Standard Sample Unit 55 (GPM 9/26/68 - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 60: Caucasus.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 130: Abkhaz, Ci12.

Focus: The Abkhaz as whole, located at 4225' to 4325'N and from 40 to
  4235'E, in 1890.

General Area: The Abkhaz speak a language of the Abasgo-Kerketian family, to
  which the Cherkess (Circassians) and the small Ubykh group also belong.
  They are located on the Black Sea in the western Caucasus.  They have been
  known to Europeans since classical times, being mentioned, for example, by
  Pliny in the first century after Christ.  At the beginning of the Christian
  era they were dependent on Georgia, then for a period on Lazia, but in 786
  they became independent for two centuries under their own kings.  After this
  period they were united with the Grusian Kingdom.  With the fall of
  Byzantium at the end of the 15th century they were subjected to strong
  Moslem Turkish influence.  A minority of the population embraces Islam
  today, but the majority are still Christian as they were at least as early
  as 6th century.  Southern Abkazia was conquered by Russia in 1845, and the
  rest of the country in 1863, becoming part of the Russian empire.  Today the
  Abkhaz ASSR is a semi-autonomous unit in the USSR, although only 60,000 of
  its 330,000 inhabitants (in 1954) were actually Abkhaz.

Selection of Focus: The society as a whole, being small, is chosen as the

Time: The date of 1890 is selected as approximately that of the field work by
  Dzhanashvili, the principal authority.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 56 (DRW 7/1/70)

Sampling Province 61: Armenia and Azerbaijan

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 134: Armenians, Ci10:912

Focus: Armenian Christians in the vicinity of Erivan (the Capital City) and
  surrounding communes or villages (e.g. Kanakir or Echmiadzin, the religious
  Capital), in 1854 the time of von Haxthausen's visit.

General Area: The Armenians, whose language forms a separate subfamily of  the
  Indo-European linguistic family occupy a precarious position in the
  mountainous region now split between Northeastern Turkey and the Armenian
  S.S.R. in the Soviet Union.  Mount Ararat sits just to the west, in the
  Turkish sector.  Armenia is bounded in the north by the lesser Caucasus and
  Portatus, in the south by the Taurus range, and the Azerbaijan plains on
  the Capsian Sea in the east.  Historically Armenians first appeared at the
  end of the 7th C. B.C., occupying the land east of Mt. Ararat, but were soon
  absorbed into the Syrian and then the Persian Empires and later into the
  Greek and then Roman Empires.  In the 2nd Century B.C., under Tigranes,
  Armenia briefly became the strongest state in the Roman and Parthian
  Empires, ending in partition of the country in 387 A.D..  Armenia was
  dominated from the outside, either through conquest or trade, by the
  Persians, Arabs and Turks.  Following two centuries Seljuk Turk dominance,
  the 15th C. saw the rise of the Ottoman Turks, whose rule over Armenia
  remained until the 20th C.  Partitions occured during this period, with
  Persia taking the southern sector of Armenia in the 17th C., and the
  Russians taking the northeastern sector in the 19th C.  In Turkish Armenia
  the conflict with Armenian national consciousness and the Russo-Turkish war
  of 1877-88 created great political tension, finally resulting in violent
  massacres by the Turks in 1895-96 of  over one million Armenians. After WW I
  the attempt aided by Western powers to organize a unified Armenian nation
  failed and the entry of Turkish  and Russian troops in 1920 sealed the
  division of the teo sectors.
    Today the S.S.R. Armenia covers all 11,500 sq. mi. and Turkish Armenia
  57,000 sq. mi. The old capital of Yerevan is the present capital of the
  Russian sector.

Selection of Focus: The capital city of Erivan (Yerevan) with its surrounding
  villages is best described by von Haxthausen for the mid-19th C.  Any date
  later than 1880 will present problems of political disruption, and the
  litterature on "The Armenian Question" which reached world prominence is
  actually very weak on cultural data.

Time: 1843 is the time of von Haxthausen's field trip; Klidschian uses
  historical sources from earlier periods as wellas sources from approximately
  the same time as Haxthausen.

Coordinates: Yerevan is located at 4010'N and 4420'E.

Standard Sample Unit 57 (GPM 10/15/68)

Sampling Province 62: North Iran.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 135: Kurd, Cill:913.

Focus: The sedentary Kurd of northeastern Iraq, especially those in and around
  the town of Ruwanduz (c.3630'N, 4430'E), in 1950.

General Area: The Kurd, who speak a language of the Iranian subfamily of Indo-
  Duropean closely akin to Persian, inhabit the mountainous region of
  northeastern Iraq and adjacent Iran and Turkey.  They are probably the
  direct descendants of the so-called Carduk, who harassed the retreat of
  Xenophon in 400 B.C..  They were early converted to Islam and were semi-
  autonomous under the Turkish empire.  They numbered about three million in
  1950, of whom a large percentage were urbanized or Turkicized.  They are
  numerically preponderant in southern Kurdistan (including the focus)but
  often  constitute a minority elsewhere among Arabs, Turks, Armenians,
  Azerbaijani, or Persians.

Selection of Focus: The Kurd in and around Ruwanduz are the best described by
  Masters, Hansen, and Leach.  Barth worked in villages about 100 miles to the
  south and can be used with due caution.

Time: The date of 1950 is selected as approximately that of the field work by
  Masters and Barth--a little later that that of Leach and a bit earlier than
  that of Hansen.

Coordinates: Those of the town of Ruwanduz are given above under Focus.  The
  sources do not indicate the precise boundaries of Kurd territory, but they
  make clear that the proportion of Kurds in the population thins out
  substantially in its peripheries.

Standard Sample Unit 58 (DRW 12/88)

Sampling Province 63: South Iran.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 142: Basseri, Ea6:358.

Focus: The nomadic Basseri, transhumant between 27 and 31N between 53 and
  54E, in 1958.

General Area: The Basseri, who speak a language of the Iranian  subfamily of
  Indo-European akin to that of the neighboring town of Shiraz, belong to the
  Khamseh confederacy along with their neighbors to the east, the Baharlu
  tribe of Turkish speaker and other nomadic tribes speaking Arabic and
  Persian.  To the west they adjoin the tribes of the Qashqai confederacy.
  The Khamseh confederacy was formed around 1860-70; at first Turkish speakers
  predominated, but in recent decades the Basseri have been increasing in
  numbers and influence.  The Basseri are transhumant between the slopes of
  the Kuh-i-Bul Mountains to the north and the desert around Lar to the south.
  They numbered about 16,000 in 1960, and are Shia Moslems in religion.

Time: The date of 1958 is selected as that of the field work of Barth.  There
  are no other substantial descriptions of the Khamseh tribes.

Selection of Focus: The nomadic Basseri are selected.  Since they are
  relatively few in numbers and are politically organized, no narrower
  pinpointing is required.

Coordinates: Given under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 59 (DRW 12/5/68)

Sampling Province  64: Indus Valley

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 143: West Punjabi (not in the
  Ethnographic Atlas)

Focus: Village of Mohla, Punjabi of southern Rawalpindi and northern Lahore
  Divisions, 3230N and 74E, about 1952.

General Area: Panjabi language is part of the Indo-Aryan subfamily of the
  Indo-European linguistic family, and reflects the expansion of the Midland
  Ganjes (Hindi).  Indo-Ayran speakers over the area previously held by the
  outer group of Aryans.  A similar mixture is represented in Gujarati,
  Rajasthani and eastern Hindi; the outer languages are today represented by
  Kashmiri, Lahnda, Sindhi, Marathi, Oriya,Bihari,Bengali, and Assamese.  The
  Punjab, meaning the five rivers between the Indus and the Sutlej, has been
  exposed to numerous invasions from Central Asia through frontier passes to
  the north and west, including the Aryan stock which forms the bulk of the
  peasantry, and later invasions by Persians, Greeks, Parthians, and many
  others.  Muslims penetrated lower Punjab in the 8th century, and conquered
  the whole in the 10th.  Internecine struggles among the Muslims culminated
  in the Timurid (Mogul) Empire, which then lasted  from the 16th to the 18th
  century.  The Sikhs rebelled in the 17th and 18th centuries, and controlled
  the Punjab in the early 19th century.  Their incursions south and east into
  British territory resulted in defeat, and Punjab was annexed to British
  India in 1849.  After WWI internal strife was renewed, and with the
  partition of the Punjab between India and Pakistan in 1947 there was great
  violence and migration, with the Sikhs aligning with the Hindus and going
  east, and the Muslims segregating in West Punjab, Pakistan.  Both the
  british and the Pakistani governments have been primarily concerned with the
  development of irrigation works in the Punjab, with resultant increases in
  the population of canal areas.  There are now great differences in economy
  and life style between the irrigated (wheat and cotton) and non-irrigated
  (millet and gram) areas.  There are also ecological differences between the
  Northern Punjab (Northern Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and other Divisions) which
  forms the foothills of the Himalayas, and the flat semi-arid alluvial plains
  of Southern Punjab, divided between floodplains and uplands.  The principal
  city of the Punjab is Lahore, capital of the Mogul Empire, of the Sikhs
  (1786-1849), of the Province of Punjab (British India) and of West Punjab
  (Pakistan).  Out of the 1961 Punjab census of 17 million, 6 1/2 million were
  concentrated in Lahore Division, and 1,300,000 of these in the city; there
  were 4 million in Rawalpindi.
       The Pakistani government made fundamental Land Reforms in 1958 which
  has changed the shape of the villages listed below in recent times.

Selection of Focus: The village of Mohla, studied by  Eglar, is the most
  fully described, and represents the less developed form of agriculture,
  lacking irrigation.  Coders should be careful in inferring from other
  village studies, since each villages is highly distinctive in terms of caste
  composition and economic position.  Honigmann's village, in the desert of
  southwest Rawalpindi, was founded very recently by East Punjabi are close;
  this village utilizes newly constructed irrigation works.  The village
  surveys by Dass and Ghulam Yasim have not been evaluated.

Time: 1952 is the midpoint of Eglar's and Honigmann's fied work.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, specify the village of Mohla.  Chak
  41MB (Honigmann) is located at approximately 3215'N and 72E, in the Thal
  desert between the Indus and Jhelum Rivers.  Gajju is approximately at
  3215'N and 74E, and Lahore city at 3145'N and 7410'E.

Standard Sample Unit 60 (DRW - proofed 88)

Sampling Province 67: Southeast India.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 177: Cond, Bg3: 142.

Focus: Hill Maria Gond of Antagarh and northern Kutru Districts, Bastar State,
  from 1915' to 20N and 8030' to 8120'E, about 1930.

General Area: The Gondi language, of the Dradivian linguistic family, is
  shared by several tribal groups within the former state of Bastar in
  Southern India, which was historically isolated by now incorporated into
  Madhya Pradash (Province).  In addition to the Gonds, some of the ethnic
  groups in Bastar are descendants of the military garrisons of the old
  chiefdoms (such as the Halba 'tribes'), whose language is becoming the
  lingua franca and second language of many Gondi speakers. The ethnographic
  picture is complicated because many groups were becoming casts, and thus
  rejecting ethnic names which might link them as a branch of larger tribal
  divisions. Certain formerly Dravidian speaking groups, such as the Bhattras,
  have lost that language and adopted and modified other dialects (Bhattras
  have adopted the Uriya dialect). Parjas, also Dravidian tribesman, have
  meanwhile adopted the Bhattra language, making the overall mosaic of tribes
  and castes quite complex. Within Bastar, the Gondi-speaking groups are
  perhaps the most clearly identifiable, and certainly the best described.
  Muria Gond, Hill Maria Gond, and Bison-horn Maria Gond are distinctive
  culture types, with four other transition or derived groups:
   1. Muria Gond, in the north-eastern plateau of Bastar, Kondagaon Tahsil.
   2. Hill Maria or Abujhmar Gond, in the Abujhman Mountains in northwest
      Bastar, Antagarh Tahsil. They are shifting agriculturalists, with a
      population of 11,500 in 1930.
   3. Bison-Horn Maria Gond, in the hills and riverain areas of Dantewara
      (sp?) and parts of Sukman and Jagkalpur (sp?) Tahsils or Zamindaris,
      southeast Bastar. They numbered about 155,000 in 1930, and have fixed
      villages, with permanent field rice cultivation.
   4. Dorlas or Koitor of the southwestern Godvari riverain tract, who split
      off from the Bison-horn Maria, and are also intensive cultivators.
   5. Mixed Dorla and Bison-horn Maria, or Bison-horn exposed to Telugu
      influence, geographically intermediate to the Bison-horn and the Dorlas.
   6. Riverain Hill-Marias, heavily influenced by the Bison-horn, intermediate
      to the two groups along the Indrahwati River.
   7. Lowland Hill-Marias, now called Jhorias, in the lowlands between the
      Abujhmar Mountains and the north-eastern plateau (between groups #1 and
      2, above).

Selection of Focus: The Hill Maria are chosen from the monograph of Grigson,
  although it is tempting to use the Bison-horn Maria, with two excellent
  monographs by Grigson and Erwin, or the Muria, with a good monograph by

Time: The date of 1930 is chosen as the mid-point of Grigson's field work.

Coordinates: Those listed under Focus, above, are the limits of the Hill Maria
  within the Districts of Antaghar and northern Kutru; the area is about 25 or
  30 miles in diameter, with an extra extension to the north.

Standard Sample Unit 61 (GPM 10/31/68)

Sampling Province 65: Southwest India

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 180: Toda, Eg4:143.

Focus: The Toda, from 11 to 12N and 76 to 77E, around 1900.

General Area: The Toda and the other tribes of the Nilgiri Hills sneak
  languages of the Dravidian family.  Although the high elevation has isolated
  these tribes from the Hindus of the plains, in their distinctive way they
  reflect the interlocking institutions of caste and jajmani (master, in
  relation to purjan, servant) ties, and the structure of Toda culture
  interpenetrates those of its neighbors.  The buffalo herding Toda occupy the
  highest religious status as priests, offering their services to the
  agricultural Badagas (population in 1900 circa 34,000), and artisan Kota
  (circa 1,200), but play a much different role than the Hindu high caste, in
  that they are also sacred dairymenn, and thus are jajmans in this respect
  while being ritual purjans to the agricultural Badagas.  The division of
  labor is supplemented by the Kurumba and Irula jungle gardeners on the
  slopes, of Nilgiri, going down to the confluence of the East and West Chat
  Rivers, who play somewhat the role of outcastes and purjans to both the Toda
  and Badaga in ritual and economic life.  The plateau itself is about 500
  square miles, with the Toda population of roughly 800 dispersed between the
  much larger populate in Badaga villages.  The area was transformed by the
  British into a health resort and seasonal government headquarters for the
  Province in 1820-30, bringing an influx of Hindus, Mohammedans and others
  with them.  River's field work does not begin until some 70-80 years after
  such acculturative pressures begin, which make the "aboriginal" picture
  sometimes ambiguous. For this reason, in coding stratification, ritual, or
  economic relationships, the recent literature on the interpretation of the
  Toda data from the early (circa 1830) British period should be consulted
  (Fox, Gould).

Selection of Focus: The Toda as a Whole are chosen as the unit of focus,
  although there are two endogamous divisions which differ in dialect,
  ceremonics, and in that one (Tarthar) owns the higher sacred herds and
  dairies, while the other (Teivali) provides the sacred dairymen who tend

Time: 1900 is chosen as the date of River's monograph, although the earlier
  data from around 1830 and the recent secondary literature may help in
  understanding aboriginal forms of organization.

Coordinates: Those listed under Focus, above, are the entire Nilgiri hills
  area over which the Toda are interspersed among the Bagada and Kota groups.

Standard Sample Unit 62 (DRW 12/11/68)

Sampling Province 68: Munda

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 176: Santal, Ef1:42.

Focus: The Santal of Bankura and Birbhum districts, Bengal, Represented by the
  village of Sarenga (Bankura) and four villages near Santiniketan (Birbhum),
  from 8650' to 8730'E and 23 to 24N, in 1940.

General Area: The Santal are one of the Munda tribes whose languages form a
  subfamily within the Mon-Khmer or Austroasiatic linguistic family.  Coming
  from further west, they settled in the southwestern portion of Bengal in the
  15th-17th centuries, and have hence migrated outwards, mainly to the
  southwest into Crissa and Bihar, and to the north into Bihar.  As
  agriculturalists, they have maintained a separated tribal identity outside
  of the Hindu caste system.  Pressures from landlords and moneylenders,
  however, led to the tremendous northward migration early in the 19th
  century, and it was in this area that the Santal rebellion of 1855-57
  occured.  The British, following the uprising, set up a tribal reserve, the
  Santal Parganas, where nearly one-third of the Santal population of almost
  two million are concentrated.  This area was studied by the 1860's by Man, a
  British administrator, and by Col. Dalton.  There remains in the area as of
  (1931) a quarter of the population that is Hindu.  In the homeland areas of
  the Santal in Bengal, especially Bankura and Burdwan, the population is
  smaller, but the Santals are practically the exclusive inhabitants.  These
  areas, nearly identical in culture and language, have been studied more
  recently by Culshaw and Datta-Majumdar.  Work by Norweigian missionaries,
  Skrefsrud, dating from the 1870's and 80's, and Bogding, dating from 1890 to
  1940, are major sources on Santal traditions in the Bihar Pargans and Bengal
  areas, as well as the other Bihar district of Manghum.  Mukherjea's study of
  the southern Bengal district of Mayurbhanj (supplemented by a review of the
  Santal literature) in the late 1930's has been followed up by Orans' study
  of the impact of industrialism on the Santal migrants from this district (a
  rural village in Mayurbhanj was taken as a basis of comparison) and others
  into adjacent Singhbhum District in Bihar.  The only Santal groups not
  covered by these major sources are the smaller number of tribesmen who have
  migrated northeast into other Bengal districts, those furthest south in
  Orissa, and those furthest west in Hazaribagh district, Bihar.

Selection of Focus: The Santal homeland districts of Bankura (Culshaw),
  Burdwan, and Birbhum (Datta-Majumdar), in southeastern Bengal, have been
  chosen because they have the highest percentage (not concentration) of
  Santal, and represent more of a continuous adaptation, without the
  disruption of the rebellion as occured in the Bihar district to the north,
  or of the introduction of industry as occurred in the south early in the
  twentieth century.  Both authors spent time in Santal Parganas, Bihar, prior
  to their primary field work.  Due to the apparent uniformities in Santal
  culture, some of the classic studies of the Santal of the central area (Man,
  Dalton, Bodding) will be used although coders should be careful to note
  discrepancies with the regional focus.

Time: 1940 marks the mid-point of Culshaw's field work in Sarenga village,
  Bankura, close to the date of 1945 for Datta-Majumdar's work in four
  villages of Birbhum.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, are the extent of the Bankura-Birbhum
  area studied by Culshaw and Datta-Majumdar.

Standard Sample Unit 63 (DRW 11/1/68)

Sampling Province 69: North India

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 174: Uttar Pradesh, not in the
  Ethnographic Atlas.

Focus: Senapur village in the little kingdom of Dobhi Taluka (Tuppah), Jaunpur
  District, Uttar Pradesh, 83E and 2555'N, about 1945.

General Area: The villages of eastern Uttar Pradesh (United Provinces) are
  largely Hindu-speaking, a language of the Indic sub-family, Indo-European
  linguistic family.  The village of Senapur is representative of this general
  area, and is 16 miles east of Jaunpur in the Jaunpur District, which was
  formerly divided into little kingdoms.  In Dobhi Taluka or Tuppah (kingdom)
  in which Senapur is located, each of the 100-odd Hindu social hierarchy) who
  conquered the area in the 17th century.  Their local name is Dobhi Thakur,
  thus the name of the little kingdom of Dobhi Taluka and the local caste name
  of Thakur.  Above the Thakur and other lineages which controlled other
  little kingdoms in eastern Uttar Pradesh were the successor states of the
  Mughal Empire which were imposed by conquest, and whose main relation to the
  little kingdoms was the demand for taxes and military service.  During the
  18th and 19th century, the Thakur, like dominant castes in other little
  kingdoms, controlled the activities of all other castes beneath them.  There
  were 23 castes in Senapur, including the Thakurs (population 436 in 1950),
  the untouchable Chamars (636 persons), living in separate  hamlets away from
  the village, the middle castes of Nonias or Earthworkers (239) and Ahirs or
  Cowherds (116), and low castes such as Lohars (67).   All the other 18
  castes numbered less than fifty individuals, including  the very small
  percentage (two families) of priestly Brahmans.  The total population just
  exceeded 2,000 for the village, whereas the population of the little kingdom
  can only be estimated at about 200,000, living in a 40 square mile area.
  The region differs somewhat from other areas of U.P. in that cultivation is
  very intensive, including rice and irrigation, and also that in being
  isolated from any large metropolitan center, the rural population and labor
  is not drained off.
       In 1947 India became independent, and the local election of
  representatives in 1949 resulted in a coalition of the lower castes (Nonias,
  Ahirs, Chamars) who won out over the Thakurs, and the shift of power has had
  important consequences for the village and district as a whole.

 Selection of Focus: Senapur is the home village of R. D. Singh, and the focus
  of the Cornell University Indian Research Project which included field work
  by Cohn, Opler, and Rowe in the early 1950's.  Although most of their papers
  focus on the village, one of them deals with Dobhi Taluka as a political

Time: 1945 is selected because it is close to the field work of Cohn, Opler,
  and Rowe, yet prior to the shift in the traditional power base in 1947-49.
  Singh, of course, resided in the village during earlier decades.

Coordinates: The overall 40 square mile area of Dobhi Taluka is small enough
  to be pinpointed by a single coordinate set, under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 64 (DRW 6/21/68)

Sampling Province 70: Dardistan and Kashmir.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 147:  Burusho (Hunza), Ec2:139.

Focus:  The Hunza State in the Karakoram Himalayas, located between 3620' and
  3630'N from 7430' to 7440'E, in 1934.

General Area:  The Burusho, who comprise the speakers of the independent
  Burushaski linguistic family, inhabit the states of Hunza and Nagir in the
  former Gilgit Agency of the North West Frontier Province now in dispute
  between India and Pakistan.  The Burusho of Nagir, who have not been studied,
  occupy a more level terrain with a smaller area but a denser population than
  the Burusho of Hunza, who center around Baltir, the capital.  The Burusho
  numbered 27,000 in 1931, of whom 13,000 lived in Hunza State.  They are
  Moslems of the Ismaili Sect.

Selection of Focus:  The Burusho of Hunza are selected because they are
  adequately described, especially by the Lorimers.

Time:  The date of 1934 is chosen as that of the return of the Lorimers to
  Hunza to do their ethnographic work.

Coordinates:  Given under Focus above.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 148: Kazak (Kazakh, Kirghiz-

Standard Sample Unit 65 (DRW 10/26/68)

Sampling Province 72:  Turkestan

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 148: Kazak (Kazakh, Kirghiz-
  Kaisak, Kirgiz), Ebl:35.  Note: care should be take to distinguish the
  Kazak, who were commonly referred to as Kirgiz in the nineteenth century,
  form neighboring Kirghiz to the southeast.

Focus: The Kazak of the Ulug Juz or Great Horde (Orda), extending from 68E
  and 37N in the southwest to 81N in the northeast, about 1890.

General Area: The Kazak language belongs to the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic
  linguistic family.  Kazak were not originally a common people, but emerged
  in the fifteenth century as a political confederation after the breakdown of
  the empire of Chingis Khan.  In the mid-fifteenth century the term "Kazak"
  meant a free warrior, from any of the Tartar groups, who entered Russian
  service under their own princes.  By the end of the century it had come to
  refer to the separate states or principalities of confederated Tartar
  warriors, referring to the fact that they did not stem from nobility.
  Thereafter, it became and ethnic term for unified peoples.  The Kazak Hordes
  or Ordas have always consisted of semi-autonomous political divisions which
  could be unified by alliance.  Ordas, like constituent clans, are ranked by
  seniority, and there are three major divisions among them:
   1. The Great Horde (ulug Juz), close to the place of the earliest Kazak
   2. The Middle Horde (orda Juz), to the north, in th Altaic mountains, and
      river basin further to the west.
   3. The Little Horde (Kisi Juz), to the west.
    In addition, a fourth horde (Bukey Horde) was formed in the 18th century.
  Kirghiz, Kalmyk and Altaians border the Kazak on the east, Uzbek and Turkmen
  to the south, Kalmyk in the west, and Russians to the north.

Selection of Focus: The Great Horde is tentatively selected to delimit the
  material on the Kazak.  This Horde is the senior group and is somewhat more
  compact than the others, nomadizing the vast area below Lake Balkhash.  It
  figures extensively in the classic works of Grodekov, Radloff, and Levchine.
  Hudson, although not allowed to travel freely in Kazakhstan, was stationed
  at Alma-Ata, on the southern border of the Great Horde.  Of his chief
  informants, one comes from the Great and one from the Little Horde.
  Rudenko, on the other hand, worked among the Middle Horde of the Altaic
  mountains.  Grodekov's primary work was in Syr Darya, which touches upon all
  three Hordes.  Care should be taken in inferring from these other areas to
  the Great Hordo, but uniformities throughout the Kazak area may be found to
  simplify the matter of coding.

Time: 1890 is chosen as the time most readily indentifiable in the works of
  Grodekov and Radloff.  Levchine pertains to an earlier period, Hudson and
  Rudenko to a later period.

Coordinates: The coordinates above specify the Great Horde, running in a
  diagonal territory widening out around Lake Baikal.