Standard Sample Unit 1 (GPM 5/30/68)

Sampling Province 1: Hottentots.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 3: Nama Hottentot (Naman,

Focus: Gei//Khauan tribe (17E, 2330's) as reconstructed for about 1860 (45
  years prior to the field work of Schultze, the principal ethnographer), with
  cautious use of data from its offshoot, the //Khau/Goan (studied  by Hoernle
  on 1912 and 1923).

General Area: Of the eight tribal groups indigenous to the Great Namaqua
  homeland at the time of Schultze's study (1903-06), two were extinct (the
  //Haboben and //0 Gein) and one was scattered (the !Kara-!Oan), and the
  remaining five had fled or been forced to choose sides in the German-
  Hottentot war.  The senior group (the Gei//Khauan), the focus, were reduced
  in population form about 2,500 to 100 by the war and were settled in a small
  reserve.  An offshoot from them(the //Khau/Goan) had been evicted form the
  central territory by the Herero in 1860 and occupied a northern encampment
  relatively isolated form the war.  Another (the //Aunin) had settled along
  the Kuisib River, adopting and atynical life based on fishing and growing of
  nara melons.  Another (the !Gama/Num) had settled along a major highway and
  become assimilated into the surrounding population. The last of these five
  (the !Kara Gei Khoin) escaped into the British -controlled Kalahari and were
  never contacted by ethnographers.

Selection of Focus: The Gei//Khauan were studied by Schultze through
  informants,and his description is largely a reconstruction of their earlier
  culture.  Hoernle also used several Gei//Khauan informants, but her data
  pertain mainly to the offshoot //Khau/Goan, among whom the clan system was
  still functioning when she visited them.  Data from other groups than these
  two should be used only when a wide distribution of traits can be inferred.

Time: The date of 1860 is selected as the last year in which the Gei//Khauan
  collected tribute from other groups and as the date of the Herero war, after
  which the //Khau/Goan fled to the north as refugees.

Coordinates: Theses listed above (under Focus) represent the location of
  Rehoboth, the early town site of the Gei//Khauan as shown by Schapera and as
  indicated by Hoernle as their former location.  Hoernle's map, however,
  shows the Gei//Khauan somewhat to the east at the town of Hoachanas (c.18E,
  2410's), whence they had presumbly moved after the German-Hottentot war.

Standard Sample Unit 2 (GPM 5/30/68)

Sampling Province 2: Bushmen.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 2: Kung Bushmen (!Kung), Aa1:1.

Focus: Kung of the Nyae region (20-21E, 1930'-2030's), presumably identical
  with the Agau of Schapera, as of 1950 (the first year of the field work by
  the Marshalls).

General Area:  Schapera (1930: 33) lists four major groupings of Kung Bushmen:
  (1) the Agau, southeast of Karakuwisa and hence in the Nyae Nyae region;
  (2) the !Ogowe of the lower Omuramba Omatako, north of Karakuwisa and thus
  about 50 miles north of the Nyae Nyae region; (3) the Nogau of Karakuwisa and
  the upper Omuramba Omataka, i.e., just north of the Nyae Nyae region
  (Marshall's map shows a group called //No!Gau in the southeast corner); and
  (4) the =/Kangau far to the north of the Nyae Nyae region along the Okavango
  River.  The population of the Nyae Nyae region in 1953 was about 3,500.

Selection of Focus: The Kung of the Nyae Nayae region are chosen because of the
  quality of Lorna Marshall's work.  She notes (Marshall 1960:328) that there
  were 27 intermarrying bands in this region, for most of which a head count
  was obtained.  Two central bands (Gautsa) at the Gautscha Pan waterhole were
  the most fully studied, but full geneologies were also obtained for two
  adjacent bands (the Kautsa and Deboragu), as well as additional data on ten
  others (Marshall 1959:336).  Though the Gautsa bands form the core of the
  region, data on the others may be used in default of specific evidence of
  cultural differences.  And Agua Kung are presumably identical, to judge from
  the frequency with which Nyae Nyae band leaders are called =/Gau, Gao, or
  Agau, as well as because the identity of their location.  The work of the
  Marshalls may thus be supplemented from earlier data on the Agau.  Isolation,
  intermarriage, and lack of acculturation justify using the Nyae Nyae region
  as a whole, rather than the Gautsa bands alone, as the focus.

Time: The data of 1950 is selected as the year when the Marshalls began their
  field work (1950-55).  Richard Lee of Harvard is currently engaged (1967-68)
  in his second period of field work among a nearby Kung group.

Coordinates: The Gautsa bands are pinpointed by Marshall at 1948'3"S, 20,
  34'36"E, but the wider range indicated under Focus will be used unless
  specifically contraindicated.  Data pertaining to bands outside this core are
  should be used only with appropriate caution.

Standard Sample Unit 3 (GPM 5/30/68)

Sampling Province 3: Southeastern Bantu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 6: Thonga (Bathonga, Shangaan,
  Shangana-Tonga), Ab4:104.

Focus: Ronga (Baronga), the southernmost subtribe, centering around Lourengo
  Marques (3220E, 2550S), around 1895 (the beginning of Junod's field
  experience as a missionary).

General Area: The Thonga tribe occupies the southern portion of Mozambique and
  a little adjacent territory in Transvaal and Southern Rhodesia.  Its
  component subtribes (from north to south) are the Hlengwe (coastal), Nwalungu
  (inland), Bila (coastal), Djonga (coastal), Hlanganu (inland), Ronga
  (coastal).  The Ronga adjoin the Zulu on the south and the Swazi on the west.
  Farther north along the coast are non-Thonga enclaves, notably the Lenge
  (Valenge), Chopi (Vaohopi), and Tonga (Vatonga).  The Thonga were conquered
  and subjugated by the Zulu during the nineteenth century, until the expulsion
  of the latter by the Portuguese.

Selection of Focus: The Ronga subtribe were selected because the principal
  authority, Junod, resided among them for nine or ten years, seven of them in
  the small town of Ritakla eighteen miles north of Lourenco Marques.  His
  fullest material, especially on marriage, comes from the Mpfumo clan (see
  map), which should be used specifically when there is evidence of disparity
  between local cultures.

Time: The data of 1895 is selected as that of the beginning of Junod's field
  work, which extended to 1909.  An earlier "ethnographic present" is
  unadvisable because of the disruption under Zulu dominance.  Despite
  missionary influence, Thonga culture was able to flourish independantly under
  the Portugese.

Coordinates: Those listed under Focus (above) pertain to the Mpfumo clan.  The
  Ronga territory centers on Delgoa Bay, from which it extends about 100 miles
  south, 50 miles inland, and 50 miles north.

Standard Sample Unit 4 (DRW 8/29/68)

Sampling Province 4: Sotho

Representative of the province and of Cluster 8: Lozi (Barotse, Barozi,
  Luyana, marutse, Rozi), Ab3: 103

Focus: The ruling Luyana (Lozi) of the Barotse nation, 22 to 25E and 1820'
  to 14S, about 1900

General Area: The Lozi were a Bantu cattle-raising and agricultural tribe of
  the Middle Zambezi River known to the Portuguese of the early 19th century
  as Luyi or Nyoka, along the river plains, and had extended over Mashi groups
  to the southwest. Pushing against the agricultural Central Banbu (Lunda)
  groups to the west, their expansion was stopped by the Luenda, but other
  refugee groups from the west, including the Mbunda, joined them in 1800.
  The kingdom was divided into two ritual halves, and divided by a civil war,
  they were conquered in 1838 by Kololo, a Sotho people who had been shaken
  loose by the Shaka Zulu wars.  Although one group of Luyi princes escaped to
  the north with a large Mbunda population, the majority of Luyana and other
  tribes were ruled by the Kololo for 26 years from a capital far to the
  southwest.  In 1864 the Luyi princes, who had adopted the language and many
  cultural features of the Kololo, rebelled an defeated the Kololo.  They also
  took over additional Central Bantu tribes who had been subjugated by the
  Kololo, and further expanded the kingdom in 1880 by conquest of some Bantu-
  Botatwe groups to the east.  All of these tribes were intermiggled by the
  Lozi plan of tribal division of labor, which included a basic economic
  difference between groups of the river plains (cattle; flood agriculture;
  fishing) and the bush (cassava and millet).  By the 20th century, with
  additional immigrants from the Central Bantu tribes, the picture of
  component groups in the Barotse nation, historically arranged, was thus:
   1. Luyanan, numbering 108, 500, in 1940, including the original Luyi (Lozi)
      tribe (pop. 67,000), and the Kwandi, kwanga, Nbowe, and Muenyi of the
      original kingdom.
   2. Nkoya peoples (24,000), among the oldest subjects of the Luyana, who
      maintained the old Zambezi Bantu language throughout Kololo and Luyana
      domination, probably due to their marginal economic position as bush
      agriculturalists.  They include the Nyoka, Mashasha, and Lushange.
   3. Old Mbunda, who kept a Central Bantu language as exiles from Kololo
      domination.  Although they are plains dwellers with the Luyana around
      the capital at Lialui, the luyana look down on them as "Wiko" (#7 below)
      since immigrant Mbounda have recently joined their locale.  Original
      Mbunda, Mbalangwe, and New Mbunda number 340.
   4. Lozi-ized Central Bantu tribes (38,500), subjugated in the 19th century,
      who still speak the Bantu language but are highly acculturated to the
      Lozi pattern.  Including the Makoma, Nyengo, Mishulundu, Ndundulu, and
      Simaa, they are scattered throughout the bush and plains areas.
   5. The Mashi(4,500), formerly Zambezi Bantu, but converted to Kololo
      language by the presence of the Kololo capital in their area to the
      southwest, they are granted status as honorific Losi after providing
      refuge to a temporarily exiled king, 1884-85.
   6. Bantu-Botatwe(33,500), made to pay tribute to the Lozi after 1880,
      including the Totela and Subiya , who were absorbed into Barotseland,
      and the autonomous Ila, Toka, and Tonga, only parts of whom are included
      among the Barotse.
   7. Central Bantu immigrants since 1900, who the Lozi call Wiko, and
      including the Chokwe, Kaonde, Luchazi, Lunda, Luvale, Mbwela, and Yauma;
      they number 47,000.
    In 1940, the total population of Barotseland was approximately 296,000.

Selection of focus: The Luyana (Lozi) are the subject of Gluckman's
     ethnographic work.

Time: 1900, at the height of the Barotse expansion,/when the Lozi were in the
  plains area of the Zambezi, in six major capital cities.

Coordinates: The northern and southern capital cities of the Barotse,
  Barotse,Lialui (Mongu) and Nalolo, are located at 1515's and 1530's,
  respectively, among under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 5 (GPM 5/31/68)

Sampling Province 5:Southwestern Bantu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 10: Mbundu (Banano, Mbali, Nano,
  Ovimbundu, Vanano), Ab5:203.  Warning: Not to be confused with the entirely
  distinct Kimbundu.

Focus: Bailundo (Mbailundu) subtribal Kingdom and province, centering on the
  capital city of Bailundu (1215's, 1639'E), around 1890.

General Area: The Mbundu, numbering about 1,300,000 in 1940, occupy the
  Benguela Highland Zone of Angola.  Related Southwestern Bantu tribes live to
  the south and southwest, more distantly related Bantu to the north and east.
  The Mbundu are divided into thirteen independent and nine tributary
  kingdoms,of which Bailundu in the largest, has one-third of the total
  population, occupies a relatively central position, and has seven tributary
  states.  The Mbundu states have been distinct since at least 1800, and some
  go back to 1650, when the major kingdoms were traditionally founded.

Selection of Focus: The Bailundu Kingdom subtribe is selected because of its
  central location and wealth of historical data.  The field work of
  Childs(1933-38) on the Mbundu as a whole and the expenditionary notes of
  Hambly(1929-30) can easily be tailored to the Bailundu.  The more recent
  field work of Edwards (1955-56) was done on a relatively unacculturated
  remant group on the fringe of the Bailundu.

Time: The data of 1890 is selected as that of the end of the autonomy of the
  Bailundu kingdom.  The capital was occupied by the Portuguese in 1891, and
  the region was missionized in 1895.  The chief changes from that time to the
  date of the principal ethnographers have occurred with reference to the
  political structure and the position of the Imbangala nobility.  European
  influence, however, has been strong through trade relationships since 1600.

Coordinates: Those of the capital city are given under Focus above.  The Keve
  River forms the western border of Bailundu; the northern border is at about
  1120'S; the eastern border is formed by the Kutatu River; the province
  comes to a wedge in the south.

Standard Sample Unit 6 (GPM 6/1/68)

Sampling Province 6: Western Central Bantu.

Representative of the province and of Cluster 11: Suku (Bapindi, Basuku,
  Pindi, Pindji), Ac17:731.

General Area: The Suku fall into three divisions: (1) the Suku of Feshi
  Territory, Kwango District, Province of Leopoldville, Republic of the Congo;
  (2) the Southern Suku, who occupy an isolated enclave stradding the Congo-
  Angola border to the south; (3) the Yaka (Bayaka), descendants of the Suku
  who fell under Lunda domination during the nineteenth century, who occupy
  the original Suku territory just west of Feshi.  The Feshi Suku, who were
  organized in a kingdom at the time of the wars with the Lunda, escaped Lunda
  domination by moving eastward into largely empty lands east of Kwango
  valley, which they now occupy.  They numbered about 80,000 in 1950 but are
  not a homogeneous population since their territory became a refuge for other
  groups.  The Southern Suku, who numbered about 30,000 in 1950, were
  traditionally led into their present territory by the king's sister,
  allegedly accounting for their having the office of "Queen Sister," which
  the Feshi Suku lack.  The Yaka or original Suku are credited with having
  destroyed the Kongo kingdom by invasion around 1569.

Selection of Focus: The Feshi Suku are selected as the best described. Their
  kingdom was strong only in the 20 or 30 central villages, but the entire
  area should be used to capture the contrasting principles of centralized and
  segmentary organization described by Kopytoff. It extends approximately 50
  miles from east to west, and 100 miles from north to south, with the capital
  and dependent villages near the center.

Time: The date of the 1920 is selected as the last effective date of Suku
  autonomy before the advant of colonial administration.

Coordinates: Those given above under Focus represent approximately the center
  of the Feshi Suku kingdom.

Standard Sample Unit 7 (GPM 8/24/68)

Sampling Province 7: Eastern Central Bantu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 14: Bemba(Awemba, Babemba,
  Wabamba, Wemba), Ac3:105.

General Area: The Bemba, who speak a Bantu language of the Bemba subgroup
  (akin to Bisa, Kaonde, Lala, Lamba, and Luapula but not closely to Chewa,
  Tabwa, or Tumbuka), are found mainly in northern Zambia. The entered this
  region around 1740 (traditional date ) from the west as an offshoot of the
  great Luba nation.  They were first visited by Livingstone in 1867.  When
  the British South Africa Company was established in 1899, their paramount
  chief held sway over a  wide area between Lakes Mweru, Bangweulu, Nyasa, and
  Tanganyika and south into the Lala and Lamba countries.  Between 1865 and
  1893 they were on the main Arab trade route into central Africa, exchanging
  slaves and ivory for guns and cloth.  The British set up their first
  administrative post in Bemba territory in 1897, South African Company until
  1924 and thereafter directly by the British until Zambia achieved its
  independence in 1964.  They are the largest tribe in Zambia, with a
  population of 15,000 in 1951.

Selection of Focus: The tribe as a whole, being politically intergrated, is
  taken as the focus, excluding only the Bemba across the border in the Congo.

Time: The date of 1897 is selected as that of the establishment of the first
  British administrative post.

Coordinates: See under Focus above.

Standard Sample Unit 8 (DRW 6/11/68)

Sampling Province 9: Interior Tanzania

Representative of Cluster 17: Nyakyusa (Niakiusa, Sochile, Sokile), Ad6:208.

Focus: Lake Plains, Central and North Highlands, from town of Mwaya (3410'E
  and 935's) and around Masoko (34E and 920'S), around 1934 (the starting
  date of the Wilson's field work).

General Area: The Nyakyusa (population on 163,000 in 1931) occupy the
  geographical basin northwest of Lake Nyasa in Tanzania, Rungwe District.
  They are differentiated from the Ngonde chiefdom, to the south into
  Nyasaland, which has similar a language and customs, by their lack of
  political centralization.  In the vicinity of 60-100 small Nyakyusa
  chiefdoms fission and fuse in an age-village structure.  The Lakeshope
  people (MuNgonde), the central, and the northern highlands groups from the
  town of Masoko to the Poroto mountains make up the 'Nyakyusa Prorer'.  Other
  adjacent groups are Nyakyusa 'by extension', i.e. intergrated by the age-
  village structure but not of Nyakyusa origin: the Selya and Saku districts
  in the Livingstone range to the east; the Kukwe and Lugulu to the north,
  both of which are culturally and linguistically distinct form the others.

Selection of Focus: The Mwaya-Masoko areas are chosen because the Wilson'
  description pertains to the Nyakyusa proper as a whole, and hardly be
  analyzed into component parts.  In their four years' field stay, they lived
  at one time or another in practically every major village and  traversed the
  entire region.  However, much time was spent in the Selya district studying
  the Maipopo chiefdom; whild culturally similar, the Selya should be
  carefully differentiated from the Nyakyusa proper, and are outside of main

Time: The date of 1934 is that of the beginning of Godfrey and Monica Wilsons'
  field work, which was also renewed by Monica in 1955.

Coordinates: Those listed above are the two major towns: Mwaya is the furthest
  point to the south and east among the Nyakyusa proper but the territory
  around Masoko extends far to the West (3345'E) and to the north (910'S);
  the total area is approximately 40 by 30 miles.

Standard Sample Unit 9 (GPM 9/10/68)

Sampling Province 10: Rift

Representative of the province and of Cluster 20: Hadza (Hanzapi, Kangeju,
  Kindiga,Tindiga, Watindega), Aa9: 726.

Focus: The nomadic Hadza, excluding settled group to the south, located
  between 320'S and 410'S and between 3440' and 3525'E (possibly further
  east), in 1930.

General Area: The Hadza, who range east, north and west of Lake Eyasi in
  northern Tanzania, speak a language of the Khoisan family belonging to a
  district subfamily coordinate with Bushman-Hottentot in southern Africa and
  with Sandawe (spoken by a neighboring tribe to the south who have made a
  transition to an agricultural-pastoral mode of life through  contact with
  the Bantu).  The Hadza are hunters and gatherers with a culture presumably
  stemming from the Upper paleolithic Stillbay archeological culture of East
  Africa. They still show an appreciable incidence of Bushmanoid physical
  traits.  They maintain a symbiotic relationship with the Bantu Isanzu tribe
  south of Lake Eyasi, and also wander after game into the territories of
  Southern Cushitic Irawq to the east, of the Masai to the north, and of the
  Bantu Sukuma to the west.  They were reported to number about 600 in 1924,
  750 in 1960.

Selection of Focus: Being a small tribe, the main bodies of Hadza are taken as
  the focus, excluding the group of 100 settled with with Isanzu (sp).

Time: The date of 1930 is selected as immediately prior to the field work of
  Bleek and Kohl-Larsen and subsequent to that of Obst(1911-12) and Bagshawe

Coordinates: Given above under Focus.

Standard Sample Unit 10 (DRW 8/28/68)

Sampling Province 11: Northeast Coastal Bantu

Representative for the province and of cluster 23: Luguru, Ad14:704.

Focus: The highland Luguru of west central Morogoro District, from 3720' to
  38E and 625' to 725'S about 1925.

General Area: The Luguru are one of a cluster of closely similar Bantu tribes
  in eastern Tanzania (including Zingula, Ngulu, Kaguru, Sagara, Vidunda,
  Kutu, Zaramo, and Kwere).  They are distinguished geographically, the name
  Luguru referring to the high mountains in their area, and by the office of
  Kingalum a supra-lineage rainmaker.  Over 800 lingeages comprising 50 blans
  were the autonomous political units. From about 1850-85 they were subject to
  predation by Ngoni raiders migrating up from the south along the Ulunda and
  Rufifi Rivers.  From 1870-88 the Arab called akida headmen, to collect
  taxes.  The Germans (1888-1916) continued this system, as well as the
  British, from 1916-1926, after which they changed to a system of indirect
  rule based upon selection of two sultans from among the clan leaders.  The
  eastern third of central Morogoro district ( which contains Kutu tribesmen
  in the south and some Ngulu in the north ) supports a rice economy on the
  coastal plains.  The name Luguru is applied to these people only by
  extension from the mountain people, but they are sometimes differentiated
  under the term Kami.  The Kami share the plains with outsiders, and large
  numbers have converted to Islam.  The plains contains larger sisal estates,
  which became a source of wage labor early in this century, and produced an
  early predominance of labor unions, anti-colonial agitation, and, more
  recently (1955), rioting over government agricultural policies ( this is the
  subject of Young and Fosbrooke's study, #2 below). The Germans also
  established their administrative center in the lowland town of Misaka, in
  Kutu territory in south Morogoro District.  Since 1907, with the completion
  of the railroad from the coast, the highland town of Morogoro has become the
  dominant transportation and administration center of the district.
     The Luguru proper, who inhabit the western highlands of central Morogoro
  District, cultivate maize and sorghum by hoe, and have a dense and   stable
  population in 1957 in Morogoro District (176,000) is concentrated here
  (there are an additional 26,000 Luguru outside the District).  They show a
  resistance to out migration for wage labor or resettlement, although they
  have been forced to expand to the plains by their dense population pressure.
  The highland area has been strongly affected by Roman Catholicism, since the
  establishment of German missions in the 1890's.  By 1950, most of the
  mountain Luguru had converted to Christianity.

Selection of Focus: The highland Luguru are selected as an ecologically
  distinct group within the Luguru and surrounding region.  They are somewhat
  scantily described by Beidelman, Christensen, McVicar, and Scheerder and
  Tastevin, in addition to Young and Fosbrooke, whose focus is upon lowland
  groups in recent times.

Time: 1925 is the last date of the traditional political organization, which
  survived in spite of the german and British direct colonial rule.

Coordinates: The capital city of Morogoro, in the north central part of the
  Luguru highlands, is located at 37 40'E and 6 50'S;  those of the highland
  Luguru as a whole are given under Focus, above.

Standard Sample Unit 11 (GPM 6/1/68)

Sampling Province 12: Kenya Highland Bantu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 26: Kikuyu (Akikuyu, Giguyu,
  Wakikuyu), Ad4: 108.

Focus: Kikuyu proper of the central (Metume of Fort Hall) district, centering
  around 0 40'S, 37 10'E, as of about 1920.

General Area: The Kikuyu tribe of Kikuyu proper occupy these districts: (1)
  the Nyeri of Gaki district in the north, with a population of about 180,000
  in 1948; (2) the Fort Hall or Metume district in the center, with about
  300,000; and (3) the Kiambu or Karuwa district in the south, with about
  250,000.  To the east and northeast are two addition districts occupied by
  related tribes of the Kikuyu nation in the larger sense (the Ndia, Gichugu,
  Embu, Mbere, Chuka Muthambi, Mwinbi, Tharaka, and Meru).  The more remotely
  related Kamba nation resides to the east.  To the north and west lie the
  Sudanic-speaking Masai peoples.  Much of the land in the southern part of
  the Kiambu district, centering on the city of Nairobe, was occupied,
  beginning after 1900, by European settlers, following epidemics in the late
  nineteenth century which caused widespread depopulation.

Selection of Focus: The Kikuyu of the Metume or Fort Hall district are given
  preference because this is the home district of Kenyatta.  Lambert deals
  with both this and the Kiambe district, Routledge with the Nyeri district.
  Except for acculturative differences, however, Kikuyu culture appears to be
  quite uniform throughout the three districts, but there are substantial
  differences in the other tribes of the Kikuyu nation to the east and

Time: The date of 1920 is selected as approximately the end of the period of
  relative stability of the traditional system.  Even then, however, many
  Kikuyu were already living as tenants of white farmers.  Settlement in
  nucleated villages was forced by the government around 1954.

Coordinates: Those given under Focus above are the coordinates of the town of
  Fort Hall.  The eastern boundary of the Fort Hall district is approximately
  36 45'E.  In all, the territory of the Kikuyu tribe covers a band about 30
  miles wide running about 75 miles from north to south.

Standard Sample Unit 12 (GPM 6/1/68)

Sampling Province 13: Lacustrine Bantu.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 2d: Ganda, Ad7:306.  The country
  is called Buganda, the people Baganda, the language Luganda.

Focus: Ganda of the Kyaddondo district, centering on the city of Kampala (0
  20'E, 32 32'E), around 1875.

Genreal Area: The Ganda are located around the northeastern shores of Laka
  Victoria,, where they are surrounded by the related Soga to the northeast,
  the Nyoro to the north, the Toro and Nkoile to the west, and the Haya to the
  south.  The nine central administrative districts in the center (Kyaddondo,
  Singo, Kyaywe, Selemegi, Busiro, mawokota, Gomba, Busiju, and Mutambala)
  were stabilized in the eighteenth centuries, and others were subsequently
  added by conquest.  Under the administrative district of Mengo, and the
  conquered regions into the districts of Mubende in the northwest and Masaka
  in the south.

Selection of Focus: The district of Mengo is selected because it is roughly
  equivalent to the central territory of the old kingdom.  Within this, the
  royal capital, though moved under each new monarch, was generally in or near
  the small central district of Kyadondo.  It is within this district that the
  present capital of Kameala was established by the British.

Time: The date of 1875 is selected because just prior to the establishment of
  Kampala and of significant administrative changes.  This is fourteen years
  after the visit of Speke (1861), who gives us the first ethnographic
  description, and is coincident with the visit by Stanley (1875).  It is
  about 25 years prior to the intensive work of Roscoe.  The decade after 1875
  brought internal factionalism between Christians and Moslems.  In 1879 a
  revolt was put down by the British, and the next king was a minor under
  British tutelage.

Coordinates: These of Kampala are given above under Focus.  The Mengo district
  extends about 130 miles east and west, and 80 miles north and south.

Standard Sample Unit 13 (DRW 9/6/68)

Sampling Province 15: Pymies

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 1: Mbuti, Aa5:202 (Bambuti)

Focus: The Epulu net-junters (Sua) of the Ituri Forest, from 28 15' to 28 25'E
  and 1 30' to 2 N, about 1955.

General Area: The Pygmies and Pygmoid peoples of the Congo have been pushed
  into smaller and smaller areas of the tropical forest since the invasions of
  Bantu and Sudanic tribes in the 16-17th centuries, and most of the groups
  have adopted the languages of invading tribes with whom they allied
  themselves.  Mbuti pygmies have adopted the languages of the Bira to the
  south of them, the Lese to the east, the Mangbetu and Azande to the
  northwest, and the Mamvu-Mangutu to the north.  The Ituri Forest is the core
  area in which Mbuti life has perhaps been least affected, although they also
  have a symbiotic relationship with the village tribes.  Three Ituri Forest
  groups are properly distinguished:
   1. The Efe in the cast, studied by Schebesta, who feels that they retain
      the most survivals from the original pgymy language and who are bow and
      arrow hunters (archers).  Their language is primarily adopted from the
   2. The Sua in the south of the Ituri, with the Epulu group studied by
      Turnbull situated to the north of the Ituri and Epulu Rivers, and the
      majority of the other groups to the south of the Ituri River.  They are
      net-junters, and speak a language largely influenced by the Forest Bira.
   3. The Aka in the north, although somewhat divided amongst themselves by
      the Mangbetu and Azande linguistic differences of their patron tribes
      who settled in their area, are distinct in that some of them use the
      spear as their primary weapon.
  Gusinde estimates the total Mbuti population at 32,000.

Selection of Focus: The Epulu band of the Sua group in the Ituri is chosen
  from the unpublished work of Putnam and the extensive publication of
  Turnbull.  It is important to note that the cultural life of the Mbuti
  differs strongly according to the "forest context" as observed by Turnbull
  and Purnam, or the "village context" as observed by Schebesta for the
  adjoining Efe archers.  Turnbull has aptly selected material from Schebesta
  which displays this difference, which should be taken into account in
  coding, but for the same reason, reference to Schebesta as an auxiliary
  source should be very carefully considered.

Time: 1950 corresponds to the later period of Putman's residence among the
  Epulu (circa 1945-1954) and is just prior to Turnbull's fieldwork in the
  same group (1951-52).

Coordinates: The Mbuti of Ituri forest are bounded within 26 30' to 30 20'E
  and 0 30' to 3 E; the coordinates of the Epulu group are given under Focus,

Standard Sample Unit 14 (DRW 9/16/68)

Sampling Province 14: Southern Equatorial Bantu

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 31: Nkundo Mongo (Bankundo,
  Basoka, Gundo, Mondji, Nkundu, Mongo), Ae4:110.

Focus: The Ilanga groups, from 18 35' to 19 45'E and 0 15'S, about

General Area: The Mongo nation, numbering some 1,000,000 in 1930, and the
  Mongo related tribes to the east, numbering about 500,000, cover a vast area
  within the Congo basin south of the Congo River itself.  All of the tribes
  speak Bantu languages, of the Bantoid subdivision, Niger-Congo linguistic
  family, and are fairly similar in culture.  The most outstanding difference
  between local villages is between Nkundo/Elinga, or inland and fishing
  villages, and this terminology is often employed in identifying groups.  The
  Nkundo Mongo are the "true" Mongo both in local terminology and in terms of
  the more basic subsistence type, which is swidden agriculture.  In listing
  the major Mongo groups below, it should be recognized that most groups have
  a predominance of Nkundo villages but often a substantial proportion of
  Elinga villages as well.  Five major geographical regions are also listed:
    A. Northern
   1. Lolo (often designated the Mongo proper), including Mbonje (Nsongo),
      Bogando, and Ntomba.  They number about 200,000.
   2. Bosaka (Saka), with the Ekota and Mputela.  They number about 110,000.
    B. West Central
   3. Elanga (often designated as the Nkundo proper, mistakenly), with the
      Bolemba (Bokote, Elonga, Lifumba, Wangata).  They number, with the
      Ilanga (below, #4), about 200,000.  They and the Ilanga claim a northern
      or northeastern origin.
   4. Ilanga (also mistakenly identified as true Nkundo proper), with the
      Boangi, Injolo and other small surrounding groups.  Their number is
      included above.
    C. East Central
   5. Mbole (Bole, Imomo, Mboe).  They number 100,000, and claim a
      northwestern origin.
   6. Ngombe (Bongombe), with the Kutu (Bakutu), and Ntomba, and nkole.  They
      claim a western origin.
   7. Kela (Ekele, IkeleO), with the Palanga, Bamvuli, and Boyela.  They
      number 150,000.
    D. Southern
   8. Kutshu, including the Bokala, Bolendu, Bolongo, Booli, Dangese
      (Bonkesse, Bosongo, Ndengese), and Yaelima.  They number about 80,000.
   9. Ejibda (Baseka), with the BAtitu, Bokongo, bolia, Ipanga, Iyembe, Mbo,
      Mpama, Ntombe, Sengele, and Wati.  They number abut 200,000.
    E. Eastern Extension (Mongo-related)
   10.Ngandu (Bolo, Bongandu), with the Bambole, Lalia, and Yasayama.  They
      number about 250,000.
   11.Tetela, also called Hamba and Kusu (Pakoussou), embracing the Okale,
      Olemba, Sungu, and other subtribes.  With the songomeno, below, they
      number about 300,000.
   12.Songomeno (Basonge-Meno), with the Wankutshu (Bankutshu).
    Within most of these tribes, there are enclaves of Pygmies (Twa) tied to
  Mongo by master-client relations; this is more frequent in the west.  Elinga
  fishermen occupy riverbanks throughout the region, and the distinct Ngomve,
  equatorial Bentu (not the same as #6 above) occupy a territorial niche to
  the northwest south of the Congo river. Coquilhatville, on the Congo River
  and the Ruki River, just downstream from the Elanga-Ilanga (#3,4), was an
  important missionary and trading post for the Congo basin and has been a
  point of contact beginning early in this century.

Selection of Focus: The Ilanga (group #4 above) are chosen as the focus of
  Hulstaert's study of the central Ilanga area, so that only the Ilanga proper
  should be the central focus.  Ilanga proper include: Bukaala, Bokonso, and
  Wangata-Ntomba subtribes.  Bomangola village (the oldest settlement in the
  area), and three sister-tribes of Bongili, Bombomba, and Lifumba-Beloko.
  Three villages of Bongale should be differentiated from the rest (Hulstaret
  feels they are not true Nkundo for having different exogamy rules), as well
  as Bombwanja settlements, who are as well as forming a solid district bloc
  in the central interior of Ilanga territory.

Time: The date of 1930 is roughly that of Hulstaert's description.

Coordinates: The Mongo nation as a whole, including the eastern extension,
  covers a distance of 700 miles E-W, from 17  to 29 E, and 400 miles N-S from
  2 N to

Standard Sample Unit 15 (DRW 9/15/68)

Sampling Province 17: Cameroon Bantu

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 37: Banen, Ae51:830 (Banyin,
  Nen, Renin).

Focus: The Ndiki subtribe of the Banen, from 10 35' to 11 E and 4 35 to 4
  45'N, about 1940.

General Area: The Banen are southernmost in the cluster of Bantu-speaking
  tribes (Bantoid subfamily, Niger-Congo family) in the homeland area from
  which the Bantu expansion probably began in about the first century, A.D.
  They lie in the original "Yam Belt", as Murdock (1959:223) has described the
  corridor of diffusion of Malaysian root crops from the Azanian coast (East
  Africa) to the Guinea coast.  Yams, Taro, and Banana were fused onto the
  basic Sudanic agricultural complex (millet, sorghum, etc.) and a long
  stability of the Bantu in this area is indicated.  To the south and west of
  the Banen are recent offshoots from the homeland area such as the Duala
  groups (including the Mungo and Wuri, neighbors of the Banen).  The Banen
  numbered about 32.000 in 1940, of which about 23,000 were within Banen
  territory, with others at the Cameroon capital of Duala or in adjacent
  subdivisions.  There were ten major groups claiming common ancestry divided
  in three subdistricts of French Cameroons:
    A.Mdikinimeki subdivision (north): #1-5 are Banen proper; #6 Nyokon.
   1. Itundu, population about 1,300.
   2. Ndiki, population about 2,500.
   3. Eling, population about 2,300.
   4. Ndogbanol, population about 1,500.
   5. Logonanca, population about 1,200.
   6. Nyokon, population about 3,000.
    B. Batia subdivision (northeast):
      Yambeta and Lemende subtribes
   7. Yambeat, population about 1,900.
   8. Lomande, population about 1,900.
    C. Yabassi subdivision (south):
      offshoots of the Banen proper.
   9. Ndogbiakat, population about 2,200.
   10.Yingi, population about 900.
    There are a large number of other small, scattered groups which attached
  themselves to one or another of the major subtribes, or have migrated and
  settled around towns further to the west.  These smaller groups number some
  where around 39,000 with Banen territory, and perhaps 4,000 outside and to
  the west.
     The recent history of the Banen indicates that they were centered in the
  very northern most part of their present territory and in the southern part
  of the area now occupied by the Bamumy north of the Nun River.  Banivleki
  inhabitant, most of the surrounding area to the north and west, and when
  they were overrun by the Bamum from the north, it is probable that the Banen
  were driven south into the dense and rich forest country they now occupy.
  Shortly after this, in 1901, the first European arrived, and the Ndiki
  subtribe took ujp arms against the Europeans, but were quickly defeated.  As
  a German Protectorate, Cameroon colonial administration had little effect on
  the Banen (1884-1919), but since the french administration in 1919 an
  administrative center has been established at Mdikinimeki with a road,
  medical and education) facilities.

Selection of Focus: The Ndiki subtribe (#2 above) of Ndikinimeki subdivision
  are a central group of Banen studied by the principal ethnographer, Dugast.

Time: 1940 corresponds to the period of Dugast's field work, when
  acculturation was slight in spite of twenty years' presence of the
  Ndikinimeki administrative center.

Coordinates: Those of the Banen as a whole area from 4 10' to 5 N and 10 to 11
  E;  the coordinates of the Ndiki subtribe are given under Focus, above

Standard Sample Unit 16 (DRW 9/5/68)

Sampling Province 30: Tiv-Adamawa

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 64: Tiv, Ah3:116  (Witshi,

Focus: The Tiv of Benue Province, from 6 30' to 8 N and 8  to 10 E, at about

General Area:  The Tiv speak an independent language of the Bantoid subfamily
  of the Niger-Congo linguistic family.  They occupy the broad plain of the
  Benue River and its trivutary, Katsina Ala.  They are hemmed in in the
  south, where the population is densest, by the Cameroun Highlands.  Benue
  Province includes the center of Tivland and about three-quarters of the
  total population, but the Tiv are constantly fissioning and expanding--
  mingling to the east with the Hausa speaking Abakwariga, Bantoid Jukun, and
  others, to the north with the Arage and ankwe, to the west with Idoma and
  others, and even over the Highlands into British Cameroons (Iyon and Ugbe).
  The Jukun and Utur control trade on the Benue and Katsina Ala Rivers, and
  form enclaves within the population.
     The Tiv were among the last tribes in Niguia to come under British
  administration, and were not seriously disrupted until after World War I.
  Missionaries entered as late as 1911.  In 1927 the British declared exchange
  marriage illegal.  There are Ibo and Hausa in the new administrative
  centers, and new pockets of immigrant Utange in Tivland.  The Tiv numbered
  600,000 in 1933 and 800,000 in 1952.

Selection of Focus: The Tiv of Benue Province are chosen as the central corex
  of Tivland as described by Paul and Laura Bohannah.  They do no indicate
  regional differences, but care should be taken to note such differences.

Time: 1920 is selected as the last date before extensive changes wrought by
  the British after World War I.

Coordinates: Those under Focus, above, include Benue Province, but are
  actually the boundaries of the continuous Tiv territory as of about 1952.
  Benue Province is somewhat smaller than the region indicates, approximately
  120 miles east-west and 110 miles north-south.

Standard Sample Unit 17 (DRW 9/1/68)

Sampling Province 18: Southeastern Nigeria

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 41: Ibo, Af10:643. (Ibo)

Focus: The Eastern-Peribheral subgroups of the Isu-Ama group of the Southern
  Division of the Ibo, from 5 20' to 5 40'N and 7 10'E, about 1935.

General Area: Ibo is one of the Kwa languages of the Niger-Congo lingistic
  family.  Its two chief dialects, Owerri (generally southeast) and Onitsha
  (generally northeast), reflect differences between the supposed nuclear area
  of the southeast, and spread of the Ibo to the west and north, where they
  were assimilated to the Benin kingdom between the 14th and 19th centuries,
  and heavily influenced by intrusive cultures from the north (14th15th
  century).  The Ibo also expanded to the east and northeast, where they were
  greatly influenced by the adjoining Bantu agriculturalists.  Loose
  divisions, in terms of cultural affinities, are classified as follows:
   1. Southern of Owerri Ibo, numbering about 1,100,000 in 1935.
   2. Northern or Onitsha Ibo, numbering about 1,200,000.
   3. Western Ibo, who have pushed across the Niger River, numbering about
   4. Northeastern Ibo, numbering about 350,000.
   5. Eastern or Cross-River Ibo, numbering about 150,000.
    Under four centuries of Portuguese contact (1434-1807), trading in slaves
  and other goods thrived on the coast, while the hinterlands were relatively
  unmolested.  Abolition of slaving in 1807 brought a shift to cash cropping
  of palm products and trade in raw materials, and the British trading
  companies (1807-85) struggled to establish control over the trade networks
  of the hinterland.  The Owerri Ibo were particularly caught up in cash
  cropping, but maintained an autonomous political system at the level of
  village clusters throughout the century.  In 1900 the Protectorate of
  Southern Nigeria was establish, and in 1914 numerous military expeditions
  were made to insure the amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria. In
  1928 Ibo were made to pay their first tax.  Protestant and Catholic missioin
  were particularly strong in the north, starting with mission in 1857 and
  1885.  Ibo are still primarily subsistence farmers.

Selection of Focus: The Eastern Isu-Ama, a group of the Southern of Owerri Ibo
  (#1 above), have been described by green, Uchendu and Ardener, all of whom
  worked in different villages within a 10 mile radius.  Southern Ibo are
  divided into four groups in terms of cultural similarities, and the
  subgroups of the Isu-Ama are also shown below;
   1. Isu-Ama: Eastern (abaja-Ehime), Peripheral (also Eastern), Western (Isu-
      Isu), and marginal (Isu-Ama and Nri-Awka) subgroups.  The Eastern-
      Peripheral subgroups contain the village group of agbaja, with the
      senior village Umueze, studied by Green;  also the Mba-Isi, a small
      village group studied by Ardener, in the Ezenihite grouping or tribe;
      there are numerous other village groups in this territory, comprising 4
      or 5 tribes.
   2. Ohuhu-Ngwa.
   3. Oratta-Ikwerri.
   4. Isu-Item.
    Uchendu's home area is in Ubakala village-group, Ohuhu-Ngwa group (#2
  above), contiguous with the Ezenihite grouping studied by Ardener.  The
  location of Leith-Ross's study of regional aspect of Owerri District is a
  useful supplement.

Time: 1935 is taken as approximation of Green's field work (1934-1947),
  Uchendu's (reaching boyhood in 1930), and Ardener's (1949).

Coordinates: Those of the Ibo as a whole extend from 4 50' to 7 N and 6 to 8
  20'E;  the Owerri Ibo extend from 6 40' to 7 40'E and 4 50' to 5 50'N;  the
  Eastern-Peripheral subgroup of the Isu-Ama group is given under Focus,

Standard Sample Unit 18 (HTT 7/2/68)

Sampling Province 19: Slave Coast.

Representative of the Province and of Cluster 44: Fon (dahomeans), Af1:10.

Focus: The city and environs of Abomey, the capital 1 56'E, 7 12'N, around

General Area: The Fon of the Abomey region, who speak a language of the swe
  branch of the Kwa subfamily of Niger-Congo, formed the core of the empire of
  Dahomey, which in the mid-wighteenth century conquered and absorbed the
  previously independent states of Allada and Whydah and the dialectically
  related but distinct tribes of the Agonglin to the east, Adja to the west,
  Watyi farther west, and Mahi (Maxi) to the north.  At the end of the 17th
  century the Dutch, English, French, and Portuguese all established fortified
  posts st Whydah to engage in the slave trade.  Dahomey was conquered by the
  French in 1892.  Herskovits estimates the population of the Dahomean kingdom
  proper at about 250,000.  Lavergne de Tressan reports the total population
  as 146,000 Watyiu and 770,000 Fon (including the coastal and other conquered

Selection of Focus: The city of Abomey is selected as the capital of the
  Dahomean empire and as the site of the field research of Herskovits.

Time: The date of 1890 is chosen as prior to the conquest of the Dahomean
  state by the French.

Coordinates: The entire Dahomean empire extended from 620' to 8N, and from 1
  45' to 2 30'E.  The coordinates of Abomey are reported above and under