Standard Sample Unit 37 (GPM 8/1/68 from HHT - proofed DRW 88)

Sampling Province 42: Central Ethiopia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 93: Amhara, Ca 7:679. 

Focus: The Amhara of the Gondar District surrounding Lake Tana, located at 
  about 11 to 14N and 36 to 3830'E, in 1953. 

General Area: The Amhara, who speak a language of the Semitic subfamily of 
  Afroasiatic of Hamito-Semitic, are the dominant people of northern Ethiopia.  
  They fall into three main divisions: (1) those of the Gondar District in the 
  north, (2) those of the Gojjam District in the center, and (3) those of the 
  Shoa District in the south.  They have been variously estimated to number 
  between two and five millions and are reported to comprise about 33 per cent 
  of the population of Ethiopia. (the Galla comprising about 42 per cent, the 
  Somali and Afar about 8 per cent, the Western Cushites about 10 per cent, 
  and other Negroid peoples about 7 per cent).  They are Coptic Christains in 
  religion.  Ethiopia was known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt and became, 
  in part, an Egyptian province under the New Empire.  In the 7th century B.C. 
  came a migration of peoples from Yemen who settled in Eritrea and northern 
  Tigre.  They spoke a Sabaean (?) language called Geez, which is ancestral to 
  modern Amharic, Tigre, and Tigrinya.  They established their capital at Axum 
  in Tigrinya country and underwent rapid expansion from the first to the 
  third century A.D., twice conquering and raiding (?) Yemen (300-373 and 524-
  590 A.D.).  Axum adopted Christianity before 400, but its spread was long 
  delayed (until the 13th and 14th centuries).  Axum disappears from history 
  after 700, and the spread of Islam soon cut Ethiopia off from the 
  Mediterrean world, with which it had long been in close contact.  A new 
  kingdom appear by 872 in northern Ethiopia, its subjects being mixed Amhara 
  and indigenous Agau or Central Cushites.  In 1137 an Agau dynasty came to 
  power at Roha, controlling Tigre and adjacent regions.  Eastern Shoa was 
  converted to Islam in 1108.  Moslem expansion, however, was stopped by the 
  Solomonid dynasty, which arose in 1270 and converted the pagans of western 
  Shoa and Samet (?) to Christianity, reaching its apex in 1468 and 
  immediately declining.  In the early 16th century (1529-33) the Moslem 
  Somali overran the country, but were defeated in 1541 with the aid of the 
  Portuguese, who had administered a crushing defeat to the Turks.  After 1700 
  the center of political power shifted from the Tigre to the Amhara, who made 
  Gondar their capital.  In 1855 King Theodore conquered Gojjam, Tigre, and 
  Shoa, creating a unified kingdom. In 1892 the capital was removed to Addis 
  Adaba.  The Ethiopians defeated the Italians in the war of 1895-96, but were 
  conquered by them in 1934, regaining their freedom in 1941. 

Selection of Focus: The Gondar District is selected as the site of Messing's 
  field work, but data from Gojjam and Shoa can be sued with due caution. 

Time: The date of 1953 is selected as that of Nessing's field work. 

Coordinates: The Amhara extend approximately from 8 to 14N and from 36 to  
  38E.  The coordinates for the Gondar district are given above under Focus. 

Standard Sample Unit 38 (GPM 9/1/68)

Sampling Province 43: Beja and Neighbors.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 95: Bogo (Belen,  Bilin), Ca 

Focus: The small Bogo tribe as a whole, located at about 15 45'N and 38 45'E, 
  in 1855. 

General Area: The Bogo are a small tribe in northern Eritrea speaking a 
  language of the Central or Agau branch of the Cushitic subfamily of the 
  Afroasiatic or Hamite-Semitic family.  They numbered about 8,400 in the 
  1850's, but were reported to have a population of 23,000 in 1931.  
  Originally Christian in religion, they were in the process of being 
  converted to Islam in Munzinger's time. 

Selection of Focus: The tribe is too small to be regionally differentiated in 

Time: The date of 1855 is selected as approximately that of Munzinger's field 

Coordinates: These given above under Focus are approximately and should be 

Standard Sample Unit 39 (GPM 9/21/68)

Sampling Province 44: Nubians.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 96: Kenuzi  (Beni Kenz, Kunuai, 

Focus: The  Kenuzi  or  northernmost  branch  of  the  Barabra  or Nile 
  Nubians, located along the Nile River in Egypt between 22 and  24  N and 
  between 32  and 33 E in 1900. 

General Area: The Nubians (Barabra, Berberi, Nile Nubians(, who speak a 
  language of the Nubian branch of the Eastern subfamily of the Sudanic 
  linguistic family, inhabit the banks of the Nile River from the First 
  Cataract at Aswan in the north to the Nile island of Tengassi in the south.  
  They are divided into: 
   1. The Kenuzi in the north, between the First and Second Cataracts, in 
   2. The Middle Nubians, variously known locally  as  Kushshaf,  Sukkot, and 
      Mahas, between the Second and Third Cataracts, in Sudan. 
   3. The  Danagla  in  the  south, in Sudan, from the Third Cataract to 
      Tengassi Island. 
    The ancestors of the Nubians were known to the ancient Egyptians, and 
  often politically subject to them.  In the Meroitic period (c.310-350 B.C.), 
  the Nubians were dominated by the Blemmye, a Beja period.  They accepted 
  Christianity in the 6th century after Christ and learned to write their 
  language in Ceptic characters.  The Christian state of Dongola was modeled 
  after Byzantium.  Dongola was dominated by Howara Berbers after 1412 and in 
  1504 was conquered by the Fung kingdom of Sennar.  After 1517 the Malelukes 
  of Egypt dominated the central and northern Danagla. After the fall of the 
  Christian kingdom of Kongola in 1351, Nubia was heavily penetrated by Arabs 
  and became partly acculturated to them in language.  The Barabra, however, 
  accepted Islam and remain Moslems today.  Their original Negroid blood over 
  time incorporated substantial Caucasoid admixture from the ancient 
  Egyptians, the Beja, the Howara berbers, Himyaritic and Hilalian Arabs, and 
  Turkish soldiers (the Turks maintained garrisons of Bosnians, Circasians, 
  Hungarians, Kurds, and other nationlities for l long period in Mahas 
  country.  The slave trade, especially in the 19th century, brought in a new 
  infusion of Negro blood.  Arabs are indistinguishable from them racially but 
  have adopted the Arabic language.  The Rabia and Aleiqat Arabs, who settled 
  in Nubia in the 9th century, have long since become completely absorbed by 
  the Kenuzi. Burckhardt, in the early 19th century, estimated the Nubian 
  population at about 100,000; the sources do not report exact population 

Selection of Focus: The Kenuzi are better  described  than  the  Nubian groups 
  in Sudan. 

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as immediately prior to the displacement of 
  the Kenuzi by the first Aswan dam, constructed between 1899 and 1903. 

Coordinates: The Nubians as a whole extend south along the Nile to 18 N.  The 
  Danagla extend north to 20 N, and the Middle Nubians are located between 20 
  and 22 N; both are located between 30 and 32 E. 

Standard Sample Unit 40 (DRW 11/13/68)

Sampling Province 45: Tebu (Note: this is a change from the earlier name).

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 106: Teda, Cc2:23 

Focus: The Teda of Tibesti, from 16  to 19 E and 19 to  22  N,  about 1930. 

General Area: The Teda are a major division within the Tebu (Toubou) tribes 
  which speak mutually intelligible dialects of the Kanuric or Central Saharan 
  linguistic family, the other main tribes of which are Bornu (Kanuri) and 
  Kanem (Kanembu).  The Teda are a Negro-Berber mixture inhabiting the Tibesti 
  massif and adjacent territory, while the Daza to the south, the other main 
  Tebu division, are more Negroid in their composition, and merge into the 
  Negroid Kanuri and Kanembu further south.  From historical reconstructions, 
  it is apparent that the early inhabitants of Tibesti were Berber clans 
  (Bardoa of Bardai Oasis, and possibly the Kosseda, numbering now about 
  1,200) who were conquered in about the 16th century by clans from Bornu, 
  particularly the Tomaghera aristocrats of today and their former rivals, the 
  Gunda, who were defeated and pushed to the west (including the smaller clan 
  of Tarsoa, the aristocratic clans today number about 900).  Certain Daza 
  groups entered Tibesti from the 15th to 17th centuries, including the 
  Derdekinshia from Kanem, who held the chieftainship prior to the Tomaghera, 
  and the Tchioda, Dirsina, Goboda, and Toroma (population 1,700); from the 
  central Daza region of Borku other immigrants included Odobava, Emewia, 
  Foktoa, and Keressa(pop.1,300).  Clans from the more distantly related 
  tribes to the southeast (whose classsification with the Tebu tribes is 
  dubious), from Ennedi and Bideyat, also immigrated to Tibesti in the 16th to 
  17th centuries (Mogodi, Tozoba, Terinntere, Tegua,, and Mada; numbering 
  about 1,700).  Immigrant clans from the northern oasis of Kufra and Djalo 
  (early 17th century, numbering about 1300, Fortena, Taizera, Mahadena) 
  complete the picture of settlement in Tibesti, except for a semi-sedentary 
  slave population of agriculturalists, the Kamadja, numbering about 500. 
     The early Tebu Berbers have been identified with Herodotuss' Garamantes, 
  with their capital at Garama.  There have also been Kanuric kingdoms among 
  the Tebu which have been in contact with the Arabs since the 8th or 9th 
  century, so that physical intermixture of the populations probably started 
  well before the Tomaghera chiefdom of the 16th century, which still shapes 
  the Teda social structure.  A period of drought and migration out of Tibesti 
  preceded the conquests of the Tomaghera, Gunda, and Arna, to which their was 
  intense resistence, particularly against political consolidation.  Teda 
  emigration extended to oases in the west on the Fezzan-Kanem caravan 
  route(Agram, Kawar, Jebado), north to Gatrun (25 N, 15 E) and Kugra Oasis, 
  and south into Daza and Kanembu territory.  With Turkish conquest of the 
  Fezzan in the early 19th century, most of the Teda withdrew from the 
  northern oases into the insulated refuge area of Tibesti.  Although the 
  southern Kanuri have been Moslem since the 11th century, political 
  confederacy under Isoam was reinforced by alliance with the Arabs against 
  the Turks, caravan trade to Kanen and Wadai , and the growth of the Senusi 
  brotherhood in the area after 1850. After the Mahdi revolt, the Senusi 
  headquarters was moved to Kufra and contact was intense until defeat of the 
  Mahdists by the French in 1907.  Turkish and French occupation was concluded 
  with peace in 1920, and Tibesti was transferred to French Equatorial Africa 
  (now Chad) in 1929.  Recent political events have apparently not had much 
  effect upon the Teda of Tibesti, still the most isolated of the Tebu groups.  
  Their population was estimated by Cline (1930) as 10,000 for Tibesti, 2,000 
  for Teda of Southern Fezzan, 4,000 in Kawar (Niger), and 10,000 amongst the 
  populations of Bornu and Kanem. 

Selection of Focus: The Teda of Tibesti is the focus of works by Chapelle, the 
  principal ethnographer, Briggs, Cline, and immigrant Daza groups should be 
  separated from other culturally marginal groups, as noted above. 

Time: 1930 is chosen as the approximate date of Chapelle's field work. 

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above are for the Tibesti Massif, heartland of 
  the Teda, although they are more concentrated in the western part of the 

Standard Sample Unit 41 (DRW 11/68)

Sampling Province 46: Tuareg

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 105: Ahaggaren (Ihaggaren, Kel 
  Ahaggar, Tuareg of Hoggar), Cc9:881. 

Focus: The Ahaggaren as a whole, located in the Ahafggar or Hoggar Mountains 
  and adjacent lowlands from 21  to 25 N and from 4  to 9 E, around 1900. 

General Area: The Tuareg, who speak closely related languages of the Berber 
  subfamily of Afroasiatic or Hamito-Semitic, occupy the habitable sections of 
  the west central Sahara Desert and have extended in historic times to the 
  Sudan south of the great bend of the Niger River.  They are divided  into 
  the following divisions, primarily political:
   1. Azjer (Kel Ajjer) in the Tasile-n-Ajjer Mountains in the north. 
   2. Ahaggaren (Kel Ahaggar) in the region of Ahhagar or Hoggar. 
    S. TUAREG but on outskirts of oasis and the Sudanese desert 
   3. Ifora (Kel Adrar) in the mountains of Adrar-n-Foras. 
   4. Asben (Kel Ayr) in the Massif of Ayr and the plains to the west and 
   5. Itesan (Kel Geres) south of the above in the plains around Tessawa. 
   6. Aulliminden (Iwllemmeden, Oulliniden in the plains around Tawa and 
   7. Kel Tadmaket (the Antessar of GPM) in the south around Timbuktu. 
   8. Udalan, including several local divisions south of the Niger bend. 
    It is probable that the Tuareg originally inhabited Tripolitania, whence 
  they were pushed south into the Sahara by the Jilalian immigration of 
  Bedouin Arabs in the eleventh century, or possibly by the still earlier Arab 
  expansion.  In the Sahara they conquered and reduced to serfdom the 
  indigenous Megroes, now called Harratin or Bella, who constitute a large 
  segment of the Tuareg population, together with slaves imported from the 
  Sudan.  The Tuareg are first mentioned by Arab authors of the middle ages - 
  especially Hawkal in the 10th century, El-Bekri in the 11th, Edrisi in the 
  12th, Ibn Batuta in the 14th, and Ibn Khaldun in the 14th.  The first modern 
  description is by Hornemann in 1798.  They were encountered by numerous 
  travelers in the 19th century, notably Lyon, Barth, and Duveyrier.  The 
  French began to establish military outposts in the Sahara at the beginning 
  of the 20th century, and from this time  on the descriptive literature 
  increases; Nicolaisen speaks with approval of the accounts of the Ahaggaren 
  by Blanguernon and Foucault as well of those listed in the bibliography 
  below.  In 1938 the Ahaggaren numbered 4,254 out of a total Tuareg 
  population of about 240,000. 

Selection of Focus: The Ahaggaren are the best described of the several 
  divisions of the Tuareg. 

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as prior to the French military occupation 
  of the Sahara.  There is sufficient information of an earlier date to round 
  out the richer later accounts. 

Coordinates: The Tuareg as a whole are located between 14  and 30 N and 
between 5 W and 10 E.  The coordinates for the Ahaggaren are given 
above under Focus. 

Standard Sample Unit 42 (GPM 9/1/68)

Sampling Province 48: Mountain and Coastal Berbers.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 109: Riffians (Rif), Cd3:123. 

Focus: The Berber-speaking Riffians of the Mediterranean coast of 
Morocco from 2 30' to 4 W at 34 20' to 35 30'N, in 1926. 

General Area: Under Riffians Coon includes not only the Berber-speaking 
  Riffians proper but also the Senhaja and Ghomara to the southwest and south 
  who are Arabic-speaking and are commonly included under the name Jebala.  
  The Phoenicians established trading posts on the coast as early as the 13th 
  century B.C., and later the Carathaginians dominated the coast until until 
  their defeat by Rome in 146 B.C.  Thereafter they have been subject 
  successively to the Romans, the Vandals (after 420 A.D.), the Byzantine 
  empire, the Arabs, the Turks, and the Moroccans.  The Arab conquerors 
  arrived in 688, and , after independent rules, they returned  in the 
  Hillalian invasion of 1216. In recent years the Riffians have been notorious 
  for their military assistance to Franco in the Spanish Civil War.  The 
  Riffians numbered about 400,000 in 1921.  Coon divided them into three 
  groups of tribes - eastern, central, and western - but does not stress 
  cultural differences except those between the speakers of Berber and Arabic. 

Selection of Focus: The Riffians as a whole. 

Time: The date of 1926 is chosen as that of the beginning of Coon's field 

Coordinates: Given above under Focus. 

Standard Sample Unit 43 (DRW 11/88)

Sampling Province 49: Arabs of North Africa.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 112: Egyptians, Cd2:124. 

Focus: The Egyptians of the town and environs of Silwa (24 45'N, 33 E) in the 
  southern border province of Aswan in 1950. 

General Area: The ancient Egyptians spoke a language of the Egyptian subfamily 
  of Afroasitic or Hamito-Semitic throughout the long period of political 
  independence in dynastic Egypt and the subsequent period of rule by the 
  Roman empires of the west and east.  In 639 A.D., however, they were 
  conquered from the Byzantine empire by the Arabs, initiating a sharp 
  cultural transition and a more gradual shift in language to Semitic Arabic, 
  which is spoken today by all but a small minority of Coptic Christians.  
  From the Arab conquest Egypt was ruled by the Eastern or Abbasid Caliphate 
  as a province with a governor until 969, when it was conquered by Fatimite 
  Caliphate of North Africa, which shifted its capital to Cairo.  In the 
  middle of the eleventh century began a mass invasion of Bedouins from 
  Arabia, many of whom settled down in the Nile valley, mixed with the 
  indigenous peasantry, and completed the transition ot Islam and an Arab mode 
  of life.  From 1171 to 1252 Egypt was ruled by the Ayyubid dynasty, which 
  owed nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliphate.  From 1252 to 1517 came 
  the rule of the Mamaluke dynasties, who had their capital at Cairo and also 
  acknowledged the nominal suzerainty of the Abbasid caliphs.  In the latter 
  year Egypt fell to the Turks, and was ruled thereafter by pashas from 
  Constantinople.  In 1879 began a period of Anglo-French  and British 
  control, which was succeeded by national independence in 1923.  The 
  population of Egypt, which was about 19,000,000 in 1947, is concentrated 
  almost exclusively on the bands and delta of the Nile River, the annual 
  flooding of which provides the basis for irrigated agriculture. their 
  capital at Cairo and also acknowledge 

Selection of Focus: The degree of cultural differentiation within Egypt being 
  undetermined, the community of Siwa is selected because of its full coverage 
  by a British-trained scholar (Ammar) who was also a native of the town.  The 
  other sources included under Category 3 in the bibliography deal with Upper 
  Egypt in general or with other communities and may possibly provide 
  supplementary information if used with caution. 

Time: The date of 1950 is chosen as approximately that of Ammar's field work. 

Coordinates: The Egyptians as a whole extend along the Nile and its delta from 
  about 23 30' to 31 30'N between 30  and 33 E. 

Sampling Province 50: Ancient Egypt.

Note: This province is vacated, at least temporarily; because of the extreme 
  difficulty of pinpointing an exact place and time for which there are 
  adequate data.  Possibly future research will make such pinpointing 
  possible - presumably for the New Empire (XVIII to XX Dynasties, c.1580 to 
  1100 B.C.), which is probably better described than the Old Kingdom (III to 
  VI Dynasties, c.2900 to 2550 B.C.) or the Middle Kingdom (XI to XX 
  Dynasties, c.2160 to 1780 B.C.). 

Standard Sample Unit 44 (HB 2/10/68)

Sampling Province 51: Jews.

Representative of Cluster 137: Ancient Hebrews (Isrealites), Cj 3:230. 

Focus: The Kingdom of Judah (or Judea) 30 30' to 31 55'N and 34 220' to 35 
  30'E, in 621 B.C. 

General Area: This Kingdom comprised two of the twelve of Israel (Judah and 
  Benjamin), occupying the southern portion of Palestine, in the western part 
  of the "fortele crescent."  The maximum population of Judah was probably 
  approximately 200,000.  The northern tribes comprised the Northern Kingdom, 
  also called Israel or Samaria, which was more populous (about 800,000 people 
  at the maximum), more prosperous, and occupying land which was more fertile.  
  Following a brief period of political union under Kings David and Solomon, 
  the two nations were politically separate beginning in 922 B.C.  Most of the 
  Mediterranean coast to the west and southwest was occupied by the hostile 
  Philistines, and Palestine was repeatedly threatened and often conquered by 
  Egypt from the southwest and by the successive empires of Assyria and 
  Babylon from the east.  The Northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by the 
  Assyrians in 721 B.C.  Judah survived as a separate nation, although often 
  under foreign domination, until Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians 
  in 587 B.C. 

Selection of Focus: The preservation of the traditional Hebrew culture and 
  religion was due to the people of Judah, during the three centuries of the 
  Two Kingdoms and also afterward, during the exile in Babylon and the 
  subsequent return to Palestine.  Jerusalem, the Capitol of Judah, was the 
  religious center, where the Temple was located. 

Time: 621 B.C. was the date of the promulgation of the Deuteronomic Laws, at 
  the climax of the religious reform under King Josiah, from 627 B.C. until 
  his death in 609 B.C.  In additional to these laws, the customs and event at 
  that time were unusually well recorded in the Old Testament by contemporary 
  Prophets, notably Jeremiah, and in the historical accounts in II Kings and 
  II Chronicles.  This area of religious reform was also a time when the 
  Kingdom of Judah was briefly free from foreign domination. 

Coordinates: Josiah apparently conquered all of the former territory of the 
  Northern Kingdom and parts of the adjacent regions, so that Judah's 
  political control by 621 B.C. probably extended from 29 40' to 33 20'N and 
  from 34 10' to 36 E.  The Capitol (Jerusalem) was at 31 47'N and 35 14'E. 

Standard Sample Unit 45 (GPM 1/4/68)

Sampling Province 53: Ancient Mesopotamia.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 140: Babylonians, Cj4:413. 

Focus: The city and environs of Babylon, capital of the Babylonian Empire (32 
  35'N, 44 45'E), at the end of the region of Hammurabi, about 1750 B.C. 

General Area: Ancient Mesopotamis (modern Iraq), where a flourishing urban 
  civilization developed by 3000 B.C., was inhabited by two major peoples - 
  the Semitic-speaking Akkadians in the north and the Sumerians (speaking a 
  language of a now extinct family) in the south.  The city states of (Kish, 
  French, Ur, etc.) were culturally and politically dominant until about 2340 
  B.C., after which domination passed to the Semites of Akkad.  Around 2360, 
  Sargon established the Akkadian empire, which united all of Mesopotamia but 
  collapsed about 2180 B.C. After a period of chaos and disintegration a new 
  united empire was established by Hammurabi (ragnit 1792 to 1750 B.C.), sixth 
  king of the ruling Semitic dynasty of Babylon.  This Babylonian empire was 
  succeeded, after an interval, by domination by the Kassites of Elam until 
  about 1180 B. C.; then, after the 9th century, by the Assyrian empire; and 
  thereafter by the Neo-Babylonian of Chaldean empire, again centered on the 
  city of Babylon, which lasted from 625 B.C. until conquered by the Persians 
  in 538 B.C. The Sumerians disappear from history after the rise of 

Selection of Focus: The city of Babylon and its environs for a radius of about 
  50 miles at the climax of the reign of Hammurabi is selected as the focus 
  because its culture is most fully described, including the famous law code 
  of Hammurabi. 

Time: The date of 1750 B.C. is that of the end and climax of the reign of 

Coordinates: Given above under Focus. 

Standard Sample Unit 46 (GPM 9/29/68)

Sampling Province 52: Arabs of Arabia and the Levant.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 108: Rwala, Cj2:132. 

Focus: The Rwala of south central Syria and northeastern Jordan, located 
  between 31  and 35 30'N and between 36  and 41 E, around 1913. 

General Area: The Rwala, who speak and Arabic language of the Semitic 
  subfamily of Afroasiatic or Hamiato-Semitic, are one of the Aneze (Anazah) 
  tribes of north Arabian Bedouins.  As pastoral nomads, they range over a 
  wide area, not only in Syria and Jordan but also in northern Saudi Arabia 
  and western Iraq.  In general, their winter pastures are in the north, their 
  summer pastures in the southwest and south.  Their population in Syria was 
  estimated at 14,000 in 1930, and their total numbers may well be several 
  times as many.  Their country was conquered successively in antiquity by the 
  Egyptians, Assyrians, Hittites, Persians, Macedonians, and Romans.  After 
  633 it was subject to the Bagdad caliphate and from the 12th century by the 
  Mamelukes. It was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1516 and remained under 
  their political control until 1918. 

Selection of Focus: The major work on the Rwala was done in Syria, though 
  Raswan also worked in Saudi Arabia. 

Time: The date of 1913 is selected as that of the beginning of the field work 
  of Raswan and as early in that of Musil. 

Coordinates: Depending on the condition of the summer pastures, the Rwala may 
  range as far south as 28 N and as far east as 42 E. 

Standard Sample Unit 47 (DRW 10/5/68)

Sampling Province 54: Turkey

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 136: Turks, Ci5:653. 

Focus: Moslem peasants of the northern Anatolian Plateau, from 32 40' to 35 
  50'E and 38 40' to 40 N, about 1950. 

General Area: The Turkish language falls in the Turkmen group, Turkic family 
  of the Altaic linguistic phylum.  This has been the dominant language of 
  Anatolia since the appearance of the politically dominant Ottoman Turks in 
  the 13th century.  Before them, the Seljuk Turks (both part of the western 
  Oguz confederation of Turkish tribes) had established an empire which 
  stretched from Anatolia to the Indus by the 11th century.  It is 
  historically documented that the Oguz nomadic  tribes dominated the entire 
  region from Mongolia to the Black Sea in the 6th century.  It is owed to 
  these Turkic groups, and about 75 to the earlier populations from the 
  Eurasian steppes and around the Black and Caspian seas.  The Hittite empire 
  of the Mesopotamia was extended to Anatolia by 1800 B.C., but this was later 
  followed by Persian, Macedonian, Celtic, Roman, Arab, and finally Turkish 
  invasions.  The ultimate consolidation of the Ottoman Turks was based on the 
  Mongol defeat of the Seljuks, and the Moslem holy war against the infidels 
  in the west (Byzantine Christians), from which the early semi-nomadic 
  Ottoman sultanate drew strength.  Their conquest of Constantinople and much 
  of the Near Africa followed.  But imitation of the Byzantine 'caging' of the 
  ruler and his separation from the military helped the gradual decay of state 
  organization until its crisis period in the 19th  century: the Greek 
  uprising in 1822-27 and Russian intervention in 1828-29 by which it gained 
  independence; the revolt of Rosnia and Albania and French occupation of 
  Algiers in 1830; the Egyptian military revolt which removed Syria, Egypt, 
  Crete, and Damascus from Ottoman rule in 1833.  Strengthening by European 
  treaty and the constitutional movement of the Young Turks did not forestall 
  the breakup of the empire: the Russo-Turkish wars of 1877-78, with the loss 
  of Rumania, Serbia, Monteregro, and parts of Bulgaria; the Italian- and 
  Balkan-Turkish wars of 1911, with the loss of North Africa territories of 
  Tripoli and Cyrenaica; and the treaties which ceded the Greek Islands and 
  the remainder of the Balkan territory.  At the end of WWI, the alignment of 
  the allies against Turkey and the antagonism of the last of the Ottoman 
  rulers against the Young Turk political element brought about the formation 
  of a new Ankara government, at war with the Greeks over western Anatolia.  
  Finally the sultanate was abolished, a treaty made with Greece, and the 
  Republic of Turkey was established with the expulsion of the Ottoman dynasty 
  and the end of Pan-Islamism in Turkey.  Anakara was made the new capital. 
    The present Republic of Turkey can be divided into seven major economic 
  and cultural regions: 
   1. The European-Turkey triangle, including Istanbul, between the Black and 
      Marmara Seas, where fishing is an important industry.     
   2. The Black Sea coast, with heavy forests and production of various nut 
      crops in the west, and a fishing industry. 
   3. Western Anatolia, from the Aegean coastline up to about 30 E, up to 
      the central plateau, which is well forestod, and important source of 
      olive production, and with a fishing industry. 
   4. The southern coast and Taurus mountains just south of the central 
      plateau, which supports olive production and cedar forests. 
   5. The Analolian plateau, from 30 E to about 38 , mainly semidesert or 
      stepped except for fertile lands along rivers, and numerous depressions 
      forming marshes or the lakes. South of Ankara is flat and arid, but from 
      the west clockwise around to the southeast are rolling uplands and 
      numerous agricultural villages.  Population density is lower than 
      anywhere else in Turkey. 
   6. Southern Turkey, in the watershed of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 
      separate from the central plateau by mountains ranges.  Villages are 
      mainly on tributarias of the Euphrates, since the flatlands between the 
      rivers and the high mountains to the east are inhospitable. 
   7. Northeastern Turkey, a mountainous volcanic area between the coast and 
      the Tigris-Euphraties valley, largely inhabited by Anmcuians. Cultural 
      differentiation among the largely peasant agriculturalists of Turkey is 
      not marked, but generally follows the regional differences above. 

Time: 1950 corresponds to the dates of field work by Stirling and Makal, with 
  Spencer Pierce's work somewhat later, and Yasa and Morrison's work in the 
  1940's and 1930's, respectively. 

Selection of Focus: The northern upland of the Anatolian plateau contain 
  numberous orthodox Moslem peasant villages which have been studied in recent 
  decades.  They present a fair amount of cultural homogeneity, and are all 
  located in the large oval area of the upland Kizil River between Ankara in 
  the northwest and Kayseri in the southeast.  This region, including these 
  two major towns, should be treated as the unit for coding, but regional or 
  community differences should be carefully noted. 

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, represent the region selected/  Anakara 
  is located at 32 40'E and 40 N, and Kayseri at 35 30'E and 38 45'N.  See the 
  map attached for the location of each of the peasant villages or regions 
  which has been studied. 

Standard Sample Unit 48 (GPM 9/29/68)

Sampling Province 55: Southeastern Europe.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 115: Gheg (Northern Albanbians), 

Focus: The Mountain Gheg of northern Albania, located between 4120' and 
  4240'N from 1930' to 2030'E, in 1910. 

General Area: The Albanians, who constitute a separate subfamily of the Indo-
  European linguistic family, fall into two divisions whose languages are not 
  mutually intelligible. 
   1. The Tosk or southern Albanians, of whom the majority are Moslems and a 
      strong minority are Greek Orthodox Christians. 
   2. The Gheg or Northern Albanians, with a Moslem majority and a strong 
      minority of Roman Catholic Christians.  The Gheg are divided into (a) 
      Lowland Gheg and (b) Mountain or Highland Gheg.  The latter numbered 
      about 250,000 in 1930, of whom 160,000 were Moslems and 90,000 
      Catholics.  Islams is, in general, stronger in the east.  The Gheg 
      extend across the border into Yugoslavis in the north and east.  In 1960 
      the total population of Albania was c.1,670-000.  
    The Albanians are descended from the ancient Illyrians and Trhacians.  
  Owing to their inaccessible habitat, the Mountain Gheg were never fully 
  subjugated by the Greeks, Macedonians, Romans, and Byzantines who controlled 
  in turn the Albanian lowlands.  They were, however, conquered and reduced by 
  the Turks, who occupied their country from 1476 to 1913, and who introduced 
  Islam and in other respects exerted a stronger influence than any other 
  outsiders.  Since 1946 Albania has had a Communist government, which since 
  1960 has aligned itself with China against the Soviet Union. 

Selection of Focus: Coon did field work with all ten of the major tribes of 
  Mountain Gheg, and Durham with all except the Dibra in the extreme 
  southeast.  If coders find substantial regional differences in culture 
  between the tribes (Malsia e Madhe, Malsia e Jakoves, Dukaghin, Has, Puka, 
  Luma, Mirdita, Zadrima, Mati, and Dibra - N to S), they should perhaps give 
  precedence to the Dukaghin trive in the vicinity of Shala, on which a 
  cursory survey indicates the data are particularly rich. 

Time: The date of 1910 is selected as approximately that of the beginning of 
  Durham's field work and because Coon specifically chooses the decades from 
  1890 to 1910 as his "ethnographic present."  This was also two years before 
  the expulsion of the Turks in the two Balkan Wars. 

Coordinates: Given under Focus above.  Shala is located at approximately 
  4220'N and 1950'E. 

Standard Sample Unit 49 (DRW 5/23/69)

Sampling Province 56: Southwestern Europe

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 116: Romans, Ce3:126

Focus:  The City of Rome under the Emperor Trajan, 1230'e and 4150'N, in 110 

General Area:  There are three general periods of Roman history prior to its 
  decline on which information is reliable:  the Late Republic (up to 133 
  B.C.), Transitional (from the Gracchi, 133 B.C. thru Caesar's death, 44 B.C., 
  and the Second Triumvirate, lasting till 33 B.C.) and the Early Empire or 
  Principate, from 27 B.C. to 284 A.D., marked by two centuries of peace (until 
  167 A.D.).  Primary documentation during the period of Cicero and caesar is 
  extensive but primarily concerned with political affairs and civil war; it is 
  only during the Early Empire, particularly the letters of Pliny the Younger 
  and histories of Tacitus and Dio Cassius, that these accounts deal more 
  extensively with administrative problems and social life.  Accounts of social 
  life deal with Bithnia (later Bizantium) and Euboea (a Greek Island) in the 
  Roman Provinces; interpretations of social life in Rome scarcely exist except 
  for secondary works.

Selection of Focus:  Good accounts enable the selection of Rome during the 
  Early Empire as the focus, with the accounts drawing upon the primary works 
  of Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Dio Chrysostom and Pliny the Younger.  Either the 
  rule of Trajan or Hadrian are the best described temporal focus, with 
  preference to Trajan because of the Letters and Panegyric connected with him, 
  written by Pliny the Younger.

Time:  110 A.D. is the twelfth year of Trajan's rule, at the time when Pliny 
  the Younger, previously a treasurer and administrator in Rome, was sent  to 
  Bithnia with Trajan.  Trajan had expanded the Empire by conquest at this 
  point and was regarded as one of the best public servants (Optimus) that the 
  Empire had experienced.

Coordinates:  Those under Focus, above.
Standard Sample Unit 50 (DRW 3/18/68)

Sampling Province 56: Southwestern Europe

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 118: Basques (Note change of 
  focus from French Basques in the Ethno-Atlas to Spanish Basques). 

Focus: Mountain villages in Navarre of Vera de Bidasoa, Echalar and Aranaz, 
  which form an administrative unit (including two other villages) within the 
  provincial administration of Pamplona, from 1 45'W and 43 12' to 43 20'N, in 

General Area: The Basques speak an independent non-Indo-European language, 
  possibly representing one of the oldest in Europe.  They inhabit the 
  provinces of Navarre, Guizpuscoa, Vizcaya and Alava of Spain (the latter 
  three called the "Basques Provinces") and the adjacent region of the 
  Pyrences in France, Bearn Province. 
    There are several surveys of the French and Spanish Basques, and 
  literature for the 19th and early 20th centuries is much better for the 
  French section but Spanish ethnography was done in Alava from 1920-35 
  (interrupted by civil war), and resumed by Caro-Baroja and others for 
  Navarre and other districts, including the village of Sara, just over the 
  French border, studied by Barandisran.  The most complete Spanish Basque 
  ethnographies are by Caro-Baroja (vera de Bidasoa) and Douglas (Murelaga and 
  Echalar), and two of these communities are part of a single tiny political 
  unit in the mountainous region close to the border (Bidasoa and Echalar).  A 
  third community within this same unit has been studied by students of 
  Barandiaran (Pena and Ayestaran). 

Selection of Focus: Bidasoa is chosen as the best-described Basque community 
  in either Spain or France; this account is supplemented by reports by 
  separated authors on neighboring communities in the same economic and 
  political unit, thus the unit is the administrative district containing 
  several communities.  Bidasoa should be used for community codes, checking 
  against the other sources. 

Time: 1940 is the date of Caro-Baroja's field work in Bidasoa. 

Coordinates: Vera de Bidasoa is located at 1 40'W and 43 18'N. 

Standard Sample Unit 51 (DRW 10/5/68)

Sampling Province 57: Northwestern Europe

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 120: Irish, Cg3:128. 

Focus: The Parish of Kinvarra (535'N, 9W) on Galway Bay in western Ireland 
  on the border between County Galway (Connacht Province) and County Clare 
  (Munster Province), in 1955.
General Area: Although the Irish are now predominantly English-speaking 
  (Germanic subfamily, Indo-European family), the original Celtic population 
  spoke Gaelic (Goidelic branch, Celtic family), and small pockets of Gaelic 
  speech still survive.  The Celtic invasions, dated at about the 5th C., 
  B.C., overshadowed an earlier Pict population of un-known linguistic 
  affinities.  By the time of Christ, the small Celtic chiefdoms had formed 
  into five major states - Ulster, Meath, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught - 
  four of which are now provinces, with Meath now a county in north Leister.  
  From the 4th to 9th centuries the  midland kingdom of Meath conquered all of 
  north Ireland, with the smaller kingdom of Munster dominating the south 
  (county Claire was added to Munster at this time, taken form Connaught).  
  Catholic missions, starting in the 5th century (St. Patrick) laid the basis 
  for monasticism and conversation of the population to Roman Catholicism.  In 
  the 8th century Norsemen took Dublin, and by the 10th century had conquered 
  most of central Ireland.  A Clare dynasty took over the Munster kingship, 
  and in the 11th defeated the Morse to establish the first united kingdom of 
  Ireland,  Succession was opposed in the latter part of the century, and in 
  the 12th century the English invaded and held domination over island until 
  the 20th century, where continuing military and parliamentary rebellion 
  established the Irish Free State, or Republic of Ireland,  Practically every 
  century in between has been marked by some sort of  Irish opposition to 
  English rule: 14-15th Irish cultural revival and Gaelicization of English 
  colonists, 16th century rebellions; the 17th Jacobite wars in which the 
  exiled Catholic King James was finally defeated and the Protestants gained 
  the upper hand in Ireland; 18th century parliamentary opposition and 
  rebellion in 1795-1846 the 19th century demand for repeal of the new Union, 
  Catholic emancipation, the post-famine Fenian movement and home rule 
  movement.  The great Potato Famine 1846, of decades.  In Ulster, however, 
  the conservative Unionist party was strong, and they resisted the home rule 
  legislation which was likely to pass the House of Lords in the 1920's.  
  South Ireland resisted a comprise move by the British government, and in 
  1921 formed the  political unit of Northern Ireland.  The Anglo-Irish war 
  continued in the south until a peace treaty was signed in 1921, establishing 
  the divisions of Connacht, Leister, Munster, and 3 of the 9 counties of 
  Ulster still obtain in the Irish Free State. 

Selection of Focus: Kinvarra parish, described by Cresswell, is taken as the 
  focus, superceding the Irish of County Clare, from 52 40' to 53 10'N and 8 
  20' to 10 W, in 1932, studied by Arensberg. [Note: CCCCC codes 1, 2, 4 use 
  Kinvarra; code 3 mistakenly uses Carraroe, County Galway, studied by Kane].
Time: 1960 is the date of Cresswell. 

Coordinates: Those of county Claire are given under Focus, above.  The 
  province of Munster extends from 7  to 10 15'W and 51 30' to 53 10'N. 

Standard Sample Unit 52 (DRW 11/2/68)

Sampling Province 58: Finnic Peoples

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 123: Swedish-Mountain Lapps, 

Focus: The Konkama Lapps of Karesuando Parish, Northern Sweden, home district 
  from 68 20' to 69 05'N and 20 05' to 23 E, about 1950. 

General Area: The Konkama Lapps speak a regional variant of the Northern or 
  Finnmark Lappish dialect, Finnic linguistic family.  Finnmark Lapps inhabit 
  the territory from northern Norway, where about 2/3 practice a maritime 
  economy, across northern Sweden and Finland where they are primarily 
  dependent upon Reindeer herding, with some lake fishing and hunting.  Within 
  this area, the dialect of Konkama district is similar to that of northeast 
  Finland.  Lule-Lappish is spoken to the south in Norway and sweden, and 
  completes the group of three dialects within the Northern Lappish.  Eastern 
  Lappish includes the Inari fisherman and Skolt Lapps of Finland and the Kola 
  Lapps in Russia.  Southern Lappish is spoken in Norway and Sweden 
  approximately south of 66 N latitude. 
     Konkama District is the northernmost of three Swedish northern woodland-
  mountainous areas, including Lainbvuoma which constitutes the southern part 
  of Parish.  All of these groups nomadize from Sweden to the Norweigian 
  coast, following the seasonal patterns of the reindeer, so the territory 
  covered in a year is much larger than the home District.  In addition, each 
  band is composed of members which may come from a number of surrounding 
  areas, including the adjacent Utsjoki and Enontekio areas in northwestern 
  Finland, the Kautokeino further to the north in Norway (southern part of the 
  Finnmark Vidda area), or from further south in Sweden, in the Jukkasjarvi 
  Parish.  In all of these areas, the pattern of Reindeer herding is similar, 
  based on extensive herding of large and wild herds, as opposed to the 
  intensive pattern of small and tame herds in Southern-Central Lappland (Lule 
  and Southern Lappish areas). 
     In 1951 there were only 193 persons and 12,000 reindeer in Konkama 
  District; in 1930 the population of Karesuando Parish (including the 
  Lainiovuoma District) was estimated at 1,100, as compared with about 18,500 
  people for Jukkasjarvi Parish, of approximately the same size.  The 
  population density of these two Parishes was about the same at the beginning 
  of the 19th century, and the relative decrease in which restricted the 
  number of Swedish Reindeer permitted in Norwegian spring and summer pasture 
  grounds, and forced over half the Karesuando Lapps to emigrate further 
  south, swelling the population figures for Jukkasjarvi Parish. 

Selection of Focus: Pehrson studied the five bands of Konkama Lapps.  The 
  largest and best studied band (band B) was an enen mixture of Karesuando and 
  Kautokeino (Norweggian) Lapps, with distinct dialect and clothing.  Whitaker 
  studied the adjacent Swedish Mountain Lapp band of Lainiovuoma (also in 
  Karesuando Parish), and Turi's narrative pertains to the Swediah Mountain 
  Lapps of Jukkasjarvi Parish (probably the Saarivuoma group).  These two 
  auxiliary sources (classed under #2, below) should be used only where 
  necessary for inferential purposes.  Sources listed under #3, below, should 
  only be used with great caution. 

Time: 1950 approximates the dates of Pehrson's field work. 

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, indicate only the home District of the 
  Konkama.  They nomadize to about 69 N and 18 E. 

Standard Sample Unit 53 (DRW 10/4/68 - proofed 88)

Sampling Province 73: Ostyak and Samoyed.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 150: Yurak Samoyed (Nencha, 
  Nenets, Tundra Samoyed), Ec4:136. 

Focus: The Tundra Yurak (Nenets) of the Barents Sea (The Mezen and Pechora 
  mainland Districts and the islands of Kanin, Waigatz, and Novaya Zemlya), 
  from 47 to 62E, and 65 to 71N, about 1890. 

General Area: The Samoyed inhabit a 1,500 mile stretch of subarctic European 
  Russia and Western Siberia, and speak languages and dialects of the 
  Samoyedic subfamily of the Uralic linguistic family.  Five major groups, 
  each with a distinct language, have survived into the 20th century, and they 
  occupy three ecological regions in northeastern Russia: 
   1. The Tundra Yurak (Tundra Nenets), numbering 14,000 in 1926, who inhabit 
      the coastal area along the northern seacoast and offshore islands, from 
      the Mezen River, Pechora River, and Yamal Peninsula to the Yenisey 
   2. The Nganasan (Tavgi, numbering 770) and Enets (Tundra Yenisey and Forest 
      Yenisey, numbering 460), who inhabit the coast further to the northeast 
      in the Tyrmyr District. 
   3. The Forest Nenets (1-1,500) and Sel'kup or Ostyak-Samoyed (4,500), who 
      occupy the forested inland region between the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers, 
      south and southeast of the Yuraks. The Sel'kup are furthest to the south 
      and have the most distinctive of the Samoyed languages. The Kama 
      subtribe also inhabited this region, but is now extinct. 
    The total Samoyed population in 1926 was about 21,000, in 1897 about 
  16,000, and has grown to 30,000 in 1959 under the Soviets. 
       Originally an inland hunting and fishing people, the Samoyed have been 
  pushed in the last four millennia from a Uralic homeland shared with the 
  Finno-Ugrians, first, to the east, into the forested Siberian lowlands, and 
  then to the north where they dispersed along the subarctic coast and adopted 
  reindeer herding. Around 2,000 B.P. expansion of Turkic groups into the Ob' 
  River and surrounding area established trade contacts with the Samoyeds. The 
  Nenets group split off to the north and pushed to the coast by about 1500 
  B.P., displacing and absorbing the Paleo-Siberian hunters of that area. By 
  the 12th century the Nenets had fanned out to the west, and the Nganasan  
  and Enets to the east. The southern group (Sel'kup) meanwhile had come under 
  domination of the Tatar empire.  Russian conquest from the 13th to the 17th 
  centuries was followed by colonization of fortified towns throughout the 
  entire region, and the imposition of taxation on the Samoyed. In the early 
  19th century there were numerous uprisings among the Nenets, but during the 
  latter part of the century large trading companies established economic 
  hegemony. With taxation and debtor relations, 85% of the total reindeer 
  herds came into outside ownership by the end of the century. The change to 
  Soviet rule in 1917 first brought a certain degree of autonomy to district 
  administration, then economic collectivization in the 1930's and enforced 
  sedentarization in the 1950's, and the introduction of farming to some 
  areas. The Nenet language was adopted for writing and has become the 
  dominant language of the schools and of Samoyed literature. 

Selection of Focus: The Yurak of the Barents Sea (the western half of area #1 
  above), excluding over half of the Yurak on the Kara Sea to the northeast, 
  are chosen because they were extensively explored by travellers in the 19th 
  century. The heart of the Yurak territory is contained in this area, in the 
  Pechora District. The groups visited by Jackson, Englehardt, Rae and Islavin 
  fall within a diameter of about 500 miles: Kanin peninsula in the southwest; 
  mainland Mezen District north of the Mezen River, which includes the Timan 
  Tundra, Pechora River and District to the northeast, and the islands of 
  Kolguev, Waigatz, and southern Novaya Zemlya. All of these groups exhibit a 
  similar migratory pattern, and can probably comprise a single unit of 
  description. The acculturated village of Schoina on the Kanin Peninsula 
  should probably be excluded although Rae's data may be helpful. 

Time: 1894 marks the date of travels of two of the main authorities, although 
  Islavin's work was done 50 years prior, in 1844. 

Coordinates: Those given under Focus, above, specify the eastern subgroup of 
  region #1, as chosen for the focus. The overall extent of the Yurak Samoyed 
  is from 47 to about 83E (62 for focus) along the subarctic coast, and 
  from about 73N (71 for focus) from the Lower Yenisey River south to about 

Standard Sample Unit 54 (DRW 11/8/68)

Sampling Province 59: Northeastern Europe

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 1126: Great Russians, Ch11:new 

Focus: great Russian peasantry of Viriatino Village (Kolknoz) Oblast 41 20'E 
  and 52 40'N in 1955. 

General Area: The Russian language as part of the eastern branch of the Slavic 
  subfamily, with Belorussian and Ukrainian, of the Indo-European linguistic 
  family.  Its 114,000,000 speakers make up the majority of the population of 
  the Soviet Union,(55%), and although they  are spread throughout the country 
  the historical homeland has been the backbone of the peasantry.  The village 
  was traditionally organized as an  agricultural commune, self-governing with 
  intensive agriculture (mainly rye) and viticulture.  The predominant 
  religion since the 10th century was Eastern Orthodox Christian, but a 17th 
  century split in the Russian Orthodox Church resulted in the Old Believers 
  and other sects maintaining more traditionlist ways. 
     The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 was joined to a Russian Agrarian 
  Revolution which had its beginnings several decades earlier.  The main 
  effects of the Revolution on Great Russian culture, in addition to total 
  reorganization of the state, were the extent of urbanization (58% of Great 
  Russians in all the U.S.S.R. were urban in 1959, as compared to 18% before 
  the Revolution) and in the villages, new forms of collectivization of 
  agriculture, growth of the party apparatus, and suppression of autonomous 
  social and cultural activities.  After the forceful requisition of food from 
  the peasants following the Revolution, and the peasant withholding of 
  surpluses combined with a two-year famine, the government was forced to 
  recognize partial capitalism in the New Economic Policy which allowed the 
  peasant to sell his grain.  Output rose, but the intended voluntary growth 
  of collective agriculture - the sovkhoz -  did not materialize.  It was only 
  with Stalin that the Soviet State attempted to remake rural Russia in the 
  Bolshevik image: the kulak (wealthy peasant) was stripped of property, and 
  sovkhoz were formed forcibly to serve as industrialized food factories.  
  Between 1929 and 30 the percentage of collectivized land rose from 8% to 
  58%, and practically all of the land was to follow within a few years.  But 
  the peasants again resisted by slaughtering animals rather than having them 
  collectivized, and between their hoarding of grain and the zeal of the 
  commune organizer searching for private surpluses, the 'good harvest' of 
  1932 turned into a disasterous man-made famine (by 1933 the number of all 
  large livestock had dropped by 50% and sheep and goats by 70%).  Facing 
  this, Stalin urged adoption of the agricultural artel (kolkhoz) with small 
  individual kitchen gardens as preferable to the completely socialized 
  wovkhoz.  All other sources of livelihood were severely penalized of taxed, 
  and the peasants, although they abandoned the communes in large numbers 
  after stalin's 'relaxation ' were forced back to the new kolkhov within a 
  matter of months. This form of agricultural organization was successful, 
  partly because it was based around the traditional village and mir 
  organization and task groups were little more than one's immediate family 
  and friends. But since the form of kolkhoz was officially democratic, state 
  controls proved exceedingly difficult, and kolkhoz out put stagnated with 
  kitchen production increased. Khuuschev rose to power during his attempt to 
  rectify this situation following the Stalinist lie that the kolkhoz must be 
  expanded so as to weaken kinship and village autonomy, strengthen central 
  decision making, and adjust the larger agricultural acreage to the 
  requirements of farm mechanization. The merger of the Machine and Tractor 
  Stations with the enlarge kolkhoz also provided for centralized accounting 
  of output related to machinery use. At the same time heavy taxation (in the 
  form of state quotas) on the kolkhoz favored the sovkhoz, with its state-
  guaranteed income, so that sovkhov formation had expanded to 1/4 of the 
  arable land by 1958. Thus one problem in coding the soviet rural society is 
  in observing just how much of the traditional social organization has 
  remained under the state-induced change in the administrative apparatus of 
  agriculture. From the state point of view, the changes under Stalin were 
  certainly the most far-reaching, but for the peasant society, perhaps 
  Khruschev's revisions will have had the most telling effect. 

Selection of Focus: Kushner and others (Principal Authorities) la 1952-56 

Time: 1952-56 

Coordinates: see preceding page