Standard Sample Unit 19 (DRW 9/5/68)

Sampling Province 20: Akan

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 45: Ashanti, Af3:111 (Asante)

Focus: The Kumasi State of the Ashanti Union, from 0  to 3 W and 6 to 8 N
  about 1895.

General Area: The Ashanti and related Akyem, Anyi, Attie, Baule, Brong, Fanti
  and Guang speak languages of the Akan subdivision, Twi branch, of the Kwa
  subfamily of Niger-Congo linguistic stock.  The Akan speaking peoples were
  originally situated to the north of Ashanti, where, in the 14th Century,
  they had founded the city'state on Bono,k and flourished in the trade in
  gold and slaves.  The first established Ashanti Conferearcy of eight city-
  states, in the Kumasi forested region, was established in 1701, and in 1740-
  42 the Ashanti conquered and destroyed  Bono, and conquered the peoples of
  the northern region, the peoples of the three Akim states to the southeast,
  and those of the Sefwi in the west.  At its peak, the Ashanti Union included
  the original eight and an additional fifteen conquered states.  In the 19th
  Ccentury, the British, allied with other tribes of the Gold Coast, fought
  eight major wars with the Ashanti, ending in exile of the King in 1896, and
  British conquest in 1900.  Busia calls the traditional system the Ashanti
  Union to distinguish it from the Ashanti Confederacy which was re-
  established by the Nigerian Gov't. in 1935.
     The Fanti and Akyem, to the south and east, speak dialects mutually
  intelligible with Ashanti(Ashante); Sefwi and Nzima, of different Twi
  subdivisions, are found in the southwestern part of Ashantiland on the Gold

Selection of Focus: The state of Kumasi, one of the original eight in the
  Confederacy, is the nucleus of the Ashanti Union, with its capital city of
  Kumasi.  The organization of other states varies somewhat from Kumasi, and
  the Union political apparatus is based in Kumasi, making this the logical
  unit of study.  Rattray and Fortes, as well as the historical sources, have
  good descriptions of the Kumasi City and District.

Time: 1895 is the date selected as the last year in which the Union was intact
  before defeat by the British, exile of the King, and conquest.

Coordinates: Those under focus are the extent of the Kumasi district or state
  the City of Kumasi is located at 2 20'W and 6 40'N.  The district extends
  nearly 200 miles east-west, counting a narrow extention in the northeast.
  It is broadest in the center, measuring 70 miles north-south.

Standard Sample Unit 20 (DRW 9/68)

Sampling Province 21: Grain Coast.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 48 : Mende (Kosso, Mendi),

Focus: The Mende in the vicinity of the town of Bo, located at about 7 50'N
  and 12 W, in 1945.

General Area: The Mende, who speak a language of the Mende subfamily of Niger-
  Congo, inhabit central Sierra Leone and extend across the border into
  western Liberia.  They fall into three divisions as follows:
   1. Kpa Mende in the west, with 20 per cent of the tribe's population.
   2. Sewa Mende in the center, with 35 per cent of the population.  Bo is
   3. Ko Mende to the east, with 45 per cent of the population.  Groups of
      Malinke, Fulani, Lime, and Susu form enclaves in Mende territory; 50 per
      cent of the town of Bo is non-Mende.   The Mende are particularly
      closely related to the Kono to the north, with whom they were united
      until the wars of the 19th Century.  The Mende of Sierra Lione were
      reported to number 580,000 in 1931, and in 1951 were estimated at nearly
      a million, including those in Liberia.  A minority of the tribe has
      embraced Islam.

Selection of Focus: The Mende around Bo were selected as the site of Little's
  field research and because of their central location.

Time: The date of 1945 is chosen as that of the beginning of Little's field

Coordinates: The territory of the Mende extends from 7 20' to 8 35N and from
  10  to 12 40'W.  The coordinates of the town of Bo are given under Focus

Standard Sample Unit 21 (GPM 8/26/68)

Sampling Province 22: Senegambians.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 51 : Wolof (Ouolof), Ob2:21.

Focus: The Wolof of Upper and Lower Salum in the Gambia, centering on 13 45''N
  and 15 20'W, in 1950.

General Area: The Wolof, who speak languages of the Atlantic subfamily of
  Niger-Congok live in western Senegal and adjacent Gambia.  They are divided
  into eight divisions:
   1. Walo in the extreme north.
   2. Jolof in the northeast.
   3. Kayor in the west.
   4. Baol in the west, south of Kayor.
   5. Sine in the west, south of Baol.
   6. Salum in the southeast.
   7. Barra in the southwest.
   8. Baddibu in the south, east of Barra and sousthwest of Salum.
    At one time they occupied the north bank of the Senegal River, whence they
  were driven south by the Mauritanians, and Futa Toro to the east, whence
  they were driven west by the Futajalonke.  Under Arab and Fulani pressure
  they drove the Serere, who had previously inhabited Sine and Salum, farther
  south;  this was after 1860, so that the Wolof of the Gambia have occupied
  their present territory for only about a century.  In the 17th Century, when
  the wolof state reached its maximum extent, it was dominated by the ruler of
  Jolof, to whom the states of Kayou, Baol, Walo, Sine, and Salum owed
  allegiance.  Trade with Europeans began in the 17th Century.  In the 19th
  Century the French gradually expanded their control.  They created the port
  of Dakar in 1859, and annexed Qalo in 1866 and Kayor in 1883.  Jolof
  remained independent until 1890.  When Salum was placed under French
  protection in 1877, its southern portion (upper Salum in Gambia ) was left
  subject to the British.  In 1950-51  the Walof numbered about 780,000 in
  Senegal (excluding some 60,000 Lebu on the peninsula) and about 45,000 in
  the Gambia.

Selection of Focus: The Wolof of Upper Salum and Lower Salum in the Gambia are
  selected because both Ames and Gamble did their field work there.  Ames
  worked in the village of Njau (13 45'N, 15 20'W) for five months and then
  for four months in the village of Ballanghar somewhat to the west; the
  former is in Upper and the latter in Lower Salum; he also made short trips
  across the border into Senegal.

Time: The date of 1950 is selected as that of the field work of Ames; that of
  Gamble was two years earlier.

Coordinates: The Wolof as a whole are located between 13  and 18 N and between
  15  and 17 W.  Salum extends from 13 30' to 14 30'N, 15  to 16 W.

Standard Sample Unit 22 (GPM 8/27/68)

Sampling Province 24: Mande.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 53: Bambara (Banmana), Ag1:12.

Focus: The Bambara along the Niger River from Segou to Bamako, 12 30' to 13 N
  and 6  to 8 W, in 1902.

General Area: The Bambara, who speak a language of the Mande subfamily of
  Neger-Congo, inhabit western Mali and spill slightly across the border into
  Senegal.  Interspersed among them are considerable numbers of Fulani,
  Kassinke, Malinke, and Soninke.  The original inhabitants of their central
  territory along the Niger River were Bozo fishermen, whose descendants
  survive as the Somono.  For centuries prior to 1240 they were subject to the
  old empire of Gnana, and there after until 1670 to the Malinke empire of
  Mali.  Gaining their independence, they originized themselves in the great
  states of Daarta and Jegou, the latter of which occupied Djenne from 1670 to
  1810 and for a brief period Timbuktu as well.  Between 1854 and 1861 they
  fell before the expanding Tukulor state, from whom they were delivered by
  the French in 1890.  In 1893 they became subject to the French until 1959,
  when they were organized in the independent republic of Mali.  There are
  three major foci of Bambara in the south.  In 1950 the Bambara numbered
  about 1,000,000 in Soudan plus 40,000 in Senegal; this figure excludes
  15,000 Somono Fishermen and 125,000 mixed Fulani-Bambara.  Fewer then
  100,000 Bambara are Moslems.

Selection of Focus: Although all sources minimize differences of culture in
  the three Bambara regions, the region of Segou and Bamako is      selected
  as central and the most fully described.

Time: The date of 1902 is chosen as approximately that of the beginning of
  Henry's field experience as a missionary and Monteil's as an administrator.

Coordinates: The Bambara nation as a whole is located between 11  and 14 N and
  between 5  and 9 W.  The town of Segou is located at 13 N and 6 30'W.

Standard Sample Unit 23 (GPM 8/27/68)

Sampling Province 27: Upper Volta.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 59: Tallensi (Tale, Talni),

Focus: The culturally homogeneous Tallensi as a whole, located between 10 30'
  and 10 45'N from 0 30' to 0 50'W, in 1934.

General Area: The Tallensi, who speak a language of the Mole-Dagbane branch of
  the Voltaic or Mossi-Grunshi subfamily of Niger-Congo, live in northern
  Ghana.  Their neighbors, the Nankanse (Gurense) to the west and the Kusasi
  to the east, resemble them so closely that the three tribes (with a total
  population of 170,000) might well be treated as a single cultural unit.
  They came under effective British control in the 1920's, but had been little
  influenced when Fortes and his wife (the first foreigners to reside for an
  extended period in Taleland) arrived in 1934;  they were still illiterate,
  pagan, and unmissionized.  When the British first reached their country they
  put up a stiff resistance, but were defeated in 1911.  The principle of
  indirect rule achieved its political independence in 1957.  The Tallensi had
  a population of 35,000 in 1931.

Selection of Focus: The small size of the Tallensi makes closer pinpointing

Time: The date of 1934 is selected as that of the beginning of the field work
  by Fortes.  Practically no acculturation had taken place at that time.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Simple Unit 24 (HTT 7/13/68)

Sampling Province 25: Songhai.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 104: Songhai (Songhoi, Sonrai),

Focus: On the Bamba or central division of the Songhai on the great bend of
  the Niger River between Gao (0 10'E) and Timbuktu (3 10'W), and from 16  to
  17 15'N, in 1940.

General Area: The Songhai, who speak a language of the independent Songhai
  family, reside along the Niger River in Mali from above Niafunke (4 15'W) in
  the west to below Tillabery (2 E) in the east.  They are divided into the
  Bamba or central division, the Kado bi or eastern division around Tillabery,
  and the Galibi Arb or western division around Goundam and Niafunke.  Their
  traditional place of origin is down the Niger in present Dendi country,
  whence they moved upstream under hausa and Berber pressure.  In the 11th
  century a strong state was established at Goa under a Lemta Berber dynasty;
  Songhai was its prevailing language, although Songhai did not form the
  majority of the population.  About 1325 the Malinke kingdom of Mali
  conquered Gao and Timbuktu, but in 1465 a Sonbghai price revolted, seized
  Gao and Timbuktu, and established a powerful state whose renown even reached
  Portugal.  After 1493 a Soninke dynasty extended its boundaries northwest
  into Mauritania and southeast into Nigeria, where the Jausa states of Gobir,
  Zamfare, Katsena, and Kano were conquered and made tributary after 1512.
  The Songhai drove the Tuareg from Agades in the Sahara, where Songhai is
  still spoken by a portion of the population.  The Mossi and Bambara states,
  however, remained independent.  Attracted by the prosperity of the Songhai
  state, the sultan of Morocco sent an army which took Gao by surprise in 1591
  and Timbuktu the following yeaar.  The Moroccans established their capital
  in Timbuktu, which was ruled after 1660 by an independent pasha.  After 1680
  the Tuareg became dominant except for a brief period of Bambare rule around
  1800, until the country was occupied by the French in 1893.  Since the
  establishment of the independence of Mali in 1958, the Songhai have been
  administered as part of that country.  In 1950 the Songhsi numbered 309,000-
  -191,500 in Soudan, 5,000 in Haute Volta, and 113,000 in Niger.  They have
  long since been Moslem in religion.

Selection of Focus: The central Songhai at the bend of the Niger are the best
  described and the best known to history.

Time: The date of f1fj940 is chosen as about the beginning of the field work
  of both Rouch and Miner.

Coordinates: The coordinates for longitude are indicated under General Area
  above.  The latitude of the Songhai extends to 17 15'N at the center and to
  13 N in the southeast.

Standard Sample Unit 25 (DRW 9/3/68)

Sampling Province 23: Fulani (Fulbe, Poul)

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 103: Wodaabe Fulani, Cb24:1082
  (Abore, Bororo, Burure)

Focus: Degeriji and Alijam maximal lineages of pastoral Wodaabe Fulani in
  Niger (offshoot of Sokoto Fulani), from 13  to 17 N and 5  to 10 E, about

General Area: The Fulani language of the Wodaabe is part of the west Atlantic
  group of the Sudanic branch of the Niger-Congo linguistic family.  The
  Wodaabe, part of the bast Fulani expansion from Senegal to the Suden (over
  3,000 miles), probably settled in their present territory in the 18th
  century as a offshoot of the empire and earlier settlement at Sokoto.  Fulai
  expansion was two-pronged, with slowly fissioning nomaadic groups (Fulani A)
  that peacefully sought out new pastures further to the east, leaving semi-
  sedentarized populations as the casualties of enslavement and scarcity of
  cattle (Fulani A) to mingle with other agricultural tribes of the Sudan
  fringe, and then often followed by the rise of Islanic Holy Men among these
  populations who established Fulani empires by political conquest.  This
  elements which left the negroid agricultural populations more islamicized
  and politically centralized, yet allied with the pastoralists through
  religion and kinship (ie., resulting from mixture of the Negroid and
  caucasoid populations).  From the Tukulor homeland in the Senegal Valley
  (the population in Mancitania in 1953 was about 70,000), the Fulani extended
  into adjoining Fouta Toro (Senegal and Portuguese Guinea--620,000) in the
  twelfth century.  Although the original empires was conquered first by the
  Soninke and then by the Wolof, the nomads went on in the 13th and 14th
  centuries to settle Kita and Masina in Mali (present population).  After
  regaining independence from the Wolof, further expansions were made in the
  16th century into Fouta Djalon in French Guinea (880,000), lipatko in Upper
  Volta (240,000) Sokota in Niger and Northern Nigeria (275,000) and Bauchi in
  Northern Nigeria (2,025,000).  In the 18th Century expansion continued into
  Adamawa in ti Cameroons (275,000) and the period of Holy conquest began when
  the leader of the theocratic state in Fouta Toro conquored Fouta Djalon and
  the surrounding Dialonke tribe.  Similarly, Liptako was seized from the
  Voltaic Gurma tribe.  From 1804-09, Osman dan Fodio, a Holy Man, conquered
  all the major Hausa states around Sokoto, and his disciples conquered Bauchi
  (1812), Adamawa (1809), and extended further east and southeast into Chad
  and Cameroon (present populations 5j0,000 and 275,000).  These Fulani
  empires were ruled until the arrival of the British in 1903.
     The Wodaabe are a Niger and Northern offshoot of the Sokoto group, which
  was divided into two great empires on the death of Osman, and ruled from
  Sokoto and Gwandu.  In Niger, just to the north of the Sokoto empire, the
  present distribution of the Wodaabe groups is as follows:
   1. Alijam and Degereji maximal lineages, nomadic pastoralists, around Aden
      and Damerg.
   2. Jajaanko'en, and offshoot of Alijam, close to Cazaure and Katsina
      sedentary populations of the old empire around Sokoto, but nomadic
   3. Kabawa, an offshoot of Alijam, in between them and the Degereji, nomadic
   4. Filani Wbaabe, semi-sedentruized because they have lost much of their
      cattle, now practicing some cultivation close to the old capital of
   5. Katsinanki'en, reduced to slavery at Kazaure.
   6. Na-Habaruuji, reduced to slavery in southeastern Niger around Goure, and
      into Chad the east all the way into Chad. Typical of the Fulani pattern,
      some of the Wodaabe are fully dedentary (#7), some slave (#5,6) and
      semi-sedentary (#4) and majority nomadic pastoral (#1,3,3).  In Niger,
      the Wodaabe form about 10% of the predominantly Jausa population.  The
      related Wodaabe groups in Barnu Province of Nigeria comprises about 25%
      of a predominantly Kanuri and Manga population.

Selection of Focus: The Alijam and Dogereju around Damerou (Tanout0 and Ader
  (tahoua) are closely related and from a single tribal cluster with
  ceremonial affiliations with the sedentary Dabanko'en (#7) population.  They
  are the principal subject of Dupire's field work and ethnographic reports,
  and are closely related to the Bornu group studied by Stenning in Northern
  Nigeria (the three groups formed a single loose tribal agglemerationat some
  time in the past0.

Time: 1950 approximates the field work of Dupire (1951) and Stenning (1951-

Coordinates: The centers of the tow maximal lineage groups are: Tanout
  (Alijam), at 15 N, 9 E;  and Tahoua (Degereji) at 15 N, 5 20'E.  There is no
  dividing line between the adjoining territories, since the Wodaabe are
  transhumant.  The old capital at Sokoto is located at 13 N, 5 20'E.
  Coordinates of the Alijam-Degereji area are given under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 26 (GPM 8/27/68)

Sampling Province 28: Hausa.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 102: Zazzagawa (Hausa of Zaria)

Focus: The Zazzagawa as a whole, occupying the province of Zaria or Zazzau in
  northern Nigeria at 9 30' to 11 30'N and 6  to 9 E, in 1900.

General Area: The Hausa, who speak a language of the Chadic subfamily of the
  Afro-Asiatic or Hamito-Semitic family, live in northern Nigeria and adjacent
  sosuthern Niger, where they number all told about 5,500,000 (in Nigeria
  alone).  Among them live about 1,000,000 Fulani, who have been politically
  dominant since the early 19th century.  Prior to this time they were
  organized into a number of states--Biram, Daura, Gobir, Kano, Katsena,
  Kebbi, Rano, Zamfara (now Sokoto), and Zaria(zazzau).  Islam was introduced
  about 1450 A.D.  Many Hausa have long since been literate in Arabic and have
  written their own language with Arabic characters.  They possess an
  extensive literature, notably the famous Kano Chronicle, upon which our
  knowledge of the history of the region very largely rests.  The earliest
  records mainly concern wars among the various Hausa states.  In 1512 the
  Hausa states were conquered and made subject to the Songhai state.
  Gradually recovering their independence, they entered upon a period of great
  economic prosperity after the Moroccan conquest of the Songhai in 1591.  The
  rising Jukun state of Kororofa repeatedly attacked the Hausa and exacted
  tribute from several of the Hausa states throughout most of the 17th century
  and by the 18th century had become a significant element in the population.
  In the early 19th century the fanatical Fulani leader, Osman dan Fodio
  embarked on a holy war of conquest, conquering Gobir, Samfare, and Zaria in
  1804, Katsena and Kebbi in 1805, and Kano in  1809.  The Fulani ruled the
  Hausa through Fulani emirs under the dual sultanate of Sokoto and Gwandu
  until the British occupation of Nigeria in 1900.  In 1948-49 there were
  260,000 Hausa (Zazzagawa) and 56,000 Fulani in Zaria province.

Selection of Focus: The Zazzagawa are selected as the most thoroughly
  described of the Hausa peoples.

Time: The date of 1900 is chosen as just prior to British rule.  Several of
  the sources contain information pertaining to this early period.

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 27 (GPM 8/28/68)

Sampling Province 31: Lake Chad Region.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 69: Massa (Bana, Banana, Masa),

Focus: The Massa, located at approximately 10  to 11 N and 15  to 16 E, in
  1910.  (See under Selection of Focus below).

General Area: The Massa numbered 125,000 in 1957, of whom 70,000 lived west of
  the Logone River in northern Cameroun and 55,000 across the river to the
  east in the Chad Territory.  Their linguistic affiliation has been
  ambiguous; Greenberg, for example, classed them as Eastern Niger-Congo under
  the name Masa but as Chadic under the synonymous name of Bana.  However, in
  the recent semi-definitive classification of the Chadic subfamily of
  Afroasiatic by Newman and Ma they are specifically designated as Chadic.
  For centuries the Massa have been pawns in the conflicts between Bagirmi,
  Bornu, and Kanem.  In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, in particular,
  they were subject to slave raids from Bagirmi.  Fulani penetration into the
  region did not begin until about 1850, and was relatively peaceful.  The
  Massa were visited by the explorers Barth in 1851-52 and Vogel in 1854, but
  European contact was slight until the Germans established posts at Yagoua in
  1902 and Bongor in 1904.

Selection of Focus: The principal ethnographer, de Garine, worked in 1958-59
  in three villages: Doreissou (at 10 35'N and 15 10'E), Yagoua (at 10 20'N
  and 15 15'E), and  Djougoumta (at 10 5'N and 15 15'E)--all of them among the
  western of Cameroon Massa.  Any of the three might be selected as the focus,
  depending on the quality of the material.  Yagous, however, is the most
  acculturated, being the administrative center.

Time: The date of 1910 is selected as early in the period of ethnographic
  observations by the German administrator, von Hagen.

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 28 (DRW 9/5/68)

Sampling Province 34: Azande-Mangbotu

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 72: Azande, Ai3:117. (Asandeh,
  Nyam-Nyam, Sande, Zande).

Focus: The Azande chiefdom of Yambio in the Sudan, from 27 40' to 28 50'E and
  4 20' to 5 50'N, about 1905.

General Area: The Azande nation was originally formed when a conquering clan
  of Avongaara, superimposing their languaage of the Adamawa-Eastern subfamily
  of the Niger-Congo linguistic family, established themselves over various
  peoples of the Nbomu River, bordering the Congo and French equatorial Africa
  (now the Central African Republic).  The Nbomo peoples were instruments of
  "snowball conquest' by training their young men at the capital compund of
  the King (Gura, 1755-80), and returning them to their own people to continue
  the expansion against other tribes.  Sons of Gura (1780-1805), drawing upon
  Amboume warriors, pushed to the south and southwest to the Uele River in th
  Congo.  Abandiya tribes to the southwest were also Zandi-ized, but created a
  balance of power between Abandiya and Avongara which halted expansion.  In
  the east, a grandson (Yakpati, 1805-35) pushed further towards the Sudan,
  and along the upper Kibali River, a tributary of the Uele.  Yakpati's son
  Bazingbi (1835-60) and grandson Gbudwe (1960-1905) were the first to conquer
  the Sudan area around the Gurba and Sueh Rivers, and other chiefdoms
  expanded further north in the Sudan around Tembura.  This process of
  expansion left five different Azande dialect districts corresponding to each
  new area opened up:
   1. Mbombu, or the original Zande area on the Mbombu River and into French
      Equatorial Africa (the original kingdom of Gura).
   2. Bile, between the Mbombu and Uele Rivers, west of 26  (Gura's sons'
   3. Bandiya (Bandya), southwest of the Bile area, west of 26 E (the Abandiya
      expantion lacking Avongara nobles).
   4. Bamboy, along the Kibali River in the Congo (Yakpati's kingdom).
   5. Sueh and Maridi, furthest to the east, in the Sudan (Baringbi's
    The conglomerate of peoples conquered in these areas included several
  earlier wares of Sudanic immigrants: and the original pygmy forest dwellers,
  Abarambo, Kare, Amadi (Amago, Aogo, Madi, Madyo), Pambia, Bangba, Ndogo,
  Babukur, and Mundu.  The principal indigenous tribes of the region who
  remained politically independent were the Banda, Momvu, Mgbele, and
  Mangbetu.  The Idio (Adio, Wakiaraka) were Sudanic immigrants conquered by
  the Avongara, but who fled to the east to escape domination.
     After the death of Bazingbi (1860), the eastern (Congo-Sudan) kingdom
  split up into four parts: Wando and Maringindu in the Congo, and Eso and
  Gbudwe in the Sudan.  King Gbudwe's isolation from the routes of traffic
  with Europeans and Arabs, and the Mahydi revolt of 1883 enabled him to
  subjugate an entire region to the north and into the Sudan (Bahr-el-Ghazal)
  and make war against Moro, Baka, Goro, and other tribes to the north and
  east.  Gbudwe's kingdom, based in the present district of Yambio, was the
  largest of any in Zande history.  During this period, many other Zande
  chiefs either sided with the (Belgian) Congo Free State in their anti-
  slavery campaign, or with the Mahdists.  In the 1898 the British reconquered
  the Sudan, and in 1905 Gbudwe's life and kingdom  were taken.  From 1905-14
  the military occupation was designed to break the power of the Avongara.
  The civil administration, taking over in 1920, reversed this by building up
  the Avongara chiefs once again, with little other than legal-political
  interference until the mass quarantines for sleeping sickness in about 1925-
    In 1949 Azande had a population of 750,000, of whom some 200,000 resided
  in Sudan, some 500,000 in the Congo, and about 20,000 in the former French
  Equatorial Africa.

Selection of Focus: Evans-Pritchard worked in the former kingdom of Gbudwe in
  Yambio District, Sudan, who constitute part of lingustic group #5 above.

Time: 1905 is selected as the date before complete break-up of the Abongara
  training system, kingdoms, and military system, by the British military

Coordinates: The compound of Yambio (now a village), probable capital of king
  Gbudwe, is located at 28 25'E and 435'N.

Standard Sample Unit 29 (GPM 9/18/68)

Sampling Province 32: Wadai-Darfur.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 98: Fur (For), Cb17:875.

Focus: The Fur of western Darfur, centering on Jebal Marra (13 30'N, 25 30E)
  in 1880.

General Area: The Fur, who speak a language of the independent Furian family
  are a Negroid people who are the original inhabitants of Darfur.
  Historically, western Darfur was ruled by the Dagu prior to 1400  and
  thereafter by the Tungur.  The latter gradually coalesced with the Fur who
  were then predominant in eastern Darfur, and established a unified kingdom
  under Suleiman Solong (regnit 15996-1637), a Hilalian Arab.  During the
  early 17th century the Fur became completely Islamized.  The Darfur state
  conquered Kordofan and under Suleiman Teirab (1752-58) temporarily reduced
  the Fung kingdom of Sennar.  During the early 19th century the Fur were
  pushed into western Darfur by the Jumr, Berti, and Kizeigat.  Darfur was
  occupied by the Egyptians from 1875 to 1883, when it was conquered by the
  Mahdists, whose power in Sudan was broken by the British in 1899.
  Thereafter Darfur came under the joint Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, with
  British rule becoming effective in 1922.  Since 1956 it has been part of the
  independent state of Sudan.  According to Beaton, there were 120,000 Fur in
  western Darfur in 1937, plus others around Jebel Si to the North and in the
  Nyala flats to the southeast.

Selection of Focus: The Fur are said to center on the Jebel Marra range.
  Exact pinpointing by subtribe will depend on a rereading of Felkin and

Time: The date of 1880 is selected as that of the first field study by Felkin
  and as prior to the Mahdist conquest of 1883.  Prior also to effective
  Egyptian subjugation in 1881.

Coordinates: The Fur extend approximately from 12  to 14 N and from 22  to 25

Standard Sample Unit 30 (DRW 9/6/68)

Sampling Province 35: Nuba

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 75: Otoro, Ai10:647 (Kawarma).

Focus: The Otoro of the Nuba Hills, 30 40'E and 11 20'N, about 1930.

General Area: The Otoro are the largest (about 40,000 in 1947) of some three
  score Nuba Hill tribes which speak various dialects and language of the
  independent Kordofanian family of the Congo-Kordoganian macro-phylum.  These
  tribes form an island of the original Negroid popoulation surrounded by
  Sudanic-speaking Nubians (cluster 96) and Arabs.  Baggara Arabs inhabit the
  plains at the foot of the Nuba Hills, and Nubian Dilling (including
  Gulfanand Kararu) and Myima (including the Afitti) tribes now inhabit the
  northern part of the Nuba Hills and are often classified as Nuba.  The Nuba
  tribes proper form a semicircle of five major linguistic divisions running
  clockwise from northeast around to the west-northwesrt:
   1. Tagali-Tagoi (and 7 other tribes) in the northeast.
   2. Koalib-Abol-Heiban-Laro-Moro-Nyaro-Otoro-Tira (and 13 others) in the
      east, all of which are patrilineal except for the Nyaro.  Six of these
      tribes have been studied by Nadel, including the Otoro.
   3. Talodi-Lafofa-Mesakin-Eliri (and six others) to the soustheast, all of
      which are matrilineal.  One was studied by Nadel, and two others by
   4. Korongo-Kadugli-Kamdang-Miri-Tullishi-Tumtum (and 11 others), in the
      southwest, west and south , also matrilineal;  two were studied by
   5. Katal-Gulud-Tima to the northwest.
    The Otoro, with the adjacent Heiban and Laro, speak mutually intelligible
  dialects and are part of the larger Koalib group (#2 above).  These three
  tribes are culturally very similar, with the Otoro located further to the
  south than the other two groups.  The Otoro claim they have always lived in
  their present site, occupying the high-lying mountain valleys and plateaus,
  and recent migrations of related groups appear to have been very limited.
     The Nuba tribes were politically autonomous until British rule, having
  defended themselves against invasions during the Mahdist period (1883-1905),
  which forced many tribes to retreat further up into the mountains (Otoro
  were already well situated for defense).  With the Pax Britannica, the
  Otoro, in the 1930's, began to move down out of the hills to cultivate on th
  plains.  Their traditional subsistence has been agriculture, with spade-type
  hoes, and hill terraces, supplemented by caattle, sheep and other
  domesticated aminals.  Because of the large Arab populations on the plains,
  Arabic is increasingly the Ingua franca of the tribes, and many Nuba, Otoro
  included, have become islanized in recent years.

Selection of Focus: The Otoro, intensively studied by Nadel during a full
  year's cycle, live on eight main hill-chains, of which the two southernmost
  were best studied (Changur, Medika), the three central hills less
  intensively (Urila, Kujur, Changur-North) and the northernmost studied only
  peripherally (Kucama, Karinde, Orombe)  Nadel does not mention any major
  regional differences, but coders should watch for any needed specifications
  of regional detail.

Time: 1930 is eight years before Nadel's field work, corresponding to the
  traditional Otoro pattern before much migration into the plains.

Coordinates: see above.  The entire area is only 5-10 miles in diameter.

Standard Sample Unit 31 (GPM 9/1/68)

Sampling Province 37: Northern Nilotes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 76: Shilluk, Ai6:217.

Focus: The politically unified Shilluk society as a whole, located at about 9
  to 10 30'N and 31  to 32 E, in 1910.

General Area: The Shilluk, who speak a language of the Nilotic branch of the
  Eastern subfamily of the Sudanic family, reside on the Nile River in central
  Sudan.  They were subject to slave raid by the Fung of Sennar from about
  1580 to 1780, and were first visited and described at second hand by Bruce,
  who visited Semmar in 1772.  In 1821 they were conquered and occupied by the
  Turkish government of Egypt.  In 1899 they came under the administration of
  the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, which followed a period of Mahdist
  domination.  Since 1955 they have been administered by the independent state
  of Sudan.  The Shilluk population numbered about 110,000 in 1948.

Selection of Focus: The sources do not indicate internal cultural
  differentiation of consequence.

Time: The date of 1910 is selected as that of field work by Seligman and

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 32 (GPM 9/18/68)

Sampling Province 36: Prenilotes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 77: Mao (Aman), Ai47:1062.

Focus: The Northern Mao, located between 9 35'N and between 34 30' and 34
  50'E, in 1939.

General Area: The Mao are a remant tribe of the independent Koman linguistic
  family in extreme western Ethiopia.  They are divided into the Northern and
  the Southern Mao, who speak mutually unintelligible languages and are
  separated from one another by a strip of territory occupied by Galla.  The
  Southern Mao are subject to the Anfillo, a ruling class of Western Cushitic
  speech, whereas the Northern Mao lack political unity.  The Mao number about
  10,000 people, about equally divided between the Northern and Southern

Selection of Focus: The Northern Mao are selected because of their relative
  political independence and lesser degree of acculturation.

Time: The date of 1939 is chosen as that of Grottanelli's field work.

Coordinates: Those given above under Focus are those of the core of Northern
  Mao, although scattered groups are found beyond them, especially to the
  west.  The Southern Mao are located south of  9 N to approximately 8 N.

Standard Sample Unit 33 (DRW 9/68)

Sampling Province 39: Western Cushites.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 92: Kafa (Goffa, Gonga,
  Kafficho), Ca30:860.

Focus: The politically unified Kafa as a whole, located approximately at 6 50'
  to 7 45'N and 35 30' to 37'S, in 1905.

General Area: The Kafa, whose language belongs to the Gonga branch of the
  western division of the Cushitic subfamily of Afroasiatic or Hamito-Semitic,
  live in southwestern Ethgiopia.  They were organized into a kingdom about
  1400.  By 1700 it had begun to expand against the smaller Gimira states, and
  by 1800 it extended south to the Omo River.  The Kafa were conquered by
  Ethiopia in 1897, and thereafter were ruled by a feudal lord until 1914.
  They are pagans.  The only available datum on population is an estimate of
  500,000 by Bieber in 1905, which is obviously highly excessive.

Selection of Focus: The society as a whole.

Time: The date of 1905 is selected as that of the visit by Bieber, which was
  less than a decade after the Ethiopian conquest.  [Note: Bieber
  reconstructed the pre-Ethiopian Kaffa. CCCCC codes #4 (Political) changed
  the date to 1896].

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 34 (GPM 8/30/68)

Sampling Province 38: Southern Niloes.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 85: Masai, Aj2:119.

Focus: The Kisonko or southern Masai of Tanzania, located at about 1 30' to 5
  30'S and 35  to 37 30'E, about 1900.

General Area: The Masai, who speak a language of the Nilotic branch of the
  Eastern Sudanic linguistic family, inhabit the interior of northern Tanzania
  and southern Kenya.  They are divided into three divisions--the Northern
  Masai, the Central or Rift Valley Masai, and the Southern Masai or Kisonko--
  of whom the first two "no longer exit as separate tribal entities" since
  about 1890, when the Central Masai were shattered by internal feuds.
  Closely akin to the Masai are the Samburu to the north, and three
  agricultural groups--the Arusha of Mount Meru, the Lumbwa in Tanzania, and
  the Njamus (Il-Tiamus, Njemps) around Lake Baring.  The Masai formed the
  spearhead of the southward migration of the Nilotic pastoralists, which was
  finally stopped about 1830 by the Bantu of Tanzania.  Their power reached
  its height between 1800 and 1850, when they severely harassed their
  neighbors in all direction, incidentally protecting the Kenya Highland Bantu
  from Arab slave raids.  The Masai were greatly weakened bby severe epidemics
  of riderpest about 1880 and of smallpox in 1892.  The first Europeans to
  encounter the Masai were the missionaries Krapf and Rebmann in 1848.
  Thompson in 1882 was the first to cross their territory.  The British East
  Africa Company established a station on the Masai-Kikuyu frontier in 1900,
  at which time their territory had been partitioned between Great Britain and
  Germany, that of the Southern Masai falling principally to Germany and those
  of the Northern and Central Masai to Britain.  Early attempts to missionize
  the Masai wereunsuccessful, and the first mission in their territory was no
  established until 1919.  The population of the Masai in 1948 was 107,000, of
  whom 60,000 (excluding 20,000 Samburu) were in Kenya and 47,000 in Tanzania
  (then Tanganyika).

Selection of Focus: The Kisonko or Southern Masai are selected because they
  are the best described and most intact socially.

Time: The date of 1900 is chosen as approximately that of the classic field
  work by Merker.

Selection of Focus: The Southern Masai or Kisonko are the best described of
  the three regional groups of the tribe.

Coordinates: The Masai extend northward to 1 N.  Otherwise the coordinates are
  the same as those given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 35 (GPM 9/1/68)

Sampling Province 40: Galle-Konso.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 90: Konso, Cal:18.

Focus: The eastern Konso town of Buso (5 15'N, 37 30') in 1935.

General Area: The Konso, who speak a language of the Eastern branch of the
  Cushitic subffamily of Afroasiatic or Hamito-Semitic, live in southern
  Ethiopia.  According to Hallpike, they are divided into three regions, as
  follows: Eastern division or Garati with 17 towns--called Gamole by Jensen.
  Western division or Takadi--called Garatta by Jensen--with 19 towns.
  Northern division or Turo--with three large and several smaller settlements.
  Culturally rather divergent. Jensen dose not mention the Northern or Turo
  division but reports a southern or Madjallo division very distinct "from the
  true Konso" of the Eastern and Western divisions. The Konso were conquered
  by Emperor Menelik in 1897 and incorporated in the Ethiopian state.  They
  are still largely pagan in religion, although a Lutheran mission was
  established in 1954.  Hallpike reports the total Konso population as
  approximately 55,000 in 1965.  The town of Buso had a population of 1,750--
  slightly above the average of 1,500 for Konso towns.

Selection of Focus: The town of Buso is chosen because Jensen worked there and
  Hallpike spent six months there.

Time: The date of 1935 is selected as that of Jensen's field work, the first
  description of the Konso.

Coordinates: See above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 36 (GPM 8/31/68)

Sampling Province 41: Horn.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 87: Somali, Ca2:19.

Focus: The Dolbahanta (Dulbahante) clan of the Darod division of the Somali,
  located at 7  to 11 N and 45 30' to 49 E in former Britain Somaliland, about

General Area: The Somali, who speak a language of the Eastern division of the
  Cushitic subfamily of afroasiatic or Hamito-Semitic, inhabit the Horn of
  Africa, including all of the Somali Republic and substantial portions of
  adjacent French Somaliland, Ethiopia, and Kenya.  The region was occupied in
  Upper paleolithic times by a hunting population with a Stillbay (presumably
  Bushmanoid) culture.  Several centuries after the time of Christ,
  agricultural Negroes of Bantu language entered the region from the west,
  settling the river valleys, especially of the Shebelle and Juba rivers,
  where their descendants survived as serfs of the Sab and Hawiya Somali.
  Somewhat later the Galla descended from the Ethiopian highland with a mixed
  agricultural-pastoral economy, which shifted to an increasing emphasis on
  herding. In the 1530's or thereabouts, the Somali followed the Galla,
  displacing them westward, and reached the coast between Itala and Merca by
  the end of the 14th century.  The Galla were pressed steadily westward, the
  Somali crossing the Juba River around 1842-48 and reaching the Tana River by
  1909.  The Somali came into contact with the Arabs even prior to the rise of
  Islam, which they began to accept in the 9th century; today they are all
  Moslems of the Sunni Shafi'ite sect.  As a result of this history the Somali
  are racially very heterogeneous, with an essentially Caucasoid Cushitic base
  which received and added Caucasoid admixture from immigrant Arabs and a
  strong Negroid admixture from the previous Bantu population and the
  subsequent importatation of Negro slaves. They were colonized during the
  nineteenth century by the British, French, and Italians.  In 1960 the Somali
  Republic was established by the combination of previous British and Italian
  Somaliland.  In the 1960's the population of the Somali exceeded three and a
  quarter million--2,250 in the Somali Republic, 37,000 in French Somaliland,
  about 750,000 in Ethiopia, and 240,000 in Kenya.  The Dolbahanta Somali
  number only a relatively small fraction of this total.

Selection of Focus: The Dolbahanta pastoral Somali are chosen as the most
  fully described.

Time: The date of 1900 is selected as subsequent to the earliest descriptions
  and appreciably earlier than the later and fuller accounts.

Coordinates: The Somali as a whole extend west to about 40 E, north to about
  11 30'N, east to the tip of the Horn at about 51 E, and south to about 1 S.