted
  south to Ayatthaya, a former Khmer possession, which accelcerated the
  Cambodianization and Indianization of Thai culture.  From the sixteenth to
  the eighteenth centuries the Burmese and Thai were at war, with no decisive
  advantage on either side until the Burmese took the capital in 1765.
  Guerrilla resistance recaptured the Kingdom bit by over a 15 year period,
  and the reyal line of succession in the modern period bigins from this
  point.  Thailamd was never colonized by the west and gained further
  territories in the nineteenth century.  In 1932 an internal coup introduced
  constitutionalism alongside of a reduction of the monarch's powers.
    The village of Bang Chan itself is 20 miles northeast of Bangkok in the
  Central Plain area that was opened for commercial rice production in the
  nineteenth century.  It is a spatially dispersed village (fpopulation c.
  1,800 in 1957) of nearly all ethnic Thail peasants, 90% Theravada Buddhist
  and 10% Moslem.  The settlement and economic patterns contrast markedly with
  the "cluster" type villages found in North and Northeast Thailand.

Selection of Focus:  Bang Chan is chosen as the intensive focus of the Cornell
  Research Center in Thailand under the direction of Lauriston Sharp, in which
  at least seven different authrs participated during the mid-1950's.

Time: 1955 is chosen as the midpoint of the Cornell research project.

Coordinates: See Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 77 (GPM 10/26/68)

Sampling Province 94: Samang-Sakai.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 204: Samang, Ej3:148.

Focus: The Jahai subtribe, located at about 4 30' to 5 30'N and 101  to 101
  30'E, about 1925.

General Area: The Samang or Negritos of Malaya occupy the mountainous interior
  of the states of Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, and northern pahang in Malaya and
  the adjacent southernmost parts of peninsula Thailand.  They are the
  aboriginal inhabitants of Malaya and probably originally spoke an
  independent language.  They have gradually, however, adopted the Mon-Khmer
  speech of the neighboring Sakai or Senoi.  They show regional dialect
  differences, but Schebesta was able to use the Jahai dialect with several
  other groups.  The Samang are divided into seven regional subtribes, as
   1. Tonga (Chong, Mos) fo the Pattalung-Trang area of southern peninsula
   2. Kensiu of northeastern Kedah.
   3. Kintaq (Kenta) of the Kedah-Perak border.
   4. Jahai (Jehai) of northeastern Perak and western Kalantan.
   5. Lanoh (Sabubn) of north central Perak.
   6. Mendriq (Menri) of southeastern Kelantan.
   7. Bateq (Batok) of northern Pahang.
    Group 1 and small extensions of groups 2, 3, and 4 live in peninsula
  Thailand; the rest in Malaya.  Their population totals only about 2,000, of
  whom only about 100 are located in Thai territory.  The Samang have
  undergone acculturation to later arrivals--Sakai, Malays, Thai, Chinese,
  Tamils , and English--for centuries, but the rate has been accelerated since
  World War II.

Selection of Focus: The Jahai are probably better described, and by more
  ethnographers, than any other Samang subtribe.

Time: The date of 1925 is selected as approximately that of the beginning of
  the field work by Sahcbesta.

Coordinates: The Samang are located between 4  and 7 30 N and from 100 to 192
  40'E.  For the coordinates of the Jahai see under above.

Standard Sample Unit 78 (GPM 10/26/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 93: Nicobar Islands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 185: Nicobarese, Eh5:244.

Focus: The Northern Nicobarese, who speak dialects of the Khasi-Nicobarese
  subfamily of the Mon-Khmer linguistic family, occupy the twelve inhabited
  islands of the Nicobar archipelago, which are located on a submerged
  volcanic chain northwest of Sumatra and south of the Andaman islands.  They
  are Proto-Malay in physical type, combining Caucasoid and Mongoloid traits.
  Three subdivisions are distinguished:
   1. Northern Nicobarese of the islands of Car Nicobar, Chowra, Teressa, and
   2. Central Nicobarese of the islands of Camorta, Katchall, Trinkut, and
   3. Southern Nicobarese of Little Nicobar and Great Nicobar Islands.
    The Shom Pen tribe of interior Great Nicobar are culturally and physically
  divergent and are believed to be descended from an earlier population
  stratum.  Otherwise cultural differences are said to be minimal, but there
  is considerable local specialization in production and inter-island trade.
  Pottery manufacture, for example, is confined to the island of Chowra.  The
  first contact with Europeans was with the Portuguese in the early sixteenth
  century.  During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the British,
  French, and Danes at various times laid claim to the islands and made
  temporary but unsuccessful attempts to colonize them.  In 1869, however, the
  British took definitive possession, transferring their authority to India
  when the latter country became independent.  Missionizing attempts have been
  largely unsuccessful, and the next largest number were found in Chowra.
  Recent sources give the total population as about 12,500.

Selection of Focus: The northern islands are selected as the most populous and
  best described.

Time: The date of 1870 is chosen as near the beginning of Man's long
  administrative experience (1869-1901).

Coordinates: Those for the archipelago as a whole are 6 40' to 9 15'N and 92
  40' to 94 E.  Those for the focus are given above.

Standard Sample Unit 79 (DRW 12/26/68 - last line Sel. of Focus missing))

Sampling Province 92: Andaman Islands.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster  186: Andamanese, Eh1:45.

Focus: The Aka-Bea or Bojig-ngiji-da tribe of South Andaman Island, from
  1145' to 12N and 93 to 9310'E, in 1860.

General Area: The Andamanese are a Negrito group, with two related language
  groups of a distinct linguistic family.  Ten of the tribes of the Great
  Andaman cluster of islands (North, Middle, South Andaman) speak dialects of
  the same language, while the inhabitants of the Little Andaman Island, 40
  miles by sea to the south, speak a language which is not mutually
  intelligible, although related in vocabulary and grammar.  The Jarawa tribe
  of South Andaman speaks the Little Andaman language, and apparently invaded
  the Great Andaman cluster several hundreds of years ago, establishing
  themselves in the interior.  The thirteen tribes below represent the
  typology of local language groups recognized by the natives, although there
  are also sub-dialects within most of these groups.  Coastal or forest
  specialization are noted, with differences in subsistence and settlement
  pattern, but do not indicate further cultural differences.
    North Andaman (population estimate for 1858: 1,500)
   1. Aka-Cari (coastal), population circa 39 in 1901.
   2. Aka-Kora (coastal), population exceeded 96 in 1901.
   3. Aka-Bo (forest), population probably exceeded 48 in 1901.
   4. Aka-Jeru (coastal and forest), population probably less that 218 in
  1901.  (the census figure includes cross-over from groups #2, 3).
    Middle Andaman, Baratan, and Richie's Archipelago (population estimate
  for 1858: 2,350).
   5. Aka-Kede (coastal and forest), population circa 59 in 1901.
   6. Aka-Kol (coastal), population circa 11 in 1901.
   7. Oko-Juwoi (forest), population circa 48 in 1901.
   8. A-Pucikwar (coastal and forest), population circa 50 in 1901.
   9. Akar-Bali (coastal archipelago), population c. 19 in 1901.
    South Andaman (population estimate for 1858: 1,200)
   10. Aka-Bea (coastal, some forest), population estimated at 1,000 for 1858,
      400 in 1882, census circa 37 in 1901.
   11. Jarawa (forest), population estimated at 450 in 1901.
    Little Andaman (population estimate for 1858: 700)
   12. nge, population estimated at 670 in 1901.
   13. North Sentinel (name unknown), population estimated at 117 in 1901.
    The population of the Great Andaman linguistic group was about 4,500 in
  1858, but only 625 by 1901, while that of Jarawa, nge, and North Sentinel
  was fairly constant at about 1,200.  This great disparity was a result of
  the friendly relation established by the European penal colonist after 1858
  with the Great Andaman groups and the resultant spread of measles, syphilis,
  influenza and other diseases which reduced their population to about 15% of
  its former size.  The hostile or isolated tribes of the Little Andaman
  cluster (including the Jarawa) did not suffer the diseases nor the decline,
  and these groups still survive today in the interior, partially preserving
  their way of life.
    The Andamans' location on the trade routes of the Chinese, Arab, and
  Indian merchants had little effect upon the culture, since the custom was to
  kill foreigners or disappear into the interior.  The British attempted a
  penal colony on the island in 1789 but it was abandoned in 1796, leaving the
  island alone for 60 years until in 1858 a new penal colony was established
  at Port Blair following the Indian Mutiny.  Col. Henry Man was in charge,
  and his son wrote the earliest ethnographic account based upon those
  islanders, mainly of the Aka-Bea coastal tribe around Port Blair, who joined
  the native settlement project.

Selective of Focus: Aka-Bea, the best described tribe in Man's account, should
  be taken as primary focus, but accounts of the Akar-Bale (#9), and other
  Middle Andaman groups (#5-8) ... as well
  ****the rest is not readable*****

Time: 1860 is prior to the disruption of great Andaman populations by the
  penal colony (1858).  E. H. Man, principal Authority, did not actually
  arrive until 1869 but his observation pertain to the aboriginal period.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, pertain to South Andaman Island, on
  which the Aka-Bea inhabited most of the coastline with the exception of the
  northern part.

Standard Sample Unit 80 (GPM 10/16/68)

Sampling Province 66: Ceylon.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 183: Vedda, Bh4:145.

Focus: The Forest Vedda of east central Ceylon, located at about 730' to 8N
  and 8130'E, in 1860.

General Area: The Vedda are located in east central Ceylon east of the
  Mahaweli River.  They speak a language of the Indic subfamily of the Indo-
  European linguistic family.  As hunters and gatherers, they are probably the
  remnants of an earlier pre-agricultural population but may possibly be a
  regressive offshoot of the dominant Sinhalese population of Ceylon.  They
  are divided into three groups:
   1. The Forest Vedda (Wild or Rock Vedda), a few of which have continued
      their former pre-agricultural mode of life.
   2. The village Vedda, who have become agricultural.
   3. The Coast Vedda,who inhabit the east coast of Ceylon north of
    They are strongly influenced by the neighboring Tamil population. The
  population of the Vedda is not reported in the sources, but that of the
  Forest Vedda who still adhere to their former mode of life is almost
  certainly not more than a few hundred.  The Vedda were first described in
  1681 by Knox, a captive for 20 years.  The earliest scientific report is
  that by Baily in 1863.  The sources are numerous, but the earlier reports
  have been summarized by the Seligmanns, the principal authorities.

Selection of Focus: There are several local groups of Forest Vedda but the one
  to which most travelers' reports primarily pertain is the Danigla Vedda of
  the Nilgala district, and priority should be given to this group when local
  differences in culture are reported.

Time: The data of 1860 is selected as that of the first scientific report by
  Bailey.  The Seligmanns, whose data are fuller, studied the same people but
  after they had largely lost their original hunting and gathering mode of
  life, which was still relatively undisturbed in Bailey's time.

Coordinates: Given under Focus above.