Pre-Coded Variables

 

for the

 

Standard

Cross-Cultural Sample

 

 

Volume I

 

from World Cultures

 

 

 

Prepared by

 

William Divale

Divalebill@aol.com

 

York College, CUNY

Jamaica, NY  11451

 

 

www.york.cuny.edu

718-262-2982

Spring 2000


Contents

 

Volume I                                                                     SCCS Variable #s                 Page No

Introduction                                                                                                                                                          3

Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Introduction                                                                                          4             

Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices                                Variables  1 to 22                                7

Infancy and Early Childhood                                                             Variables  23 to 60                              11

Settlement Patterns and Community Organization                         Variables  61 to 80                              18

Political Organization                                                                         Variables  81 to 98                              22

Division of Labor                                                                                 Variables  99 to 148                            25

Cultural Complexity                                                                            Variables  149 to 158                          28

Sexual Attitudes and Practices                                                        Variables  159 to 178                          30

Climate Data from Weather Stations                                 Variables  179 to 199                          33

Ethnographic Atlas                                                                      Variables  200 to 292                          36

Traits Inculcated in Childhood                                                         Variables  293 to 336                          50

Agents and Techniques of Child Training                                       Variables  337 to 480                          55

Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Parental Control                   Variables  481 to 528                          67

Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies                                                           Variables  529 to 560                          70

Reproductive Rituals                                                                    Variables  561 to 575                          74

The Relative Status of Women                                                 Variables  576 to 636                          77

Kin Term Patterns                                                                                Variables  637 to 644                          86

Cultural Theories of Illness                                                                Variables  645 to 656                          89

Female Power and Male Dominance                                  Variables  657 to 679                          91

Female Status:  Independent Variables                                                Variables  680 to 738                          95

Husband-Wife Relationships                                                        Variables  739 to 755                          104

Political Decision Making and Conflict                                  Variables  756 to 797                          109

Data Quality Control Variables for Child Training                 Variables  798 to 813                          116

Sexual Division of Labor Revisited                                                    Variables  814 to 826                          120

Adolescent Sexual Behavior                                                    Variables  827 to 832                          122

Standard Cross-Cultural Sample                                                    Variables  833 to 850                          124

Language Phylum and Family Membership                                          Variables  851 to 853                          127

Climate and Subsistence                                                                          Variables  854  to 859.1                      132

Polygyny:  Form and Frequency                                                     Variables  860  to 879                         137

Magico-Religious Practitioners                                                          Variables  879  to 884                         141

Female Contribution to Subsistence                                          Variables  885  to 890                         142

The Nature of Warfare                                                                  Variables  891  to 916                         143

Slavery and Social Death                                                                          Variables  917  to 920                         148

Agricultural Potentials                                                                              Variables  921  to 930                         151

Varieties of Sexual Experience                                                 Variables  931 to 985                          154

Enculturative Continuity and Importance of Caretakers                Variables  986 to 1005                        172

Historical Analysis of Subsistence Change                                  Variables  1006 to 1114                      175

Population Codes                                                                                                Variable   1122                                       190

Type of Agriculture                                                                            Variables  1123 to 1131                      192

State Organization                                                                         Variable   1132                                        195

Despotism and Harem Size                                                             Variables  1133 to 1135                      196

Divorce                                                                                                  Variables  1136 to 1178                      197

Rape                                                                                                       Variables  1179 to 1187                      199

Evil Eye                                                                                                  Variables  1188 to 1189                      202

Kin Avoidance                                                                                     Variables  1190 to 1225                      203

Marriage Transactions                                                                         Variables  1238 to 1240                      205

Female Beauty and Adolescent Sexuality Codes                    Variables  1248 to 1252                      206

Pathogen Stress Cross-Culturally: Codes                                     Variables  1253 to 1260                      208

Starvation and Famine Among SCCS Societies: Codes                Variables  1261 to 1270                      210

 

 

Volume II                                                                   SCCS Variable #s                 Page No

Introduction                                                                                                                                                          214

Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Introduction                                                                                          215

Household Division Of Work                I                                               Variables  1271 to 1305                      218

Household Division Of Work                II                                             Variables  1306 to 1341                      226

Household Division Of Work                III                                            Variables  1342 to 1366                      231

Household Division Of Work                IV                                            Variables  1367 to 1401                      236

Household Division Of Work                V                                             Variables  1402 to 1437                      244

Household Division Of Work                VI.1                                         Variables  1438 to 1462                      249

Household Division Of Work                VI.2                                         Variables  1463 to 1490                      254

Household Division Of Work                VII                                           Variables  1491 to 1521                      259

Household Division Of Work                X                                             Variables  1522 to 1557                      264

Household Division Of Work                X                                             Variables  1558 to 1591                      270

Household Division Of Work                XI                                            Variables  1592 to 1614                      276

Household Division Of Work                XII                                          Variables  1615 to 1647                      280

Warfare, Aggression, and Resource Problems                                Variables  1648 to 1691                      286

Scarification, Pathogen Load and Biome                                             Variables  1692 to 1709                      302

Sleeping Arrangements of Children & Adolescents                         Variables  1710 to 1713                      304

CONAN: Code-Text Data-Base, Part I                                       Variables  1714 to 1747                      305

CONAN: Code-Text Data-Base, Part II                                     Variables  1748 to 1780                      313

Codes on Gossip                Topics                                                                    Variables  1781 to 1805                      321

Gossip Factor Scales                                                                     Factors      1 to 8                                      325

Modernization Codes                                                                     Variables  1806 to 1849                      327

 

 


Introduction
 

 

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (Murdock and White, 1969, Ethnology) is currently the most widely used sample in cross-cultural research.  At present 1,805 variables have been measured for this sample and published in the journal World Cultures (as of volume 11, number 1 [Spring 2000]).

 

I have found from my own research and from teaching students to use the cross-cultural method that a description of these variables is useful, especially if collected in one place.  For a recent discussion of the cross-cultural method see Ember and Ember (1998).  Often one has a hypothesis that requires the measurement of the independent or dependent variable.  The remaining variables sometimes need to be measured as well, but sometimes they already were coded by another researcher.  More often a similar variable exists or one exists that can be used as an indirect measure.  The use of pre-existing variables can facilitate research, especially in preliminary or pilot studies.

 

The present volumes collect the codebooks for these 1,805 variables in one location.  In the accompanying CD-ROM disk the 1,805 variables are presented in two formats:

 

 

 

 

The codebooks indicate which data files correspond to the codebook.  For example, the first codebook refers to Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices (Murdock and Morrow 1970).  These are variables number 1-22 and can be found in SPSS format in data file STDS01.SAV, or in ASCCI format in ST01.DAT.

 

Using the Data, Merge option in SPSS one can easily add, delete, or combine variables from different data files to make a file for your use.

 

In addition, in separate files on the CD are also included the ethnographic bibliography for the societies in the SCCS sample.

 

William Divale
 

 

References

 

Ember, Carol. R. and Melvin Ember.  1998.  Cross-Cultural Research.  In H.R. Bernard (ed.), Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology, pp. 647-687. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

 

Murdock, George P., and Diana O. Morrow. 1970. Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices. Ethnology 9:302-330.

 

Murdock, George P., and Douglas White. 1969.  The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Ethnology 8:329-369.

 

 
 
The Standard Sample: Introduction

 

The  Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (Murdock and White 1969) consists of 186 societies,  each of which is pinpointed to a  particular  time  and place for purposes  of  coding.  By society,  we  mean  a  specific  local population  which  reproduces a way of life,  the description of which may vary depending on which of many possible foci is chosen for study,  within some  larger  unit.  No  attempt is made to generalize the descriptions of these  individualized  ways of life to an entire "society" in terms of the largest groups that  might  be  included  under  the  ethnic  or  national designations  of  the  particular  units. 

                                                   

FILE:       STDSAMPL.FOC

 

This   sample  is  designed  for  testing  propositions  about  human societies, cultures,  and behaviors.  The order in which the societies are listed below corresponds to the order of the records in the datafiles with descriptive  variables  on these societies.  The numbers running from 1 to 186 traverse the societies from the southern  tip  of  Africa  up  through Europe,  on  through Asia and the Pacific,  into North America and down to the tip of South America.  The dates are the focal date,  which  is  often the earliest reliable ethnographic description. 

 

 

                          

 No. Societal Name   Date           No. Societal Name   Date

 


   1 Nama Hottentot  1860

   2 Kung Bushmen    1950

   3 Thonga          1865

   4 Lozi            1900

   5 Mbundu          1890

   6 Suku            1920

   7 Bemba           1897

   8 Nyakyusa        1934

   9 Hadza           1930

  10 Luguru          1925

  11 Kikuyu          1920

  12 Ganda           1875

  13 Mbuti           1950

  14 Nkundo Mongo    1930

  15 Banen           1935

  16 Tiv             1920

  17 Ibo             1935

  18 Fon             1890

  19 Ashanti         1895

  20 Mende           1945

  21 Wolof           1950

  22 Bambara         1902

  23 Tallensi        1934

  24 Songhai         1940

  25 Pastoral Fulani 1951

  26 Hausa           1900

  27 Massa (Masa)    1910

  28 Azande          1905

  29 Fur (Darfur)    1880

  30 Otoro Nuba      1930

  31 Shilluk         1910

  32 Mao             1939

  33 Kaffa (Kafa)    1905

  34 Masai           1900

  35 Konso           1935

  36 Somali          1900

  37 Amhara          1953

  38 Bogo            1855

  39 Kenuzi Nubians  1900

  40 Teda            1950

  41 Tuareg          1900

  42 Riffians        1926

  43 Egyptians       1950

  44 Hebrews        - 621

  45 Babylonians    -1750

  46 Rwala Bedouin   1913

  47 Turks           1950

  48 Gheg Albanians  1910

  49 Romans           110

  50 Basques         1934

  51 Irish           1932

  52 Lapps           1950

  53 Yurak Samoyed   1894

  54 Russians        1955

  55 Abkhaz          1880

  56 Armenians       1843

  57 Kurd            1951

  58 Basseri         1958

  59 Punjabi (West)  1950

  60 Gond            1938

  61 Toda            1900

  62 Santal          1940

  63 Uttar Pradesh   1945

  64 Burusho         1934

  65 Kazak           1885

  66 Khalka Mongols  1920

  67 Lolo            1910

  68 Lepcha          1937

  69 Garo            1955

  70 Lakher          1930

  71 Burmese         1965

  72 Lamet           1940

  73 Vietnamese      1930

  74 Rhade           1962

  75 Khmer           1292

  76 Siamese         1955

  77 Semang          1925

  78 Nicobarese      1870

  79 Andamanese      1860

  80 Vedda           1860

  81 Tanala          1925

  82 Negri Sembilan  1958

  83 Javanese        1954

  84 Balinese        1958

  85 Iban            1950

  86 Badjau          1963

  87 Toradja         1910

  88 Tobelorese      1900

  89 Alorese         1938

  90 Tiwi            1929

  91 Aranda          1896

  92 Orokaiva        1925

  93 Kimam           1960

  94 Kapauku         1955

  95 Kwoma           1960

  96 Manus           1937

  97 New Ireland     1930

  98 Trobrianders    1914

  99 Siuai           1939

 100 Tikopia         1930

 101 Pentecost       1953

 102 Mbau Fijians    1840

 103 Ajie            1845

 104 Maori           1820

 105 Marquesans      1800

 106 Western Samoans 1829

 107 Gilbertese      1890

 108 Marshallese     1900

 109 Trukese         1947

 110 Yapese          1910

 111 Palauans        1947

 112 Ifugao          1910

 113 Atayal          1930

 114 Chinese         1936

 115 Manchu          1915

 116 Koreans         1947

 117 Japanese        1950

 118 Ainu            1880

 119 Gilyak          1890

 120 Yukaghir        1850

 121 Chukchee        1900

 122 Ingalik         1885

 123 Aleut           1800

 124 Copper Eskimo   1915

 125 Montagnais      1910

 126 Micmac          1650

 127 Saulteaux       1930

 128 Slave           1940

 129 Kaska           1900

 130 Eyak            1890

 131 Haida           1875

 132 Bellacoola      1880

 133 Twana           1860

 134 Yurok           1850

 135 Pomo (Eastern)  1850

 136 Yokuts (Lake)   1850

 137 Paiute (North.) 1870

 138 Klamath         1860

 139 Kutenai         1890

 140 Gros Ventre     1880

 141 Hidatsa         1836

 142 Pawnee          1867

 143 Omaha           1860

 144 Huron           1634

 145 Creek           1800

 146 Natchez         1718

 147 Comanche        1870

 148 Chiricahua      1870

 149 Zuni            1880

 150 Havasupai       1918

 151 Papago          1910

 152 Huichol         1890

 153 Aztec           1520

 154 Popoluca        1940

 155 Quiche          1930

 156 Miskito         1921

 157 Bribri          1917

 158 Cuna (Tule)     1927

 159 Goajiro         1947

 160 Haitians        1935

 161 Callinago       1650

 162 Warrau          1935

 163 Yanomamo        1965

 164 Carib (Barama)  1932

 165 Saramacca       1928

 166 Mundurucu       1850

 167 Cubeo (Tucano)  1939

 168 Cayapa          1908

 169 Jivaro          1920

 170 Amahuaca        1960

 171 Inca            1530

 172 Aymara          1940

 173 Siriono         1942

 174 Nambicuara      1940

 175 Trumai          1938

 176 Timbira         1915

 177 Tupinamba       1550

 178 Botocudo        1884

 179 Shavante        1958

 180 Aweikoma        1932

 181 Cayua           1890

 182 Lengua          1889

 183 Abipon          1750

 184 Mapuche         1950

 185 Tehuelche       1870

 186 Yahgan          1865



SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY AND SUPPORTIVE PRACTICES

 

 George P. Murdock and Diana O. Morrow.  1970.  ETHNOLOGY 9:302-330.

 

Datafile: STDS01.DAT  Vars.   1- 22 subsistence

 

   1.  INTERCOMMUNITY TRADE AS FOOD SOURCE

    ..Comment: here are the frequencies, code, and label headings for this       variable

    #  of  Code  Descriptive

    Cases  # = Label

    ---      -   -----

      3    . = (dot) Missing Data

      7    1 = No Trade

     51    2 = Food Imports absent although trade present

 

             Food Imports present, and contribute:

      4    3 = Salt or Minerals only

     81    4 = < 10% of food (90% form local extractive sources)

     38    5 = < 50% of food, and less than any single local source

      -    6 = < 50% of food, and more than any single local source

      2    7 = > 50% of food

      

   2.  FOOD IMPORT ACQUISITION

     62    . = Missing Data

     49    1 = Direct individual exchanges

     10    2 = Indirect individual exchanges

     28    3 = Local markets

     34    4 = Middlemen

      3    5 = Three or four of above

      

   3.  AGRICULTURE- CONTRIBUTION TO LOCAL FOOD SUPPLY

     35    1 = None

      3    2 = Non-food Crops

     17    3 = < 10%

     12    4 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade

     42    5 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade

     77    6 = Primarily agricultural

      

   4.  CROPS- PRINCIPAL

     36    . = Missing Data

      2    1 = Non-food 

      -    2 = Vegetables

     14    3 = Tree or Vine

     38    4 = Roots    

     96    5 = Cereals  

      

   5.  ANIMAL HUSBANDRY- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

      8    1 = None     

     41    2 = Present, not food source   

     67    3 = < 10% food supply 

     33    4 = < 50% - chiefly meat 

     21    5 = < 50% - chiefly dairy

      -    6 = < 50% - chiefly honey           

     16    7 = > 50%

      

   6.  ANIMALS- DOMESTICATED

      8    . = Missing Data

     54    1 = Small Species, e.g. Bees, Cats, Dogs, Fowl

     34    2 = Pigs     

     23    3 = Ovides   

     14    4 = Equines  

      3    5 = Reindeer 

      4    6 = Camels   

     46    7 = Bovines  

 

   7.  FISHING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

      2    . = Missing Data

     27    1 = None     

     79    2 = < 10% food supply 

     55    3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade

     10    4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade

     13    5 = > 50%

      

   8.  FISH

     29    . = Missing Data

      6    1 = Shellfish

    122    2 = True fish

      1    3 = Large aquatic animals

     28    4 = Two or more of above 

      

   9.  HUNTING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

      4    . = Missing Data

     18    1 = None     

      3    2 = Not food source   

     85    2 = < 10% food supply 

     61    3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade

      8    4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade

      7    5 = > 50%

      

  10.  ANIMALS HUNTED

     23    . = Missing Data

     18    1 = Birds or Waterfowl

     35    2 = Small Mammals     

     65    3 = Large Game

     45    4 = Two or more of above 

      

  11.  GATHERING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

      4    . = Missing Data

     16    1 = None     

    116    2 = < 10% food supply 

     40    3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade

      7    4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade

      3    5 = > 50%

      

 


12.  GATHERED FOODS

     21    . = Missing Data

     18    1 = Wild Animal products   

     15    2 = Wild Herbs, Leaves, Blossoms    

      7    3 = Tree Pith, e.g., Sago

     11    4 = Wild Roots or Tubers

     54    5 = Wild Fruit, seeds, nuts, berries

     60    6 = Two or more of the above    

      

  13.  LAND TRANSPORT (especially regarding food transport)

      1    . = Missing Data

    108    1 = Human Carriers, incl. tumpline

     41    2 = Pack Animals

     13    3 = Draft Animals (sleds, travois)

     12    4 = Animal Drawn Wheeled vehicles

     11    5 = Motorized vehicles

      

  14.  ROUTES OF LAND TRANSPORT

      5    . = Missing Data

    124    1 = Unimproved Trails 

     26    2 = Improved Trails, for porters or animal carriers

     22    3 = Unpaved Roads, for wheeled vehicles

      9    4 = Paved Roads                              

      

  15.  WATER TRANSPORT

      5    . = Missing Data

     20    1 = None, but feasible      note: 1 & 2 should be reversed

     56    2 = Not feasible

     10    3 = Floats or rafts

     73    4 = Human powered craft

     20    5 = Sail powered craft

      2    6 = Motorized craft

      

  16.  WATER CRAFT

     91    0 = None     

     50    1 = Small, for <10 people or load equivalent

     31    2 = Medium, for >10 people or load equivalent

     14    3 = Large, for >40 people or load equivalent

      

  17.  MONEY (MEDIA OF EXCHANGE) AND CREDIT

      3    . = Missing Data

     77    1 = No media of exchange or money

     12    2 = Domestically usable articles as media of exchange

     26    3 = Tokens of conventional value as media of exchange

     42    4 = Foreign coinage or paper currency  

     26    5 = Indigenous coinage or paper currency

      

  18.  CREDIT SOURCE

     17    . = Missing Data

    113    1 = Personal loans between friends or relatives

     26    2 = Internal money lending specialists

     23    3 = External money lending specialists

      7    5 = Banks or comparable institutions

      


  19.  PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF FOOD

     31A   1 = Year-round food supply, none

     29B   2 = Year-round food supply, simple

     14C   3 = Year-round food supply, complex

      8E   4 = Daily variation, none

      2F   5 = Daily variation, simple

      -G   6 = Daily variation, complex

     24I   7 = Seasonal variation, barely adequate

     46J   8 = Seasonal variation, adequate

     16K   9 = Seasonal variation, adequate

      6L  10 = Annual variation, barely adequate

      5M  11 = Annual variation, adequate

      3N  12 = Annual variation, adequate

      2O  13 = Imported food, barely adequate

      -P  14 = Imported food, adequate

               Note: Remove Letters

              

  20.  FOOD STORAGE

      4    . = Missing Data

     36    1 = None     

    129    2 = Individual households

      7    3 = Communal facilities

      3    4 = Political agent controlled repositories

      7    5 = Economic agent controlled repositories

      

  21.  FOOD SURPLUS VIA STORAGE

     69    1 = None or barely adequate     

     84    2 = Simple or adequate

     33    3 = Complex or More than adequate

      

  22.  FOOD SUPPLY (ECOLOGICAL OR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK)

     74    1 = Year-round food supply locally

    10     2 = Daily variation in food supply

     86    3 = Seasonal variation

     14    4 = Annual variation  

      2    5 = Imported food supply                

 


INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

Barry, Herbert, III, and Leonora M. Paxson. 1971. ETHNOLOGY 10: 466-508.

 

Datafile: STDS02.DAT  Vars.  23- 60 infancy and early childhood

      <stds02.cod>

       Variables 23-32 deal with infancy only, from the first year until the

       transition to early childhood (see 38-39, 42, 44), usually at 12-18

       months.The early and late infancy periods of variables 24-27 refer to

       the first few months after birth versus the period after crawling

       begins,usually around 9 months. Variables 33-38 include both infancy and

       early childhood, the latter usually to the age of 4-5 years. Variables

       39-50 deal with the transition to childhood, around 12-18

       months.Variables 51-60 provide a comparison of infancy and childhood.

 

 

  23.  SLEEPING PROXIMITY OF PARENTS TO INFANT

    ..Comment: here are the frequencies, code, and label headings for this       variable

    #  of  Code  Descriptive

    Cases  # = Label

    ---    -   -----

     13    . = Missing Data

      -    1 = Mo and Fa in different room than infant

     12    2 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different room

      -    3 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa unspecified

     30    4 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different bed

     55    5 = Mo, Fa same room as infant, beds not specified  

     24    6 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa different room

      5    7 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa not specified

     24    8 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa same room   

     23    9 = Mo and Fa in same bed as infant

      

  24.  BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - EARLY INFANCY

     55    . = Missing Data

     42    1 = None except in emergency

      1    2 = Loose confinement - Tether or playpen 

     21    3 = Limited space - Bed or hammock    

     41    4 = Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets

     26    5 = Often Bound - Cradle Board

      

  25.  BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - LATER INFANCY

     63    . = Missing Data

     61    1 = None except in emergency

      8    2 = Loose confinement - Tether or playpen 

     14    3 = Limited space - Bed or hammock    

     23    4 = Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets

     17    5 = Often Bound - Cradle Board

 

  26.  BODILY CONTACT - EARLY INFANCY

     65    . = Missing Data

      3    1 = Limited to routine and precautionary care

     16    2 = Occasionally     

     33    3 = Up to 1/2 time   

     49    4 = > 1/2 time

     20    5 = Almost Constantly

    

  27.  BODILY CONTACT - LATE INFANCY

     69    . = Missing Data

      3    1 = Limited to routine and precautionary care

     15    2 = Occasionally     

     41    3 = Up to 1/2 time   

     43    4 = > 1/2 time

     15    5 = Almost Constantly

 

  28.  INFANT CARRYING DEVICES

     30    . = Missing Data

     22    1 = None, skin contact

     22    2 = None, clothing or blanket    

     75    3 = Sling or Pouch  

      9    4 = Basket  

     28    5 = Rigid Cradleboard     

      

  29.  INFANT CARRYING POSITION

     30    . = Missing Data

     91    1 = Back    

     54    2 = Side    

     10    3 = Front   

      1    4 = Other   

      

  30.  INFANT EYE CONTACT WITH CARRIER

     44    . = Missing Data

     26    1 = Away from carrier

    116    2 = Toward carrier   

      

  31.  INFANT CRYING- RESPONSE

     83    . = Missing Data

      3    1 = Indifferent or punitive    

      3    2 = Slow or perfunctory, nurturant

     19    3 = Speedy but inconsistently nurturant

     67    4 = Generally speedy, nurturant

     11    5 = Always speedy, nurturant

      

  32.  INFANT CRYING- AMOUNT

    139    . = Missing Data

     16    1 = Very Infrequent and brief

     10    2 = Infrequent and short

      9    3 = Infrequent and prolonged   

     11    4 = Frequent and short

      1    5 = Frequent and prolonged

      

  33.  CHILDHOOD PAIN INFLICTION

     38    . = Missing Data

     17    1 = Absent  

     37    2 = Only neonatally or very mild pain

     63    3 = Occasional mild pain

     25    4 = Frequent mild pain or infrequent severe pain

      6    5 = Frequent pain

      -    6 = Very painful

      

 

  34.  POST - PARTUM SEX TABOO

     52    . = Missing data     

      2    1 = Intercourse expected soon after birth

      7    2 = None    

     29    3 = 1 month or less

     42    4 = 6 months or less

     12    5 = 1 year or less

     20    6 = 2 years or less

     22    7 = > 2 years

      

  35.  CEREMONIALISM SURROUNDING CHILD, BEYOND NUCLEAR FAMILY

      7    . = Missing Data

     20    1 = None    

     73    2 = Only within first 2 months 

     56    3 = One occasion at later age  

     20    4 = Two or more ceremonies     

     10    5 = Prominent

      

 

 36.  MAGICAL PROTECTIVENESS APPLIED TO PARENTS AND CHILD

      8    . = Missing Data

      8    1 = None    

     22    2 = Only neonatal period, e.g., couvade

     76    3 = Slight, neonatally and later 

     66    4 = Moderate, neonatally and later

      6    5 = Exaggerated, neonatally and later     

      

  37.  PHYSICAL PROTECTIVENESS AGAINST CHILDHOOD ILLNESS

      

     20    . = Missing Data

      1    1 = No special effort

     43    2 = Slight

     79    3 = Moderate, e.g., regular baths

     4 = Some exceptional techniques, e.g., medicines, ointments,

            diapers

      4    5 = Variety of exceptional techniques

      

  38.  INTRODUCTION OF NEW FOODS (OTHER THAN MILK) IN CHILDHOOD

     95    . = Missing Data

     33    1 = Before 1 month   

     27    2 = 1-6 months

     11    3 = 7-12 months, including solids

      6    4 = 7-12 months, only liquids or premasticated

     14    5 = After 12 months  

      

  39.  WEANING- AGE AND SEVERITY

     29    . = Missing Date     

    103    1 = > 2 years and gentle

     27    2 = > 2 years and severe

     17    3 = > 1 year and gentle 

      5    4 = > 1 year and severe 

      3    5 = > 6 months and gentle

      1    6 = > 6 months and severe

      1    7 = < 6 months and gentle

      -    8 = < 6 months and severe

      

  40.  MOTOR SKILLS- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD

      

    109    . = Missing Data

      2    1 = Discourage or punish early development

      2    2 = Ignore development

     22    3 = No active assistance, but attention given

     42    4 = Definite but inconsistent rewards   

      9    5 = Strong Encouragement and assistance

      

  41.  AUTONOMY- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD

      

     81    . = Missing Data

     25    1 = > 4 years and gradual

      3    2 = > 4 years and abrupt

     54    3 = 2-4 years and gradual

     23    4 = 2-4 years and abrupt, or < 2 years and gradual

      -    5 = < 2 years and abrupt    

           *   note: recode category 4

               =======================

 

 

  42.  ELIMINATION- ENCOURAGEMENT OF CONTROL IN CHILDHOOD

      

    123    0 = None    

      7    1 = 3-5 years

     27    2 = > 18 months

      9    3 = > 1 year

      7    4 = > 6 months

     13    5 = < 6 month  

  43.  COVERING GENITALS- AGE

 

     50    0 = Even adults uncovered

     85    1 = Very late

     14    2 = Late    

      2    3 = > 1 year

      1    4 = < 6 months

     34    5 = After birth

      

  44.  WEANING- AGE OF ONSET

 

     30    . = Missing Data

     19    1 = up to 12 months

     12    2 = 13 - 20 months

     67    3 = 21 - 24

      6    4 = 25 - 30

     36    5 = 31 - 36

      9    6 = 37 - 42

      7    7 = 43 - 48

      -    8 = 49 - 60

      -    9 = 61 - 72

      

 

 

 

  45.  WEANING- AGE OF TERMINATION

 

     30    . = Missing Data

      7    1 = up to 12 months

      5    2 = 13 - 20

     38    3 = 21 - 24

      8    4 = 25 - 30

     64    5 = 31 - 36

     16    6 = 37 - 42

     14    7 = 43 - 48

      4    8 = 49 - 60

      -    9 = 61 - 72 months 

      

  46.  WEANING-  CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER OF ONSET

 

     27    . = Missing Data

      7    1 = 1st in onset (among variables 46-50)

     80    2 = 2nd

     57    3 = 3rd

     15    4 = 4th

      -    5 = 5th

      

  47.  MOTOR SKILLS- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

 

     10    . = Missing Data

    121    1 = 1st

     46    2 = 2nd

      7    3 = 3rd

      2    4 = 4th

      -    5 = 5th

      

  48.  AUTONOMY- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

     80    . = Missing Data

      -    1 = 1st

     18    2 = 2nd

     46    3 = 3rd

     33    4 = 4th

      9    5 = 5th

      

  49.  ELIMINATION CONTROL- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

    122    . = Missing Data

     17    1 = 1st

     31    2 = 2nd

     10    3 = 3rd

     5    4 = 4th

     5 = 5th

 

 50.  COVERING GENITALS- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

 

     36    . = Missing Data

     32    1 = 1st

      9    2 = 2nd

     34    3 = 3rd

     45    4 = 4th

     30    5 = 5th

   

  51.  NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY

 

     24    . = Missing Data

      5    1 = Almost Exclusively Mother   

     81    2 = Principally Mother, others minor roles  

     63    3 = Principally Mother, others important roles 

     10    4 = Mother < 1/2 care    

      2    5 = Mother minor but significant   

      1    6 = Mother minimal except for nursing

      

  52.  NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

     50    . = Missing Data

      -    1 = Almost Exclusively Mother   

     36    2 = Principally Mother, others important roles 

     60    3 = Mother < 1/2 care    

     38    4 = Primarily others 

      2    5 = Exclusively others

      

  53.  ROLE OF FATHER, INFANCY

 

     32    . = Missing Data

      8    1 = Distant 

     27    2 = Rarely close     

     72    3 = Occasionally close

     44    4 = Frequently close 

      3    5 = Regularly close  

      

  54.  ROLE OF FATHER, EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

     36    . = Missing Data

      4    1 = Distant 

     18    2 = Rarely Close     

     46    3 = Occasionally Close

     73    4 = Frequently Close 

      9    5 = Regularly Close  

 

55.  PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS

 

     48    . = Missing Data

     31    1 = Children, Females

      4    2 = Children, unspecified

     11    3 = Children, both sexes

     60    4 = Adult Family, Females

     5 = Adult Family, unspecified

     6 = Adult Family, both sexe

     17    7 = Others, Female

1    9 = Others, both sexes

      

 


  56.  PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS

     45    . = Missing Data

     10    1 = Peer Group, single sex     

      1    2 = Peer Group, unspecified    

     43    3 = Peer Group, both sexes     

     22    4 = Older Children, single sex 

      8    5 = Older Children, unspecified

     22    6 = Older Children, both sexes 

     14    7 = Adults, single sex

     21    9 = Adults, both sexes

 

  57.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY (taking 51 and 52 into account)

      

     67    . = Missing Data

      1    1 = Severe or neglectful

      8    2 = Lesser severity  

     19    3 = Occasional indulgence

     80    4 = Greater 

     11    5 = Highly affectionate 

      

  58.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY- MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES

 

     67    . = Missing Data

     36    1 = Low in category  

     34    2 = Medium in category

     49    3 = High in category 

           *   Note: Combine 57 and 58

               =======================

 

  59.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD (taking 51 and 52 into account)

      

     54    . = Missing Data

      2    1 = Severe  

     24    2 = Less Severity    

     32    3 = Occasional Severity 

     64    4 = Greater Leniency 

     10    5 = Consistently Lenient

      

  60.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD- MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES

      

     54    . = Missing Data

     43    1 = Low in Category  

     44    2 = Medium in Category

     45    3 = High in Category 

           *   Note: Combine 59 and 60

               =======================

 

    <stds03.cod>


SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

 

George P. Murdock and Suzanne F. Wilson.  1972.  ETHNOLOGY 11: 254-295.

 

Datafile: STDS03.DAT  Vars.  61- 80 settlement and community

 

  61.  FIXITY OF SETTLEMENT

 

    # of   Code  Descriptive

    Cases  # = Label

    ---    -   -----

     28    1 = Migratory

     21    2 = Seminomadic- fixed then migratory

      6    3 = Rotating among 2+ fixed

     14    4 = Semisedentary- fixed core, some migratory

     15    5 = Impermanent- periodically moved

    102    6 = Permanent

      

  62.  COMPACTNESS OF SETTLEMENT

 

     18    2 = Dispersed

     20    3 = Spatially separated subsettlements  

     44    4 = Partially dispersed with central core

    104    1 = Compact 

           *   Note: Recode Ordinally

               ======================

 

  63.  COMMUNITY SIZE

 

      1    . = Missing Data

     28    1 =        < 50    

     28    2 =       50-99   

     45    3 =      100-199 

     32    4 =      200-399 

     29    5 =      400-999 

     15    6 =    1,000-4,999

      5    7 =    5,000-49,999     

      3    8 = > 50,000

      

  64.  POPULATION DENSITY

 

      2    . = Missing Data

     36    1 =    < 1 person per 5 sq. mile

     22    2 =      1 person per 1-5 sq. mile

     25    3 =    1-5   persons per sq. mile

     27    4 =    1-25  persons per sq. mile

     34    5 =   26-100 persons per sq. mile

     20    6 =  101-500 persons per sq. mile

     20    7 = over 500 persons per sq. mile

 

  65.  TYPES OF DWELLING

      -    . = Missing Data

     13    1 = Conical  

      2    2 = Beehive  

     11    3 = Dome or hemispherical

      5    4 = Wedge-shape roof  

      6    5 = Semicylindrical   

     24    6 = Cone-cylinder     

     49    7 = Rectangular on ground, vegetal material walls  

     18    8 = Rectangular on piles 

     17    9 = Rectangular on ground, mineral material walls  

     12F  10 = Flat roofs

      9R  11 = Caves or rock shelters

      9T  12 = Tents    

      8S  13 = Semisubterranean  

      3X  14 = Miscellaneous     

           *   note: eliminate letters

 

  66.  LARGE OR IMPRESSIVE STRUCTURES

     96    1 = None      

     24    2 = Residences of influential individuals

     31    3 = Secular or public building(s)

     27    4 = Religious or ceremonial building(s)

      4    5 = Military structure(s)

      4    6 = Economic or industrial building(s)

      

  67.  HOUSEHOLD FORM

      6    1 = Large communal structures   

      4    2 = Multi-family dwellings

     87    3 = Single family dwellings     

     37    4 = Family homestead  

     24    5 = Multi-dwelling households, each with married pair

      9    6 = Multi-dwelling households, husband rotates among wives   

      3    7 = Mother-child households, husbands separate     

     16    8 = Multi-dwelling households, each dwelling occupied

               by individual married man or woman  

      

  68.  FORM OF FAMILY (SEE 79, 80)

      7    1 = Monogamous, no polygyny     

     42    2 = Monogamous, < 20% polygyny  

     26    3 = Polygynous, > 20% 

      2    4 = Polyandrous

      9    5 = Stem family, monogamy 

      7    6 = Stem family, < 20% polygyny  

     10    7 = Small extended, monogamy    

     30    8 = Small extended, < 20% polygyny

     19    9 = Small extended, > 20% polygyny

      5M  10 = Large extended, monogamy    

     17N  11 = Large extended, < 20% polygyny

     12P  12 = Large extended, > 20% polygyny

           *   note: eliminate letters

               =======================

 

  69.  MARITAL RESIDENCE

      1    . = Missing data

     38    1 = Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin

      8    2 = Avunculocal - with husband's mother's brother's kin

    118    3 = Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin     

     12    4 = Ambilocal - with either wife's or husband's kin

      9    5 = Neolocal - separate from kin

      

  70.  DESCENT - MEMBERSHIP IN CORPORATE KINSHIP GROUPS

     26    1 = Matrilineal - through female line

     10    2 = Double descent - separate groups through male and female lines

     75    3 = Patrilineal - through male line

      6    4 = Ambilineal - through one parent in each generation

     69    5 = Bilateral - not a corporate kin group

      

  71.  DESCENT GROUPS, LOCATION OF CORE GENDER GROUP

     69    0 = None - Bilateral

     22    1 = Localized lineages - in community, more than one per community

      6    2 = Clan communities - core group and spouses constitute community

     89    3 = Dispersed sibs - core group dispersed in different communities

      

  72.  INTERCOMMUNITY MARRIAGE

      1    . = Missing data

     11    1 = Local endogamy 90-100%

     50    2 = Local endogamy 61-89% (agamous)

     51    3 = Local endogamy 40-60% (agamous)

     38    4 = Local endogamy 11-39% (agamous)

     5 = Local endogamy  0-10% (exogamy)

  

  73.  COMMUNITY INTEGRATION

      6    1 = Lacking or low compared to community segments or larger polity

     26    2 = By common residence only    

     16    3 = Common Identity, dialect, subculture

     78    4 = Overlapping Kin ties 

      8    5 = Common social or economic status

     20    6 = Common political ties

     32    7 = Common religious ties    

      

  74.  PROMINENT COMMUNITY CEREMONIALS

     67    1 = Rites of passage  

     69    2 = Calendrical

     36    3 = Magical or religious 

     14    4 = Individual sponsored and communally attended (e.g., potlatch)

      

  75.  CEREMONIAL ELEMENTS

     54    1 = Feasting and/or drinking    

     10    2 = Exchanges other than food   

     51    3 = Entertainment     

     57    4 = Sacrifice other than human  

     13    5 = Human sacrifice   

      1    6 = Masochistic behavior 

      

  76.  COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP

     13    1 = No centralized local leadership

      4    2 = Higher level only 

     54    3 = Single local leader

      8    4 = Dual/plural headmen

     72    5 = Single local leader and council

     15    6 = Local councils    

     10    7 = Single local leader and subordinates 

     10    8 = Too complex to be coded     

      

  77.  LOCAL POLITICAL SUCCESSION, PRIMARY

      3    . = Missing data

     17    1 = No headman or council

     10    2 = By appointment    

     10    3 = Seniority

      2    4 = Divination

     37    5 = Informal consensus

     22    6 = Electoral process 

     61    7 = Patrilineal

     14    8 = Matrilineal

     10    9 = Hereditary with personal qualifications 

      

  78.  LOCAL POLITICAL SUCCESSION, SECONDARY

    126    . = Missing Data

      -    1 = No headman or council

      -    2 = By appointment    

     33    3 = Seniority

      -    4 = Divination

     22    5 = Informal consensus

      3    6 = Electoral process 

      2    7 = Patrilineal

      

  79.  POLYGAMY

      2    1 = Polyandry - primarily monogamous with some plural husbands

     31    2 = Monogamy 

     96    3 = Polygyny < 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)

4 = Polygyny > 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)

 

 

80.  FAMILY SIZE

      7    1 = Nuclear Monogamous

     70    2 = Nuclear Polygynous

3 = Stem Family

     59    4 = Small extended    

     34    5 = Large extended

    <stds04.cod>


POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

 

Tuden, Arthur, and Catherine Marshall.  1972.  ETHNOLOGY 11:436-464.

 

Datafile: STDS04.DAT  Vars.  81- 98 political organization

      

  81.  POLITICAL AUTONOMY

      2    . = Missing data

     16    1 = Dependent totally 

     41    2 = Semi-autonomous   

      4    3 = Tribute paid

     78    4 = De facto autonomy 

     16    5 = Equal status in pluralistic society  

     29    6 = Fully autonomous  

      

  82.  TREND IN AUTONOMY

      2    . = Missing data

     54    1 = Declining autonomy

     43    2 = Declining territory or population control

     49    3 = State of equilibrium 

     22    4 = State of equilibrium, expanding territory

     16    5 = Increasing autonomy

      

  83.  LEVELS OF SOVEREIGNTY

      2    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Stateless society 

     31    2 = Sovereignty 1st hierarchical level up 

     14    3 = Sovereignty 2nd hierarchical level up 

     41    4 = Sovereignty 3rd or higher hierarchical level    

      

  84.  HIGHER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

      3    . = Missing data

     85    1 = Absent   

     28    2 = Peace group

     46    3 = Alliances

      7    4 = Confederation     

     17    5 = International organization  

      

  85.  EXECUTIVE

      3    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Absent   

      7    2 = Council  

     22    3 = Executive and Council

      2    4 = Plural executive  

     54    5 = Single leader     

      

  86.  SELECTION OF EXECUTIVE

      7    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Absent   

     21    2 = Patrilineal, Fa to So

      3    3 = Patrilineal, Fa to FaBr, then to So  

      5    4 = Matrilineal, MoBr to SiSo   

      1    5 = Matrilineal, MoBr to MoBr   

     24    6 = Ruling family     

      1    7 = Decision by limited power group

     12    8 = Elected by council

      2    9 = Informal recognition 

      6 (10) E = Formal elections  

      5 (11) A = Appointee of alien society  

      1 (12) D = Divination

      

  87.  DELIBERATIVE AND CONSULTATIVE BODIES

      5    . = Missing data

    154    1 = Absent   

      5    2 = Aristocrats

      5    3 = Appointed

      9    4 = By ethnic components 

5 = Elective

 

  88.  ADVISORY BODIES

      5    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Absence of sovereignty

     28    2 = Absent   

     14    3 = Relatives of executive

      2    4 = Favorites of executive

      -    5 = Secret society    

     13    6 = Subordinate groups

      3    7 = Hereditary

     23    8 = Subordinate functionaries   

      

  89.  JUDICIARY

      3    . = Missing data

    103    1 = Absent   

      6    2 = Not local

     49    3 = Executive

     23    4 = Appointed by executive

      1    5 = Priesthood

      1    6 = Hereditary

      

  90.  POLICE

      6    . = Missing data

    124    1 = Not specialized   

      4    2 = Incipient specialization    

      4    3 = Retainers of chiefs

      6    4 = Military 

     42    5 = Specialized

      

  91.  ADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY

      3    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Absent   

      7    2 = Popular Assemblies

      8    3 = Heads of kin groups

     38    4 = Heads of decentralized territorial divisions   

     31    5 = Heads of centralized territorial divisions     

      1    6 = Part of centralized system  

      


  92.  SELECTION OF SUBORDINATE OFFICIALS

      9    . = Missing data

     98    1 = Absent   

     16    2 = Patrilineal succession

      2    3 = Matrilineal succession

     12    4 = Ruling lineage    

      2    5 = Seniority of age  

      4    6 = Personal qualities

     10    7 = Formal election   

     33    8 = Appointment by executive    

 

VARIABLES 93-98:                   SOURCES OF POLITICAL POWER

   

  93.  POLITICAL POWER- MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE

  94.  SECOND MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE

  95.  THIRD

  96.  FOURTH

  97.  FIFTH

  98.  SIXTH

                                       Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                                         93   94   95   96   97   98

                                         --   --   --   --   --   --

                                        1st  2nd  3rd  4th  5th  6th

       . = Missing data                    3  114  145  170  181  184

       0 = Direct subsistence production  90

       1 = Warfare wealth                 11    5    6    3

       2 = Tribute or taxes                3    4    1    1         1

       3 = Slaves                         13   12    4    1    2

       4 = Contributions of free citizens 20    7         2

       5 = Large land-holdings            12    5    1

       6 = Political office               14    8   14    6    1

       7 = Foreign Commerce                6   19    9    2    1    1

       8 = Capitalistic enterprises       11    6    4    1

       9 = Priestly services               3    6    2         1

 

    <stds05.cod>


DIVISION OF LABOR

 

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost.  1973.  ETHNOLOGY 12:203-225.

 

Datafile: STDS05.DAT  Vars.  99-148 division of labor by age and sex

 

    FOOD COLLECTION

      

  99.  VEGETAL

 100.  EGGS, INSECTS, AND/OR SMALL LAND FAUNA

 101.  SHELLFISH/SMALL AQUATIC FAUNA

 102.  HONEY

 103.  FOWLING

 104.  FISHING

 105.  TRAPPING

 106.  LARGE LAND FAUNA

 107.  LARGE AQUATIC FAUNA   

                                Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                                99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

                                -- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?  34  48  22  20   2  10   1       2

      -1 = No data on task       7  53  24  80  29   4  15   6   9

       0 = Task absent          10  18  85  38  16  29  20  36 127

       1 = Males exclusively     6  27  11  39 131  83 136 139  48

       2 = Males predominant     4   3   4   5   5  45  12   5

       3 = Equally              18   9   1   2   3   8   1

       4 = Females predominant  42  13  12           5   1

       5 = Females exclusively  65  15  27   2       2

 

    FOOD PRODUCTION

      

 108.  LAND CLEARANCE

 109.  SOIL PREPARATION

 110.  PLANTING

 111.  CROP TENDING

 112.  HARVESTING

 113.  SMALL DOMESTIC ANIMALS

 114.  LARGE DOMESTIC ANIMALS

 115.  MILKING

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115

                               --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?   1   1       3      70  10  10

      -1 = No data on task       2   2   1   4   1   6   2   1

       0 = Task absent          44  49  44  48  44  13  76 127

       1 = Males exclusively    95  66  27  22  10  19  54  15

       2 = Males predominantly  34  27  35  23  37   8  24   2

       3 = Equally               6  14  33  24  34  14  14   8

       4 = Females predominant   3  17  26  30  34  12   3   2

       5 = Females exclusively   1  10  20  32  26  44   3  21

 


    FOOD PREPARATION

      

 116.  VEGETAL

 117.  BUTCHERING

 118.  PRESERVATION

 119.  DRINKS

 120.  DAIRY

 121.  COOKING

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               116 117 118 119 120 121

                               --- --- --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?   2  16  64  42  20   1

      -1 = No data on task       8  19  25  16   8   1

       0 = Task absent           2   8  31  37 130   2

       1 = Males exclusively     3 122  18  15   4   2

       2 = Males predominantly   1   9   2   3       

       3 = Equally               4   4   3   4       

       4 = Females predominant  21   4   3   4      63

       5 = Females exclusively 145   4  40  65  24 117

 

    EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES

      

 122.  MINING/QUARRYING

 123.  FUEL GATHERING

 124.  LUMBERING

 125.  WATER FETCHING

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               122 123 124 125

                               --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?   6  11  16  25

      -1 = No data on task      39   7  17   1

       0 = Task absent         106   1  14   

       1 = Males exclusively    31  25 135   4

       2 = Males predominantly   1  12   4   4

       3 = Equally               2  12       8

       4 = Females predominant      24      13

       5 = Females exclusively   1  94     131

 

    INTERMEDIATE PROCESSING

      

 126.  SKINS

 127.  SPINNING

 128.  LOOM WEAVING

 129.  SMELTING

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               126 127 128 129

                               --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?  44   9   1

      -1 = No data on task      13  30  16  24

       0 = Task absent          48  56  81 125

       1 = Males exclusively    39   7  24  37

       2 = Males predominantly   4   3

       3 = Equally               2   4   6

       4 = Females predominant   5   5   8

       5 = Females exclusively  31  72  50

 

    MANUFACTURING

      

 130.  MATMAKING

 131.  NETMAKING

 132.  BASKETMAKING

 133.  ROPE OR CORDAGE

 134.  LEATHER

 135.  CLOTHING

 136.  POTTERY

 137.  WOOD

 138.  BONE

 139.  STONE

 140.  METAL

 141.  MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141

                               --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

      -1 = No data on task      23  31  16  16  23  23  14   4  46  43      16

       0 = Task absent          29  45  22   3  57  36  61   1  14  39  93   8

       1 = Males exclusively    30  42  37  62  35  16  14 159  71  67  85  83

       2 = Males predominantly   4   2   9   7   3   4   5   3   7       1   3

       3 = Equally               9   5  15  18   2  11   6   1   2   6       1

       4 = Females predominant   5   1  18   5   5  13   6   1

       5 = Females exclusively  55  15  51  19  29  78  74       2           1

       . = Task Present, sex ?  31  45  19  56  32   5   6  17  44  31   7  74

 

    MISCELLANEOUS

      

 142.  FIRE

 143.  LAUNDERING

 144.  BODILY MUTILATION

 145.  BONESETTING/SURGERY

 146.  BURDEN CARRYING

 147.  BOATBUILDING

 148.  HOUSEBUILDING

                               Number of Cases for Each Variable:

 

                               142 143 144 145 146 147 148

                               --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

       . = Task Present, sex ?  96   9  45  17   6   5   6

      -1 = No data on task       1  59  22  88  31  11   1

       0 = Task absent           3  52  13  37   3  79   1

       1 = Males exclusively    40   5  36  34  18  84 105

       2 = Males predominantly   6       4   6  12   3  30

       3 = Equally              16   4  48   4  46   3  14

       4 = Females predominant   4   8   6      34       9

       5 = Females exclusively  20  49  12      36   1  20

 

    <stds06.cod>


CULTURAL COMPLEXITY

 

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost.  1971.  ETHNOLOGY 12:379-392.

 

Datafile: STDS06.DAT  Vars. 149-158 cultural complexity

 

 149.  SCALE 1-  WRITING AND RECORDS

 

     73    1 = None 

     49    2 = Mnemonic devices     

     21    3 = Nonwritten records   

     12    4 = True writing; no records

     31    5 = True writing; records

      

 150.  SCALE 2-  FIXITY OF RESIDENCE

      

     28    1 = Nomadic     

     21    2 = Seminomadic 

     20    3 = Semisedentary

     15    4 = Sedentary; impermanent

    102    5 = Sedentary   

      

 151.  SCALE 3-  AGRICULTURE

      

     38    1 = None 

     17    2 = 10% food supply

     11    3 = 10%; secondary

     63    4 = Primary; not intensive

     57    5 = Primary; intensive   

      

 152.  SCALE 4-  URBANIZATION

      

     56    1 = fewer than 100 persons

     43    2 = 100-199 persons

     33    3 = 200-399 persons

     30    4 = 400-999 persons

     24    5 = 1000 persons

      

 153.  SCALE 5-  TECHNOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION

      

     39    1 = None 

     27    2 = Pottery only

     31    3 = Loom weaving only    

     56    4 = Metalwork only

     33    5 = Smiths, weavers, potters

      

 154.  SCALE 6-  LAND TRANSPORT

      

    108    1 = Human only  

     42    2 = Pack animals

     14    3 = Draft animals

     11    4 = Animal-drawn vehicles

     11    5 = Automotive vehicles  

      


155.  SCALE 7-  MONEY

 

     77    1 = None 

     14    2 = Domestically usable articles   

     43    3 = Alien currency

     27    4 = Elementary forms     

     25    5 = True money  

      

156.  SCALE 8-  DENSITY OF POPULATION

      

     58    1 = less than 1 person/square mile

     25    2 = 1-5 persons/square mile    

     28    3 = 5.1-25 persons/square mile 

     35    4 = 26-100 persons/square mile 

     40    5 = 100 persons/square mile    

      

 157.  SCALE 9-  POLITICAL INTEGRATION

      

     11    1 = None 

     72    2 = Autonomous local communities   

     46    3 = 1 level above community 

     28    4 = 2 levels above community

     29    5 = 3 levels above community

      

 158.  SCALE 10- SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

      

     65    1 = Egalitarian 

     52    2 = Hereditary slavery    

     19    3 = 2 social classes, no castes/slavery     

     20    4 = 2 social classes, castes/slavery

     30    5 = 3 social classes or castes, with or without slavery

 

    <stds07.cod>


SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES

 

Broude,Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene.  1976.  ETHNOLOGY 15:409-429.    

      

Datafile: STDS07.DAT  Vars. 159-178 sexual practices and attitudes

 

 159.  TALK ABOUT SEX

    126    . =  Missing data

     18    1 =  Adults and adults talk explicitly

      2    2 =  Except with children 

     13    3 =  Except with certain people     

      9    4 =  Only with intimates  

     18    5 =  Never

      

 160.  SEX FREQUENCY IN MARRIAGE

    120    . =  Missing data

     11    1 =  No abstinence

     40    2 =  Abstinence at times  

      6    3 =  Moderation  

      9    4 =  Abstinence admired   

      

 161.  SEX BELIEVED DANGEROUS

    152    . =  Missing data

     14    1 =  Absent

      4    2 =  With specific categories

      9    3 =  Only unusual practices

      1    4 =  Only sexual secretions

      6    5 =  Always

      

 162.  FOREPLAY

    151    . =  Missing data

     18    1 =  Present     

      4    2 =  Minimal     

     13    3 =  Absent

 

 163.  AGE FOR CLOTHING-  MALE

    147    . =  Missing data

      6    1 =  Never

      1    2 =  Adulthood   

      9    3 =  Puberty     

     19    4 =  Toddler to puberty   

      1    5 =  Toddler     

      3    6 =  At birth    

      

 164.  AGE FOR CLOTHING-  FEMALE

    138    . =  Missing data

      4    1 =  Never

      2    2 =  Adulthood   

      7    3 =  Puberty     

     27    4 =  Toddler to puberty   

      5    5 =  Toddler     

      3    6 =  At birth    

      


 165.  PREMARITAL SEX ATTITUDES-  FEMALE

     56    . =  Missing data

     30    1 =  Expected    

     28    2 =  Tolerated   

     22    3 =  Mildly disapproved   

     11    4 =  Moderately disapproved

      4    5 =  Disallowed  

     35    6 =  Strongly disapproved 

      

 166.  FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX-  MALE

     84    . =  Missing data

     60    1 =  Universal   

     18    2 =  Moderate    

     11    3 =  Occasional  

     13    4 =  Uncommon    

      

 167.  FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX-  FEMALE

     77    . =  Missing data

     51    1 =  Universal   

     19    2 =  Moderate    

     16    3 =  Occasional  

     23    4 =  Uncommon    

         

 168.  INITIATOR OF PREMARITAL SEX

    156    . =  Missing data

      5    1 =  Women always

      -    2 =  Women more than men  

      9    3 =  Both equally

      5    4 =  Men more than women  

     11    5 =  Men always  

      

 169.  EXTRAMARITAL SEX

     77    . =  Missing data

     13    1 =  Single standard-  both allowed 

     48    2 =  Double standard-  husband only 

     24    3 =  Double standard-  both forbidden, women punished more

     24    4 =  Single standard- both condemned equally 

      

 170.  FREQUENCY OF EXTRAMARITAL SEX-  MALE

    135    . =  Missing data

      6    1 =  Universal   

     29    2 =  Moderate    

      6    3 =  Occasional  

     10    4 =  Uncommon    

      

 171.  FREQUENCY OF EXTRAMARITAL SEX-  FEMALE

    133    . =  Missing data

      6    1 =  Universal   

     23    2 =  Moderate    

      9    3 =  Occasional  

     15    4 =  Uncommon    

      


 172.  WIFESHARING

     83    . =  Missing data

      4    1 =  For any reason

     11    2 =  Vis-a-vis specific group men   

      5    3 =  Vis-a-vis specific man

      7    4 =  Occasionally for sex gratification

      3    5 =  For husband's economic benefit 

     11    6 =  Aside from sex gratification   

     62    7 =  None 

      

 173.  RAPE

    147    . =  Missing data

      9    1 =  Accepted/ignored    

      4    2 =  Ridiculed   

      8    3 =  Mildly disapproved   

     18    4 =  Strongly disapproved 

      

 174.  FREQUENCY OF RAPE

    155    . =  Missing data

      8    1 =  Absent

     10    2 =  Rare 

     13    3 =  Common

      

 175.  MALE SEXUAL AGGRESSIVENESS

      

    126    . =  Missing data

      5    1 =  Men diffident, shy   

      7    2 =  Men sexually forward but not diffident  

     26    3 =  Men forward verbally 

      7    4 =  Men forward physically

      6    5 =  Men forward; hostile occasionally

      9    6 =  Men forward; hostile typically 

      

 176.  HOMOSEXUALITY

      

    146    . =  Missing data

      9    1 =  Accepted/ignored     

      4    2 =  None 

      6    3 =  Ridiculed, no punishment

      4    4 =  Mildly disapproved   

     17    5 =  Strongly disapproved 

      

 177.  FREQUENCY OF HOMOSEXUALITY

      

    117    . =  Missing data

     40    1 =  Absent

     29    2 =  Present     

      

 178.  IMPOTENCE

      

    149    . =  Missing data

      7    1 =  No concern  

     30    2 =  Concern

 

    <stds08.cod>


CLIMATE DATA FROM WEATHER STATIONS

 

Whiting, John W. M. (New Codes: Not Previously Published)

 

Datafile: STDS08.DAT  Vars. 179-199 climate

 

These codes are taken from Climate maps, for weather stations closest to

the time and place of each societal focus. 

 

 179.  LATITUDE OF WEATHER STATION

           0 = Min (Equator)

          80 = Max (Pole)

 

 180.  LATITUDE HEMISPHERE

    128    1 = North

     52    2 = South

 

 181.  LONGITUDE OF WEATHER STATION

           0 = Min (Greenwich Meridian passes through London)

         180 = Max (mid-Pacific Meridian)

        

 182.  LONGITUDE HEMISPHERE

    104    3 = East 

     75    4 = West 

 

 183.  ALTITUDE IN METERS

           0 = Min

        3822 = Max

 

 184.  YEARS OF OBSERVATION--TEMPERATURE

          00 = Min (l900)

          70 = Max (l970)

 

 185.  YEARS OF OBSERVATION--PRECIPITATION

          00 = Min (l900)

          73 = Max (l973)

 

 186.  MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (xC)

         -16 = Min

          29 = Max

 

 187.  HOTTEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (xC)

           3 = Min

          46 = Max

 

 188.  COLDEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (xC)

         -28 = Min

          44 = Max

 

 189.  MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (mm)

           0 = Min

        4819 = Max

 

 190.  MEAN DAILY MIN COLDEST MONTH (xC)

         -61 = Min

          24 = Max

 191.  MEAN DAILY MAX HOTTEST MONTH (xC)

          -2 = Min

          41 = Max

 

 192.  HIGHEST PRECIPITATION IN WETTEST MONTH (mm)

           0 = Min

         670 = Max

 

 193.  LOWEST PRECIPITATION IN DRYEST MONTH (mm)

           0 = Min

         295 = Max

 

 194.  WETTEST MONTH

     11    1 = Jan 

      -    2 = Feb 

      2    3 = March

      6    4 = Apr 

     12    5 = May 

     20    6 = June

     39    7 = July

     38    8 = Aug 

     23    9 = Sept

     15   10 = Oct 

      5   11 = Nov 

      7   12 = Dec 

      

 195.  DRYEST MONTH

     52    1 = Jan 

     36    2 = Feb 

     12    3 = March

     11    4 = Apr 

      4    5 = May 

     10    6 = June

     16    7 = July

      8    8 = Aug 

      3    9 = Sept

      2   10 = Oct 

      4   11 = Nov 

     20   12 = Dec 

      

 196.  NUMBER OF DRY MONTHS

     76    0 = None

      8    1 =

     13    2 =

     10    3 =

     19    4 =

     13    5 =

     15    6 =

     10    7 =

      8    8 =

      1    9 =

      3   10 =

      1   11 =

      9   12 =

      

 197.  HOTTEST MONTH

      2    1 = Jan 

      5    2 = Feb 

     11    3 = Mar 

     23    4 = Apr 

     30    5 = May 

     13    6 = June

     66    7 = July

     18    8 = Aug 

      7    9 = Sept

      2   10 = Oct 

      2   11 = Nov 

     24   12 = Dec 

      

 198.  COLDEST MONTH

    117    1 = Jan 

     14    2 = Feb 

      1    3 = Mar 

      1    4 = Apr 

      -    5 = May 

      4    6 = June

      7    7 = July

      8    8 = Aug 

      1    9 = Sept

      2   10 = Oct 

      1   11 = Nov 

     22   12 = Dec 

 

       Note distribution of sample and earth's population is more towards the

       cold Northerly regions (coldest in January) than  the  cold  Southerly

       regions (coldest in July). 

 

 199.  NUMBER OF FROST MONTHS

    158    0 = None

      1    1 =

      -    2 =

      -    3 =

      -    4 =

      1    5 =

      1    6 = 

      7    7 =

      3    8 =

      6    9 =

      2   10 =

      5   11 =

      2   12 =

 

    <stds09.cod>


ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS

 

Murdock, George P.  1962-1971.  Installments in ETHNOLOGY.

 

Datafile: Vars. 200-292 Ethnographic Atlas codes (diverse)

 STDS09.DAT  200-231

       STDS10.DAT  232-268

       STDS11.DAT      269

       STDS12.DAT  270-292

 

 200.  REGION

     28    1 = Africa

                Exclusive of Madagascar and the Sahara

     28    2 = Circum-Mediterranean

                North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Semitic Near East

     34    3 = East Eurasia

                including Madagascar and Islands in Indian Ocean

     31    4 = Insular Pacific

                including Australia, Indonesia, Formosa, Phillipines

     33    5 = North America

                indigenous societies to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec

     32    6 = South America

                including Antilles, Yucatan, Central America

 

 201.  AREA

           1 - 10 (Murdock 1962, ETHNOLOGY 1: 124-134)

 

      1 AFRICA     2 CIRCUM    3 E EUR     4 INS PAC   5 N AMER    6 S AMER

    1 Afr. Hunters Ethiop-Horn Middle East Phl-Formosa Arctic Amer C.America

    2 S.Afr. Bantu Mosl. Sudan Cntrl. Asia W.Indonesia N.W.Coast   Caribbean

    3 C. Bantu     Sahara      Arctic Asia E.Indonesia California  Guiana

    4 N.E.Bantu    N. Africa   East Asia   New Guinea  Gr.Basin-Pl Lower Amaz

    5 Equit. Bantu S. Europe   Himalayas   Australia   Plains      Inner Amaz

    6 Guinea Coast Overseas E. N.-C.India  Micronesia  Prarie      Andes

    7 W. Sudan     N.W. Europe South India W.Melanesia E.Woodlands Chile-Pata

    8 Nigerian Pt. E. Europe   Indian Ocn. E.Melanesia Southwest   Gran Chago

    9 E. Sudan     Turk-Caus.  Assam-Burma W.Polynesia N.W.Mexico  Mato Grosso

    0 Upper Nile   Sem.Near E. S.E.Asia    E.Polynesia C.Mexico    E. Brazil

 

 

 202.  EA NUMBER

         1 - 51 (Within Area)

 

    203-207: SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY: PERCENTAGE DEPENDENCE

 

 203.  DEPENDENCE ON GATHERING

 204.  DEPENDENCE ON HUNTING

 205.  DEPENDENCE ON FISHING

 206.  DEPENDENCE ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

 207.  DEPENDENCE ON AGRICULTURE

                               Number of Cases for Variables:

 

                               203     204     205     206     207

                               Gath    Hunt    Fish    Anim    Agri   

       0 =  0 - 5% Dependence   86      64      57      77      44

       1 =  6 - 15%             51      47      55      39      11

       2 = 16 - 25%             23      33      29      29       4

       3 = 26 - 35%              9      19      14      19       2

       4 = 36 - 45%              9      11      12       7      16

       5 = 46 - 55%              4       5      11       3      36

       6 = 56 - 65%              3       3       5       2      39

       7 = 66 - 75%              -       2       1       1      17

       8 = 76 - 85%              1       1       1       4      13

       9 = 86 - 100%             -       1       1       5       4

 

 208.  MODE OF MARRIAGE  

 209.  MODE OF MARRIAGE (ALTERNATE)

                                                       208    209

                                                       Mode  Altern

       1 = Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family        71      9

       2 = Dowry, to bride from her family                  24     15

       3 = Gift Exchange, reciprocal                        16      4

       4 = Absence of Consideration                         15      -

       5 = Bride-Service, to bride's family                  9      3

       6 = Token Bride-price                                42      -

       7 = Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride     9      9

       9 = No Alternative                                         146

 

 210.  DOMESTIC ORGANIZATION

 

      1    . = Missing Data

     14    1 = Independent Nuclear Family, Monogamous

     43    2 = Independent Nuclear Family, occasional Polygyny

      3    3 = Independent Polyandrous Families

      6    4 = Polygynous: Unusual Co-wives Pattern (4, 6 below)

     21    5 = Polygynous: Usual Co-Wife Pattern (3, 5 below)

     12    6 = Minimal (stem) extended families

     44    7 = Small Extended Families

     42    8 = Large Extended Families

      

 211.  COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC GROUP

      

      1    . = Missing Data

     14    1 = Independent Nuclear, Monogamous     

     43    2 = Independent Nuclear, Occasional Polygyny       

      4    3 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling

      1    4 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives separate dwellings

     17    5 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in separate dwellings    

      5    6 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling

      3    7 = Independent Polyandrous Families    

     98    9 = Extended Family 

      

 212.  MARITAL COMPOSITION WITHIN EXTENDED FAMILIES

     21    1 = Monogamy        

     39    2 = Occasional or limited polygyny      

     12    3 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives in same dwelling

      1    4 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives separate dwelling

     16    5 = Non-sororal, co-wives separate dwelling       

      9    6 = Non-sororal polygyny, co-wives in same dwelling

     88    9 = Polyandry, or no extended family    

      

 213.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: FIRST YEARS

      1    . = Missing Data

    147   -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)  

      4    0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household

     30    2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents     

      1    4 = Bilocal: with either kin group     

      4    7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents   

      

 214.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: FIRST YEARS

     1     . = Missing Data

   147    -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#216)   

     3     1 = Wife to Husband's Group (7 above)   

     1     2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 above)  

    30     3 = Husband to Wife's Group (2 above)   

     4     9 = No Common Residence (0 above)       

           *   Note: get rid of this variable (redundant)

 

 215.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: AFTER FIRST YEARS

      1    . = Missing Data

      1    0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household

     16    1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group   

     14    2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents     

      1    3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local     

     15    4 = Bilocal: with either kin group     

      8    5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother  

      1    6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality    

     41    7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents   

     71    8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group

     17    9 = Neolocal: independent of kin        

      

 216.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: AFTER FIRST YEARS

      1    . = Missing Data

    121    1 = Wife to Husband's Group (5, 6, 7, 8 above)    

     33    2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (3, 4, 9 above)

     30    3 = Husband to Wife's Group (1, 2 above)

      1    9 = No Common Residence (0 above)       

      

 217.  MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: ALTERNATE FORM

      1    . = Missing Data

    107   -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)  

      -    0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household

      -    1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group   

     28    2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents     

      1    3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local     

      2    4 = Bilocal: with either kin group     

      9    5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother  

      -    6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality    

     16    7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents   

      2    8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group

     20    9 = Neolocal: independent of kin        

      


 218.  TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: ALTERNATE FORM

      1    . = Missing Data

    107   -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)  

     27    1 = Wife to Husband's Group (5, 6, 7, 8 above)    

     23    2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (3, 4, 9 above)

     28    3 = Husband to Wife's Group (1, 2 above)

 

 219.  COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION

 220.  COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION (Alternate)

                                                        219   220

                                                       Cmnty. Altern.

       . = Missing Data                                      4     -

       1 = Demes (not segmented into clan barrios)          17     -

       2 = Segmented communities without local exogamy      40     3

       3 = Agamous communities                              66     -

       4 = Exogamous communities (not clans)                28     -

       5 = Segmented communities (containing localized

            clans) with local exogamy                        2     -

       6 = Clan communities (or clan barrios)               29     -

       9 = No secondary organization                         -   183

 

 221.  LARGEST PATRILINEAL KIN GROUP

 222.  LARGEST PATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT)

 223.  LARGEST MATRILINEAL KIN GROUP

 224.  LARGEST MATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT)

 

                                                  Patrilineal   Matrilineal

                                                  221    222    223    224

                                               Largest   Exog.

       . = Missing Data                             1      -      1      -

       1 = None                                   104      -    144      -

       2 = Exogamous Group                          -      -      3      -

       3 = Lineages in a Single Community          18     12      7      2

       4 = Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities) 42      5     15      3

       5 = Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs)     15      -      5      -

       6 = Moieties                                 6      -     11      -

       7 = No Difference                                 169           181

 

 225.  COGNATIC KIN GROUPS

 226.  SECONDARY COGNATIC KIN GROUP: WHERE BOTH KINDREDS AND RAMAGES

                                                           225   226

                                                          Cogn.  2nd

       . = Missing Data                                      1     -

       1 = Bilateral descent                                48     -

       2 = Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups      27     2

       3 = Ambilineal descent: lacking true ramages          -     -

       4 = Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups      7     1

       5 = Exogamous ramages                                 2     -

       6 = Quasi-lineages: filiation based, not descent      4     -

       9 = Unilineal descent groups                         97

       9 = No Secondary cognatic group                           183

 


 227.  NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed)

 228.  NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred)

       *   Note changein order from 227 229 228 230              239

                                                           227   228

                                                          Alwd. Pref.

       . = Missing Data                                     13     2

       1 = All four cousins                                 25     -

       2 = Three of four cousins                             8     -

       3 = Two of four cousins (e.g., paternal)             44    19

       4 = One of four cousins (e.g., FaBrDa)                6    36

       5 = No first cousins                                 19     4

       6 = First and some second cousins excluded            2     2

       7 = No first, unknown for second                     27     -

       8 = No first or second cousins                       42     -

       9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions                123

 

 229.  SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed)

 230.  SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred)            228

                                                           229   230

                                                          Alwd.  Pref.

       . = Missing Data                                     13     2

       1 = FaSiDa                                            -     5

       2 = Paternal (FBD if only one)                        1     8

       3 = Uncle's Da                                        -     -

       4 = Other                                           165    25

       5 = Aunt's Da                                         -     -

       6 = Maternal                                          1     -

       8 = MoBrDa                                            6    23

       9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions                123

 

 231.  KIN TERMS FOR COUSINS

 

     14    . = Missing Data

     16    1 = Descriptive terms, e.g. 'mothers brothers son'

      1    2 = Siblings, cross and parallel cousins distinguished

                but not by descriptive terms

     45    3 = Cross cousins versus parallel are siblings

      4    4 = Mixed or deviant

     14    5 = Generational merging; MoBrCh up; FaSCh down

     15    6 = Generational merging; MoBrCh down; FaSCh up

     23    7 = Cousins versus siblings

     54    8 = Siblings plus cousins equated      

 

    <stds10.cod>

 

 232.  INTENSITY OF CULTIVATION

     42    1 = No agriculture  

     10    2 = Casual agriculture, incidental to other subsistence modes

     55    3 = Extensive or shifting agriculture, long fallow, and new

                fields cleared annually

     18    4 = Horticulture, vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees

     32    5 = Intensive agriculture, using fertilization, crop rotation,

                or other techniques to shorten or eliminate fallow period

     29    6 = Intensive irrigated agriculture

 

 233.  MAJOR CROP TYPE

     44    1 = None or none specified     

      -    2 = Non-food crops only, such as cotton or tobacco

      -    3 = Vegetables

     13    4 = Tree fruits

     38    5 = Roots or tubers  

     91    6 = Cereal grains    

      

 234.  SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

     26    1 = Nomadic or fully migratory

     24    2 = Seminomadic      

     13    3 = Semisedentary    

      3    4 = Compact but impermanent settlements  

     20    5 = Neighborhoods of dispersed family homesteads   

     17    6 = Separated hamlets, forming a single community  

     75    7 = Compact and relatively permanent settlements   

      8    8 = Complex settlements        

      

 235.  MEAN SIZE OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

     38    . = Missing data     

     31    1 = Fewer than 50    

     29    2 = 50-99  

     24    3 = 100-199

     17    4 = 200-399

     12    5 = 400-1000

      4    6 = 1,000 without any town of more than 5000       

     10    7 = One or more towns of 5,000-50,000    

     21    8 = One or more cities of more than 50,000

      

 236.  JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY OF LOCAL COMMUNITY

     45    3 = Two levels (theoretical minimum, e.g., family and band)

    117    4 = Three levels     

     24    5 = Four levels (e.g., nuclear family, extended family,

                clan barrios, village levels)

           *   Note: Recode this variable 2-4

 

 237.  JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY BEYOND LOCAL COMMUNITY

      2    . = Missing data     

     82    1 = No levels (no political authority beyond community)

     48    2 = One level (e.g., petty chiefdoms)

     23    3 = Two levels (e.g., larger chiefdoms)

     19    4 = Three levels (e.g., states)

     12    5 = Four levels (e.g., large states)

      

 238.  HIGH GODS

     18    . = Missing data     

     68    1 = Absent or not reported     

     47    2 = Present but not active in human affairs        

     13    3 = Present and active in human affairs but not

               supportive of human morality        

     40    4 = Present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality

      


 239.  GAMES

       The code below can also be expressed in a semi-order or partial Guttman

       scale, as there are five latent classes or dominant scale types:

       for P C S, these are - - -   + - -   + + -   + - +   + + +

 

     14    . = Missing data     

     12    1 = None of the three types

     64    2 = Physical skill

      1    3 = Chance 

      4    4 = Strategy

     47    5 = Skill and chance

     22    6 = Skill and strategy

      -    7 = Chance and strategy        

     22    8 = All

      

 240.  POST-PARTUM SEX TABOOS

     79    . = Missing data     

      5    1 = None   

     24    2 = No longer than 1 month     

     33    3 = 1 to 6 months    

      8    4 = 6 months to 1 year

     19    5 = More than one year to two years      

     18    6 = More than two years        

      

 241.  MALE GENITAL MUTILATIONS

      5    . = Missing data

    131    0 = Absent     

      5    1 = Within first two months after birth  

      1    2 = Two months to two years    

      5    3 = Two to five years

     16    4 = Six to ten years 

     17    5 = 11 to 15 years   

      2    6 = 16 to 25 years   

      -    7 = 25 to 50 years   

      1    8 = After 50 years   

      3    9 = Normal age unclear

      

 242.  SEGREGATION OF ADOLESCENT BOYS

     29    . = Missing data     

    108    1 = Absence

     19    2 = Partial

      8    3 = Complete, with relatives outside nuclear family

      4    4 = Complete, with non-relatives

     18    5 = Complete, with peers       

      

 243.  ANIMALS AND PLOW CULTIVATION

    153    1 = Absent (no plow animals)   

      2    2 = Not aboriginal but well established at period

                of observation  

     31    3 = Prior to contract

       

 244.  PREDOMINANT TYPE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

     55    1 = Absence or near absence of large domestic animals

     30    2 = Pigs the only large domestic animals 

     15    3 = Sheep and/or goats without larger domestic animals

     10    4 = Equine animals (horses, donkeys)     

      3    5 = Deer (reindeer)  

      5    6 = Camels, alpacas, or llamas 

     68    7 = Bovine animals (cattle, mithun, water buffalo, yaks)

      

 245.  MILKING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    129    1 = Little or no milking, or insufficient information

     57    2 = Milked more often than sporadically  

      

 246.  SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY

     15    1 = Gathering        

     19    2 = Fishing

     12    3 = Hunting

     16    4 = Pastoral

     22    5 = Incipient agriculture      

     45    6 = Extensive agriculture      

     57    7 = Intensive agriculture      

 

     Note: this is a poor code, not in the original, and should be replaced

      

 247.  DESCENT: MAJOR TYPE (From Variables 121-126)

     72    1 = Patrilineal      

      9    2 = Duolateral       

     27    3 = Matrilineal      

      5    4 = Quasi-lineages   

      8    5 = Ambilineal       

     65    6 = Bilateral        

 

 248.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN METAL WORKING

 249.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN WEAVING

 250.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN LEATHER WORKING

 251.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN POTTERY MAKING

 252.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN BOAT BUILDING

 253.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION

       *   Note changes in order from 248 250 252 254 256 258

       *                                             248 249 250 251 252 253

       *                                             MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU

       . = Missing data                                2  13  48  15  26  35 . 

       1 = Males alone or almost alone                79  20  32  10  75  91 M

       2 = Males appreciably more                      1   3   1   2   5  17 N

       3 = Differentiation but equal participation     -   5   -   4   -  19 D

       4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation  -   -   1   2   -   4 E

       5 = Females appreciably more                    -   1   3   2   -   5 G

       6 = Females alone or almost alone               -  48  32  72   1  14 F

       7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized      1   -   -   1   -   - I

       8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified   1   9  22  20  19   1 P

       9 = Activity absent or unimportant            102  87  47  58  60   - O

 


 254.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN METAL WORKING

 255.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN WEAVING

 256.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN LEATHER WORKING

 257.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN POTTERY MAKING

 258.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN BOAT BUILDING

 259.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION

       *   Note changes in order from 249 251 253 255 257 259

       *                                             249 250 251 252 253 254

       *                                             MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU

       . = Missing data                                2  13  48  15  26  35

       0 = Performed by any or most adults             4  69  73  89  88 137

       1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty)  -   -   -   -   -   -

       2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime)    -   -   -   -   -   -

       3 = Craft specialization                       76  16  18  23  12  14

       4 = Industrialized specialization               2   1   -   1   -   -

       9 = Activity absent                           102  87  47  58  60   -

       *   Note: check which is missing data

 

 260.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN GATHERING

 261.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN HUNTING

 262.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN FISHING

 263.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

 264.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN AGRICULTURE

       *   Note changes in order from 260 262 264 266 268

       *                                             260 261 262 263 264

       *                                             GAT HUN FIS ANI AGR

       . = Missing data                               23   6  12  21   7

       0                                                               1

       1 = Males alone or almost alone                 4 153  66  37  17

       2 = Males appreciably more                      5   2  43  23  38

       3 = Differentiation but equal participation     3   -  10  18  14

       4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation 11   -   8  14  25

       5 = Females appreciably more                   24   -   5   4  36

       6 = Females alone or almost alone              64   -   3  12   6

       7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized

       8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified   4   -   1   2   -

       9 = Activity absent or unimportant             48  25  38  55  42

 

 265.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN GATHERING

 266.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HUNTING

 267.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN FISHING

 268.  AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    .                                        AGRICULTURE (NOT CODED)

       *   Note changes in order from 261 263 265 267

       *                                             265 266 267 268

       *                                             GAT HUN FIS ANI

 

       . = Missing data                               23   6  12  21

       0 = Performed by any or most adults           114 147 126 104

       1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty)  1   1   -   4

       2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime)       

       3 = Craft specialization                        -   7  10   3

       4 = Industrialized specialization               -   -   -   -

       9 = Activity absent or unimportant             48  25  38  55

 

    <stds11.cod>

 

 269.  Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a later issue; no codes here.

 

    <stds12.cod>

 

 

 270.  CLASS STRATIFICATION

 271.  CLASS STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY FEATURE

       *                                                   270   271

                                                          Class  Secd.

       . = Missing data                                      -     -

       1 = Absence among freemen                            76     -

       2 = Wealth distinctions                              45     3

       3 = Elite (based on control of land         

            or other resources)                              3     4

       4 = Dual (hereditary aristocracy)                    37     4

       5 = Complex (social classes)                         25     2

       9 = No second type or absence of stratification           173

 

 272.  CASTE STRATIFICATION (ENDOGAMY)

 273.  CASTE STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY TYPE

       *                                                   272  273

                                                          Caste Secd.

       . = Missing data                                      5    -

       1 = Absent or insignificant                         154    -

       2 = Despised occupational group(s)                   17    1

       3 = Ethnic stratification                             3    1

       4 = Complex                                           7    -

       9 = No second type or absence of stratification          184

 

 274.  TYPE OF SLAVERY

 

      6    . = Missing data   

    100    1 = Absence or near absence    

     27    2 = Incipient or nonhereditary 

      9    3 = Reported but type not identified     

     44    4 = Hereditary and socially significant  

      

 275.  FORMER PRESENCE OF SLAVERY

      

    136    1 = Absent or no difference from preceding column

     50    2 = Formerly present

      

 276.  SUCCESSION TO THE OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN

 

     23    . = Missing data

     58    1 = Patrilineal heir 

     17    2 = Matrilineal heir 

      5    3 = Nonhereditary (appointed by higher authority)  

      7    4 = Nonhereditary on basis of seniority or age     

      9    5 = Nonhereditary through influence (wealth or

                social status)  

     24    6 = Nonhereditary through election or other

                formal consensus

     23    7 = Nonhereditary through informal consensus       

     20    9 = Absence of any such office 

      

 277.  SUCCESSION TO OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN, BREAKDOWN OF HEREDITARY SUCCESSION

      

     23    . = Missing data   

     44    1 = Hereditary by a son (patrilineal)    

     14    2 = Hereditary by other patrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)

      8    3 = Hereditary by a sister's son (matrilineal)     

      9    4 = Hereditary by other matrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)

     88    9 = Nonhereditary or absence of any such office    

  

 

    RULE OR PRACTICE FOR INHERITANCE

 

 278.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY (LAND)

 279.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY

       *   Note change in order from 278 280               278   279

                                                           Land  Movables

       . = Missing data                                     31    34

       1 = Absence of individual property rights or rules   59    22

       2 = Matrilineal (sister's sons)                       4     5

       3 = Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)  9     9

       4 = Children, with daughters receiving less          12    14

       5 = Children, equally for both sexes                  9    22

       6 = Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)  8     9

       7 = Patrilineal (sons)                               54    71

 

   DISTRIBUTION OF INHERITANCE AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAME CATEGORY

 

 280.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY

 281.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY

       *   Note change in order from 279 281               280   281

                                                           Land  Movables

       . = Missing data or absense of rights (#1 above)     91    55

       1 = Equal or relatively equal                        54    86

       2 = Exclusively or predominantly to

            the one adjudged best qualified                  6     6

       3 = Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual)         4     5

       4 = Primogeniture (to the senior individual)         28    27

       9 = Missing data   Note: Change 9 to "."              3     7

 

 282.  NORMS OF PREMARITAL SEX BEHAVIOR OF GIRLS

     40    . = Missing data   

     13    1 = Early marriage of females (at or before puberty)

     38    2 = Insistence on virginity    

     37    3 = Prohibited but weakly censured and not infrequent

     16    4 = Allowed, censured only if pregnancy results    

      5    5 = Trial marriage, promiscuous relations prohibited

     37    6 = Freely permitted, even if pregnancy results    

      


 283.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: GROUND PLAN

      4    . = Missing data    

      1    1 = Semicircular     

     59    2 = Circular

      6    3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends      

      -    4 = Polygonal        

    107    5 = Rectangular or square      

      9    6 = Quadrangular around (if only partially) inner court

      

 284.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: FLOOR LEVEL

      5    . = Missing data   

     13    1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)        

    138    2 = Floor formed by ground     

     12    3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform        

     18    4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers 

      

 285.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: WALL MATERIAL

     65    . = Missing data   

     12    1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick        

     19    2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub      

     33    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles     

      1    4 = Bark   

      1    5 = Hides or skin    

      6    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics        

     17    7 = Mats, latticework, or wattle

     14    8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch       

     17    9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick

      -   10)= Open walls, including temporary screens        

           *)= Walls indistinguishable from roof

           *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10

 

 286.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: SHAPE OF ROOF

     10    . = Missing data   

     10    1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical

     20    2 = Dome or hemisphere

      7    3 = Beehive with pointed peak  

     34    4 = Conical

      2    5 = Semi-hemisphere  

      6    6 = Shad (one slope) 

     14    7 = Flat or horizontal

     68    8 = Gabled (two slopes)        

     15    9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)    

      


 287.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: ROOFING MATERIALS

     10    . = Missing data   

      2    1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick

      3    2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub

     10    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles     

      6    4 = Bark   

      5    5 = Hides or skin    

      5    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabric

      9    7 = Mats   

    118    8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch

     18    9 = Earth or turf

          10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9)

           *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10

      

 288.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: GROUND PLAN

      2    1 = Semicircular     

     18    2 = Circular

      3    3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends      

      -    4 = Polygonal        

     38    5 = Rectangular or square      

      7    6 = Quadrangular around (or partially around) an inner court  

    118    9 = No secondary type

      

 289.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: FLOOR LEVEL

      1    . = Missing data   

      1    1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)        

     50    2 = Floor formed by ground     

      8    3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform        

      8    4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers 

    118    9 = No secondary type

      

 290.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: WALL MATERIAL

    145    . = Missing data or no secondary type  

      7    1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick        

      5    2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub      

     10    3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles     

      3    4 = Bark   

      -    5 = Hides or skin    

      2    6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics        

      3    7 = Mats, latticework or wattle

      3    8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch       

      8    9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick

      -   10)= Open walls, including temporary screens        

            )= Walls indistinguishable from roof

           *   Note: separate . and 0

           *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10

 


 291.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: SHAPE OF ROOF

    119    . = Missing data or no secondary type  

      -    1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical

      1    2 = Dome or hemisphere

      -    3 = Beehive with pointed peak  

     16    4 = Conical

      2    5 = Semi-hemisphere  

      2    6 = Shad (one slope) 

      7    7 = Flat or horizontal

     31    8 = Gabled (two slopes)        

      8    9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)    

           *   Note: separate . and 0

 

 292.  SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: ROOFING MATERIALS

    120    . = Missing data or no secondary type  

      3    1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick

      1    2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub

      3    3 = Wood, incl. logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles

      1    4 = Bark   

      5    5 = Hides or skin    

      2    6 = Felt, cloth or other fabric

      4    7 = Mats   

     42    8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch

      5    9 = Earth or turf

          10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9)

           *   Note: separate . and 0

           *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10

 

    <stds13.cod>


TRAITS INCULCATED IN CHILDHOOD

 

Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall

       1976.  ETHNOLOGY 15:83-114.

 

Datafile: STDS13.DAT Vars. 293-336 childhood

 

 293.  Duration of Early Childhood

 

     87    1 = short (ending at about 7 years of age)                 

     36    2 = medium (ending at about 9 years of age)                

     56    3 = long (ending at about 11 years of age or later)        

      7    . = Missing data                                           

 

 294.  Fortitude: Early Boy

 295.  Fortitude: Early Girl

 296.  Fortitude: Late Boy

 297.  Fortitude: Late Girl

                                                Early        Late

                                              Boy  Girl    Boy  Girl

       . = Missing data                        46    55     31    41

       0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait    -     -      -     -

       1 =                                      -     1      -     -

       2 =                                     17    19      3     5

       3 =                                     16    17      5    11

       4 =                                     11    13     11     9

       5 = moderately strong inculcation       61    60     40    50

       6 =                                     24    15     49    44

       7 =                                      3     1     14    12

       8 =                                      6     3     24    12

       9 =                                      2     2      8    12

           extremely strong inculcation         -     -      1     -

 

 298.  Aggression: Early Boy

 299.  Aggression: Early Girl

 300.  Aggression: Late Boy 

 301.  Aggression: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                        53    68     38    58

       0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait    -     -      -     -

       1 =                                      6     7      4     5

       2 =                                     25    30      9    16

       3 =                                     14    15     11    16

       4 =                                      7    10      9    10

       5 = moderately strong inculcation       40    30     40    38

       6 =                                     28    17     43    26

       7 =                                      1     2      5     5

       8 =                                      8     5     19    10

       9 =                                      3     1      6     1

           extremely strong inculcation         1     1      2     1

     


 302.  Competitiveness: Early Boy

 303.  Competitiveness: Early Girl

 304.  Competitiveness: Late Boy 

 305.  Competitiveness: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                        75    80     51    60

       0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait    6     6      5     5

       1 =                                      -     -      -     -

       2 =                                     21    21     15    17

       3 =                                     15    15     18    16

       4 =                                      9     9      9    10

       5 = moderately strong inculcation       38    35     42    44

       6 =                                     18    18     30    25

       7 =                                      2     1      2     1

       8 =                                      -     -     11     7

       9 =                                      2     1      3     1

 

 

 306.  Self-reliance: Early Boy

 307.  Self-reliance: Early Girl

 308.  Self-reliance: Late Boy 

 309.  Self-reliance: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                         31   33     26    33

       0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait     1    2      1     1

       1 =                                       7    8      4     5

       2 =                                      39   48      6    10

       3 =                                      27   29      5    15

       4 =                                       9   11      5    10

       5 = moderately strong inculcation        42   35     34    48

       6 =                                      16   12     39    34

       7 =                                       2    4      6     6

       8 =                                      10    4     48    19

       9 =                                       2    -     11     4

           extremely strong inculcation          -    -      1     1

 

 310.  Achievement: Early Boy

 311.  Achievement: Early Girl

 312.  Achievement: Late Boy 

 313.  Achievement: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                         40   50     24    33

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait      1    1      -     -

       1 =                                       3    2      1     2

       2 =                                      49   49     14     7

       3 =                                      23   24     16    16

       4 =                                       4    4      8     8

       5 = moderately strong inculcation        44   36     46    51

       6 =                                      17   17     47    45

       7 =                                       1    1      3     4

       8 =                                       3    2     22    18

       9 =                                       1    -      5     2

 


 314.  Industry: Early Boy

 315.  Industry: Early Girl

 316.  Industry: Late Boy 

 317.  Industry: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                         20   21     11    11

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait      4    3      -     -

       1 =                                      10    3      1     -

       2 =                                      83   62     10     4

       3 =                                      28   35     17    11

       4 =                                      14   13     16     6

       5 = moderately strong inculcation        20   35     69    41

       6 =                                       6   14     37    63

       7 =                                       -    -      3     8

       8 =                                       1    -     19    38

       9 =                                       -    -      3     4

           extremely strong inculcation       

 

 318.  Responsibility: Early Boy

 319.  Responsibility: Early Girl

 320.  Responsibility: Late Boy 

 321.  Responsibility: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                          35   36    25   28

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait      11    4     3    -

       1 =                                        8    5     -    -

       2 =                                       73   63    15    3

       3 =                                       23   32    20   11

       4 =                                        6    5    15   12

       5 = moderately strong inculcation         21   33    49   50

       6 =                                        8    7    37   51

       7 =                                        -    -     2    3

       8 =                                        1    1    19   28

       9 =                                        -    -     1    -

 

 

 322.  Obedience: Early Boy

 323.  Obedience: Early Girl

 324.  Obedience: Late Boy 

 325.  Obedience: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                          26   25    24   24

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait       2    -     1    -

       1 =                                        3    3     1    -

       2 =                                       27   23    15   10

       3 =                                       11   13    10   10

       4 =                                       14   11    12   11

       5 = moderately strong inculcation         45   44    45   45

       6 =                                       27   31    33   36

       7 =                                        2    2     2    3

       8 =                                       22   25    32   32

       9 =                                        4    5     8   11

           extremely strong inculcation           3    4     3    4

 


 326.  Self-restraint: Early Boy

 327.  Self-restraint: Early Girl

 328.  Self-restraint: Late Boy 

 329.  Self-restraint: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                          52   53    51   54

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait       -    -     -    -

       1 =                                        6    7     1    1

       2 =                                       38   32    19   16

       3 =                                       35   31    19   16

       4 =                                        5    7    12   11

       5 = moderately strong inculcation         29   34    35   45

       6 =                                       13   14    26   26

       7 =                                        -    -     2    1

       8 =                                        8    7    20   13

       9 =                                        -    1     1    3

 

 330.  Sexual restraint: Early Boy

 331.  Sexual restraint: Early Girl

 332.  Sexual restraint: Late Boy 

 333.  Sexual restraint: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                          30   32    22   21

       0 = no inculcation or opposite trait       1    1     -    -

       1 =                                       14   11     7    4

       2 =                                       67   57    41   32

       3 =                                       22   19    27   18

       4 =                                       14   14    25   25

       5 = moderately strong inculcation         30   32    41   24

       6 =                                        7   14    15   27

       7 =                                        -    1     2    6

       8 =                                        1    5     6   18

       9 =                                        -    -     -    5

           extremely strong inculcation           -    -     -    6

 

 334.  Generosity

 

           . = Missing data                                          82

           0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                       -

           1 =                                                        1

           2 =                                                        4

           3 =                                                        6

           4 =                                                        4

           5 = moderately strong inculcation                         24

           6 =                                                       31

           7 =                                                        2

           8 =                                                       27

           9 =                                                        4

               extremely strong inculcation                           1

 

 


 335.  Trust

 

           . = Missing data                                          48

           0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                       1

           1 =                                                        6

           2 =                                                       19

           3 =                                                        5

           4 =                                                       15

           5 = moderately strong inculcation                         34

           6 =                                                       18

           7 =                                                       11

           8 =                                                       25

           9 =                                                        3

               extremely strong inculcation                           1

 

 336.  Honesty

 

           . = Missing data                                          76

           0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                       1

           1 =                                                        5

           2 =                                                       18

           3 =                                                       15

           4 =                                                       12

           5 = moderately strong inculcation                         28

           6 =                                                       16

           7 =                                                        5

           8 =                                                        8

           9 =                                                        1

               extremely strong inculcation                           1

 

    <stds14.cod>


AGENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF CHILD TRAINING

 

Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall 1977.  ETHNOLOGY 16:191-230.

 

Datafile: Vars. 337-480 child training

       STDS14.DAT Vars. 337-376         STDS15.DAT Vars. 377-404

       STDS16.DAT Vars. 405-432         STDS17.DAT Vars. 433-460

                      STDS18.DAT Vars. 461-480

 

 337.  Importance of Non-Family Companions: Early Boy

 338.  Importance of Non-Family Companions: Early Girl

 339.  Importance of Non-Family Companions: Late Boy

 340.  Importance of Non-Family Companions: Late Girl

                                                    Early        Late

                                                  Boy  Girl    Boy  Girl

       . = Missing data                             6     6      6     8

       1 = Parents predominantly                    2     2      1     1

       2 = Siblings; not other children            11    12      3     8

       3 = Primarily siblings, secondarily

           other children                         104   105     80    91

       4 = Primarily other children, secondarily

           siblings                                45    44     47    37

       5 = Other children; not siblings            18    17     49    41

 

 341.  Sex of Companions: Early Boy

 342.  Sex of Companions: Early Girl

 343.  Sex of Companions: Late Boy 

 344.  Sex of Companions: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             6     6      6     8

       1 = Male exclusively                         6     -     58     -

       2 = Male predominantly                      62     -     90     1

       3 = Both sexes equally                     111   112     31    32

       4 = Female predominantly                     1    62      1    84

       5 = Female exclusively                       -     6      -    61

 

 345.  Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Early Boy

 346.  Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Early Girl

 347.  Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Late Boy 

 348.  Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                              4     4      4     5

       1 = Exclusively parental                     56    62     44    48

       2 = Single atypical or occasional

           category of non-parent                   63    67     52    67

       3 = Two or more atypical or occasional

           categories of non-parent                  7    10      4    11

       4 = Single category that typical and frequent

           but less important than parents          39    28     34    24

       5 = Two or more categories, at least oneof

           which typical and frequent,

           but less important than parents          14    12     19    14

       6 = More typical and frequent than parents    3     3      5     3

       7 = Exclusively non-parental                  -     -     24    14

 


 349.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Early Boy

 350.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Early Girl

 351.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Late Boy 

 352.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             60    66     53    54

       1 = Foster parent                            99    90     77    74

       2 = Sibling                                   -     -      -     -

       3 = Grandparent                               7     9      4    11

       4 = Uncle (mother's brother only)             4     2      5     2

       5 = Relative (including father's brother)    10     7     15    13

       6 = Child                                     2     3     20     9

       7 = Nonrelative                               3     9     12    23

       8 = Teacher                                   1     -      -     -

 

 

 353.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Boy

 354.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Girl

 355.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Boy 

 356.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                              4     4     28    18

       1 = Male exclusively                          -     -      9     -

       2 = Male predominantly                        2     1      1     1

       3 = Both sexes equally                      135   135    124   127

       4 = Female predominantly                     22    21     13    16

       5 = Female exclusively                       23    25     11    24

 

 357.  Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Boy

 358.  Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Girl

 359.  Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Boy 

 360.  Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             61    65     52    53

       1 = Male exclusively                          8     4     33     9

       2 = Male predominantly                        1     -      1     1

       3 = Both sexes equally                      114   107     98   105

       4 = Female predominantly                      -     1      -     -

       5 = Female exclusively                        2     9      2    18

 

 361.  Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Boy

 362.  Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Girl

 363.  Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Boy 

 364.  Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                              7     6     26    23

       1 = Exclusively parental                     33    35     34    39

       2 = Single atypical or occasional

           category of non-parent                   19    19     13    14

       3 = Two or more atypical or occasional

           categories of non-parent                 21    21     17    19

       4 = Single category that typical and frequent

           but less important than parents          26    24     24    22

       5 = Two or more categories, at least one

           of which typical and frequent,

           but less important than parents          57    59     35    41

       6 = More typical and frequent than parents   17    17      9    10

       7 = Exclusively non-parental                  6     5     28    18

 

 365.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Early Boy

 366.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Early Girl

 367.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Late Boy 

 368.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             40    41     82    74

       1 = Foster parent                             -     -      -     -

       2 = Sibling                                  58    59     40    42

       3 = Grandparent                              38    39     26    32

       4 = Uncle (mother's brother only)             4     1      2     2

       5 = Relative (including father's brother)    18    17     13    14

       6 = Child                                     4     4      4     2

       7 = Nonrelative                              22    24     18    19

       8 = Teacher                                   1     -      1     1

       9 = No agent                                  1     1      -     -

 

 369.  Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Boy

 370.  Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Girl

 371.  Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Boy 

 372.  Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             18    11     54    41

       1 = Male exclusively                          1     2     11     2

       2 = Male predominantly                        4     2      3     1

       3 = Both sexes equally                       26    25     17    17

       4 = Female predominantly                     35    29     22    22

       5 = Female exclusively                      102   117     79   103

 

 373.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Early Boy

 374.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Early Girl

 375.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Late Boy 

 376.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             41    42     83    77

       1 = Male exclusively                          5     2     11     2

       2 = Male predominantly                        4     2      1     -

       3 = Both sexes equally                       59    54     43    42

       4 = Female predominantly                     12    11      7     6

       5 = Female exclusively                       65    75     41    59

 

    <stds15.cod>

 

Datafile: STDS15.DAT Vars. 377-404 child training

 

 377.  Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Early Boy

 378.  Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Early Girl

 379.  Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Late Boy 

 380.  Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             11    10     14    10

       1 = Exclusively parental                     61    67     49    62

       2 = Single atypical or occasional category

           of non-parent                            13    15     12    13

       3 = Two or more atypical or occasional

           categories of non-parent                  8    10      5     9

       4 = Single category typical and frequent

           but less important than parents          45    42     38    41

       5 = Two or more categories, at least one of which

           typical and frequent, but less important 34    30     33    28

           than parents

       6 = More typical and frequent than parents   11     9     10     7

       7 = Exclusively non-parental                  3     3     25    16

 

 381.  Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy

 382.  Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl

 383.  Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 

 384.  Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             73    78     65    74

       1 = Foster parent                             -     -      -     -

       2 = Sibling                                  33    34     32    32

       3 = Grandparent                              26    28     22    26

       4 = Uncle (mother's brother only)            17    12     15     8

       5 = Relative (including father's brother)    24    23     19    22

       6 = Child                                     3     1      9     4

       7 = Nonrelative                               9     9     17    15

       8 = Teacher                                   1     1      7     5

 

 385.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy

 386.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl

 387.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 

 388.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             14    13     39    26

       1 = Male exclusively                         36    17     43    17

       2 = Male predominantly                       66    58     53    50

       3 = Both sexes equally                       55    59     43    52

       4 = Female predominantly                      8    20      3    20

       5 = Female exclusively                        7    19      5    21

 

 389.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy

 390.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl

 391.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 

 392.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             73    78     65   112

       1 = Male exclusively                         66    48     80    36

       2 = Male predominantly                        4     5      6     5

       3 = Both sexes equally                       37    35     29    14

       4 = Female predominantly                      2     2      2     4

       5 = Female exclusively                        4    18      4    15

 


 393.  Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Boy

 394.  Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Girl

 395.  Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Boy 

 396.  Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                             57   112    109   113

       1 = Exclusively parental                     70    32     25    28

       2 = Single atypical or occasional category

           of non-parent                             2     3      2     6

       3 = Two or more atypical or occasional

           categories of non-parent                  3     2      3     2

       4 = Single category typical and frequent

           but less important than parents          12    11     18    14

       5 = Two or more categories, at least one of

           which typical and frequent, but less

           important than parents                   14    13     12     8

       6 = More typical and frequent than parents   20     3      4     3

       7 = Exclusively non-parental                  8    10     13    12

 

 397.  Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy

 398.  Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl

 399.  Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy 

 400.  Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                            147   147    137   144

       1 = Foster parent                             -     -      -     -

       2 = Sibling                                  12    13     10    13

       3 = Grandparent                               6     7      6     5

       4 = Uncle (mother's brother only)             4     3      3     3

       5 = Relative (including father's brother)     5     5      5     5

       6 = Child                                     2     2      7     1

       7 = Nonrelative                               8     7      9    10

       8 = Teacher                                   2     2      9     5

 

 401.  Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy

 402.  Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl

 403.  Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy 

 404.  Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl

       . = Missing data                            118   122    122   125

       1 = Male exclusively                         18     8     24     7

       2 = Male predominantly                        9     7      8     6

       3 = Both sexes equally                       21    21     18    18

       4 = Female predominantly                      6     7      2     7

       5 = Female exclusively                       14    21     12    23

 

    <stds16.cod>

 

Datafile: STDS16.DAT Vars. 405-432 child training

 


 405.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boys

 406.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girls

 407.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boys

 408.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                            147   147    137   144

       1 = Male exclusively                         13     7     24     9

       2 = Male predominantly                        1     -      1     -

       3 = Both sexes equally                       20    21     20    21

       4 = Female predominantly                      1     1      -     -

       5 = Female exclusively                        5    10      4    12

 

 409.  Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Early Boys

 410.  Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Early Girls

 411.  Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Late Boys 

 412.  Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             10    10      9     9

       1 = Exclusively parental                     36    51     23    53

       2 = Single atypical or occasional category

           of non-parent                            18    16     16    16

       3 = Two or more atypical or occasional

           categories of non-parent                  7    10      7     7

       4 = Single category typical and frequent

           but less important than parents          26    30     31    26

       5 = Two or more categories, at least one of

           which typical and frequent, but less

           important than parents                   46    42     50    44

       6 = More typical and frequent than parents   30    21     29    15

       7 = Exclusively non-parental                 13     6     21    16

 

 413.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Early Boys

 414.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Early Girls

 415.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Late Boys 

 416.  Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             47    61     33    62

       1 = Foster parent                             -     -      -     -

       2 = Sibling                                  28    28     21    21

       3 = Grandparent                              18    23     13    15

       4 = Uncle (mother's brother only)             7     2     11     1

       5 = Relative (including father's brother)    19    20     13    19

       6 = Child                                    37    28     26    13

       7 = Nonrelative                              21    20     34    33

       8 = Teacher                                   9     4     35    22

 

 417.  Sex of Parental Educators: Early Boys

 418.  Sex of Parental Educators: Early Girls

 419.  Sex of Parental Educators: Late Boys 

 420.  Sex of Parental Educators: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             23    16     31    26

       1 = Male exclusively                         58     4    117     3

       2 = Male predominantly                       27     2     18     1

       3 = Both sexes equally                       51    40     14    11

       4 = Female predominantly                     17    20      3    12

       5 = Female exclusively                       10   104      3   133

 


 421.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Early Boys

 422.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Early Girls

 423.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Late Boys 

 424.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             46    61     32    60

       1 = Male exclusively                         67     5    106     6

       2 = Male predominantly                        6     1      3     -

       3 = Both sexes equally                       61    53     42    32

       4 = Female predominantly                      -     5      -     3

       5 = Female exclusively                        6    61      3    85

 

 425.  Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Boys

 426.  Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Girls

 427.  Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Boys 

 428.  Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                              9     9      8    13

       1 = Informal training, with minimal guidance 47    45     14    15

       2 = Apprenticeship atypical or occasional    20    11      6     1

       3 = Apprenticeship typical and frequent but

           informal training more prevalent         79    87     42    55

       4 = Apprenticeship predominant                8    11     44    46

       5 = Formal schooling atypical or occasional  14    10     34    31

       6 = Formal schooling typical and frequent     9    13     38    25

 

 

 429.  Use of Example: Early Boys

 430.  Use of Example: Early Girls

 431.  Use of Example: Late Boys 

 432.  Use of Example: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             34    33     33    31

       2 = Childrens activities differ from adults      

           are not expected to behave like them      -     -      -     -

       3 =                                           -     -      -     -

       4 =                                           -     -      -     -

       5 = Children are expected to do things more

           or less by example                       25    24     20    20

       6 =                                          22    23     23    23

       7 =                                           2     2      2     2

       8 = Children frequently shown example; consi-

         dered very important in socializing child  79    79     83    84

       9 =                                          21    22     22    23

           Example given as most important method

           of education, or adults are constantly

           showing children how to do things.        3     3      3     3

 

    <stds17.cod>

 

Datafile: STDS17.DAT Vars. 433-460 child training

 


 433.  Control by Public Opinion: Early Boys

 434.  Control by Public Opinion: Early Girls

 435.  Control by Public Opinion: Late Boys 

 436.  Control by Public Opinion: Late Girls

    Public Opinion:   degree to which approval by people in general controls

    the behavior of children

       . = Missing data                             95    94     91    92

       2 =                                           3     3      2     2

       3 =                                           2     2      2     2

       4 =                                           2     2      2     2

       5 =                                          20    20     21    20

       6 =                                          28    28     29    30

       7 =                                           2     2      2     2

       8 =                                          30    30     33    31

       9 =                                           4     5      4     5

 

 437.  Lecturing: Early Boys

 438.  Lecturing: Early Girls

 439.  Lecturing: Late Boys 

 440.  Lecturing: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             49    52     45    47

       0 =                                           1     -      -     -

       1 =                                           -     -      -     -

       2 =                                          10    10      6     6

       3 =                                          10    11      9    10

       4 =                                           7     8      6     8

       5 = Often, but not constant lectures / myths 48    46     44    42

       6 =                                          25    24     31    28

       7 =                                           4     4      5     5

       8 = Almost daily                             22    22     29    29

       9 =                                           6     5      8     7

           Constant and one of the most important

           methods used in socializing child         4     4      3     4

 

 441.  Teasing: Early Boys

 442.  Teasing: Early Girls

 443.  Teasing: Late Boys 

 444.  Teasing: Late Girls

    Teasing:  refers to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct.

       . = Missing data                             85    85     73    74

       2 =                                           9     8      5     5

       3 =                                           8    10      8     9

       4 =                                           4     4      4     4

       5 =                                          34    33     39    38

       6 =                                          24    23     31    30

       7 =                                           2     2      2     2

       8 =                                          19    20     23    23

       9 =                                           1     1      1     1

 


 445.  Scolding: Early Boys

 446.  Scolding: Early Girls

 447.  Scolding: Late Boys 

 448.  Scolding: Late Girls

    Scolding:  includes verbal reprimants, nagging, scolding for misbehavior.

       . = Missing data                             76    74     71    69

       0 =                                           2     2      2     1

       1 =                                           3     2      1     1

       2 =                                          11    13      8     9

       3 =                                           8     7      8     7

       4 =                                           9     9     11    11

       5 =                                          54    54     51    51

       6 =                                          15    16     19    21

       7 =                                           1     1      -     -

       8 =                                           7     8     13    14

       9 =                                           -     -      1     1

 

 449.  Warning: Early Boys

 450.  Warning: Early Girls

 451.  Warning: Late Boys 

 452.  Warning: Late Girls

    Warning:  threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers.

       . = Missing data                             87    87     86    87

       0 =                                           1     1      1     -

       1 =                                           -     -      1     1

       2 =                                           4     4      5     5

       3 =                                           3     3      4     4

       4 =                                           4     4      4     4

       5 =                                          29    29     32    32

       6 =                                          38    38     36    36

       7 =                                           1     1      1     1

       8 =                                          14    14     11    11

       9 =                                           5     5      5     5

 

 453.  Corporal Punishment: Early Boys

 454.  Corporal Punishment: Early Girls

 455.  Corporal Punishment: Late Boys 

 456.  Corporal Punishment: Late Girls

    Corporal Punishment:  whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment.

       . = Missing data                             41    46     39    46

       0 =                                           9     9     10     8

       1 =                                           6     6      4     4

       2 =                                          35    35     29    30

       3 =                                          17    18     15    15

       4 =                                          12    12      8     9

       5 =                                          39    37     41    39

       6 =                                          20    16     17    16

       7 =                                           -     -      1     1

       8 =                                           3     3     18    16

       9 =                                           3     1      3     1

 


 457.  Ceremonies for Children: Early Boys

 458.  Ceremonies for Children: Early Girls

 459.  Ceremonies for Children: Late Boys 

 460.  Ceremonies for Children: Late Girls

    Ceremonies for Children:  included are those for first animal killed or

    first basket woven by young child, or ceremonies like birthday

    parties or children's days.  Inclusion of children in cultural

    ceremonies justifies only moderate scores.

       . = Missing data                             54    62     40    55

       0 =                                           3     4      1     -

       1 =                                           1     5      -     2

       2 =                                          48    47     20    32

       3 =                                          20    22     18    25

       4 =                                           6     5      5     9

       5 =                                          38    26     61    42

       6 =                                          13    11     32    13

       7 =                                           -     -      1     -

       8 =                                           3     4      8     8

 

    <stds18.cod>

 

Datafile: STDS18.DAT Vars. 461-480 child training

 

 461.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Boys

 462.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Girls

 463.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Boys 

 464.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Girls

    Gifts for Approved Behaviors:  Material rewards for approved behaviors,

    e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges.

       . = Missing data                             45    50     41    43

       2 =                                          24    20     17    17

       3 =                                          18    22     19    23

       4 =                                           8     8      8     8

       5 =                                          65    61     72    66

       6 =                                          22    19     23    21

       7 =                                           -     -      -     -

       8 =                                           4     6      6     8

 

 465.  Permissiveness: Early Boys

 466.  Permissiveness: Early Girls

 467.  Permissiveness: Late Boys 

 468.  Permissiveness: Late Girls

       . = Missing data                             17    19     18    18

       0 = Harsh socialization by parents or other

           authority figures with severe punishment  1     1      1     1

       1 =                                           1     1      5     7

       2 = Generally harsh treatment, not extreme    4     7      6     8

       3 =                                           9     7     10    13

       4 =                                          12    17     23    31

       5 = Generally moderate or balanced degree

           of both harshness and permissiveness     31    37     52    61

       6 =                                          37    41     32    22

       7 =                                          31    29     14     9

       8 = Generally indulgent, not extreme         28    19     15    12

       9 =                                          10     6      8     3

          Generally lenient and indulgent

          permissiveness, minimal punishment or

          expression of disapproval                  5     2      2     1

 

 469.  Affection: Early Boys

 470.  Affection: Early Girls

 471.  Affection: Late Boys 

 472.  Affection: Late Girls

    Affection:  refers primarily to attention and positive interest

    expressed toward child.

       . = Missing data                             31    31     32    33

       0 = Minimal expression of affection,

           attention, positive interest in child     -     -      -     -

       1 =                                           -     1      -     1

       2 = Generally low expression of affection     6     9     10    13

           and attention

       3 =                                           3     3      4     4

       4 =                                          16    19     20    24

       5 = Moderate or sporadic expression of

           affection and attention                  40    35     43    37

       6 =                                          43    41     44    42

       7 =                                          19    21     17    19

       8 = Consistent, occasional strong expression 24    22     16    14

       9 =                                           4     4      -     -

 

 473.  Evaluation by Society: Early Boys

 474.  Evaluation by Society: Early Girls

 475.  Evaluation by Society: Late Boys 

 476.  Evaluation by Society: Late Girls

    Evaluation by Society:  degree to which children are desired and valued.

       . = Missing data                             14    15     15    15

       0 = Children are viewed indifferently or

           as a liability by society and

           local community                           -     -      -     -

       1 =                                           -     1      -     1

       2 = Only slight, sporadic expression of

           valuation of children                     2     7      2     6

       3 =                                           3     9      3     9

       4 =                                          11    23      9    21

       5 = Moderate or occasionally strong

           expression of value of children          39    30     39    35

       6 =                                          46    50     48    49

       7 =                                          32    25     32    26

       8 = Strong, but no extreme valuation

           of children                              26    18     27    17

       9 =                                          12     9     11     8

          Intense, repeated expression of cultural

           valuation for children                    1     -      1     -

 


 477.  Incorporation into Society: Early Boys

 478.  Incorporation into Society: Early Girls

 479.  Incorporation into Society: Late Boys 

 480.  Incorporation into Society: Late Girls

    Incorporation into Society:  refers to inclusion of children in adult

    activities.

       . = Missing data                             16    16     15    15

       0 = Almost complete exclusion from adult

           working, ceremonial, social activities    3     3      -     -

       1 =                                          22    21      2     -

       2 = Children are usually excluded from

           membership in adult activities           50    38      7     2

       3 =                                          49    47     14     7

       4 =                                          22    25     13    12

       5 = Inconsistent but substantial participation

           by children in adult activities          19    32     54    40

       6 =                                           4     3     37    44

       7 =                                           -     -     27    37

       8 = Children closely integrated in adult family

           activities with substantial participation

           in adult community life                   1     1     11    17

       9 =                                           -     -      6    11

           Almost complete, continual inclusion of

           children in adult activities              -     -      -     1

 

    <stds19.cod>


PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION AND PARENTAL CONTROL

 

Rohner, Ronald P., and Evelyn C. Rohner.  1982.  ETHNOLOGY 20:245-260.

 

Datafile: STDS19.DAT Vars. 481-504 parental behaviors

 

 481.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Boy

 482.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Girl

 483.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Aver

 484.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Boy

 485.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Girl

 486.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Aver

 487.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Boy

 488.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Girl

 489.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Aver

 490.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Boy

 491.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Girl

 492.  Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Aver

 

                                                     Significant

                           Maternal     Paternal       Others      Overall

                         ------------ ------------  ------------ -----------

                         Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Av.   Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Ave

 

       . = Missing data 174 174 115  175 174 126   184 185 165  181 180  89

       1 =                -   -   -    -   -   -     -   -   -    -   -   0

       2 = Rarely         -   -   2    -   1   8     1   -   2    -   -   3

       3 =                -   -   1    -   -   -     -   -   -    -   -   0

       4 = Sometimes      -   3   2    4   1   3     -   -   1    -   -   3

       5 =                1   -   3    -   2   2     -   -   -    -   -   4

       6 = Frequently     2   2  10    1   5   5     -   1   7    -   3  14

       7 =                1   1   7    3   1   5     -   -   2    2   2  16

       8 = Almost Always  8   6  46    3   2  37     1   -   9    3   1  57

 

 

 493.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Boy 

 494.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Girl

 495.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Aver

 496.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Boy 

 497.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Girl

 498.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Aver

 499.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Boy 

 500.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Girl

 501.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Aver

 502.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Boy

 503.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Girl

 504.  Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Aver


                                                     Significant

                           Maternal     Paternal       Others      Overall

                         ------------ ------------  ------------ -----------

                         Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Av.   Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Ave

 

       . = Missing data 182 182 141  185 185 145   185 184 171  181 185  74

       1 =                -   -   -    -   -   1     -   -   -    -   -   1

       2 = Rarely         1   2  21    1   0  23     -   -   3    2   1  58

       3 =                -   -   3    -   -   -     -   -   -    1   -   9

       4 = Sometimes      2   2  13    -   1  11     -   1   6    2   0  31

       5 =                -   -   2    -   -   2     -   -   -    -   -   5

       6 = Frequently     1   -   3    -   -   4     -   -   2    -   -   5

       7 =                -   -   1    -   -   -     -   -   1    -   -   2

       8 = Almost Always  -   -   2    -   -   -     1   1   3    -   -   1

 

<stds20.cod>

Datafile: STDS20.DAT Vars. 505-528 parental behaviors

            

 505.  Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Boy 

 506.  Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Girl

 507.  Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Aver

 508.  Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Boy 

 509.  Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Girl

 510.  Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Aver

 511.  Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Boy 

 512.  Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Girl

 513.  Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Aver

 514.  Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Boy

 515.  Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Girl

 516.  Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Aver

                                                     Significant

                           Maternal     Paternal       Others      Overall

                         ------------ ------------  ------------ -----------

                         Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Av.   Boy Grl Av.  Boy Grl Ave

       . = Missing data 178 169 134  169 181 146   181 183 171  171 182  88

       1 =                -   -   1    -   -   -     -   -   -    -   -   1

       2 = Rarely         6  15  38   13   2  27     4   3  11    5   3  67

       3 =                -   -   2    1   -   2     -   -   1    -   -   5

       4 = Sometimes      1   1   5    1   -   6     -   -   1    -   1  18

       5 =                -   -   -    -   -   -     -   -   -    -   -   1

       6 = Frequently     1   1   4    2   -   3     -   -   -    1   -   3

       7 =                -   -   1    -   -   1     1   -   1    -   -   2

       8 = Almost Always  -   -   1    -   3   1     -   -   1    -   -   1

 


 517.  Control by Caretakers - Mother: Boy 

 518.  Control by Caretakers - Mother: Girl

 519.  Control by Caretakers - Mother: Aver

 520.  Control by Caretakers - Father: Boy 

 521.  Control by Caretakers - Father: Girl

 522.  Control by Caretakers - Father: Aver

 523.  Control by Caretakers - Others: Boy 

 524.  Control by Caretakers - Others: Girl

 525.  Control by Caretakers - Others: Aver

 526.  Control by Caretakers - Overall: Boy

 527.  Control by Caretakers - Overall: Girl

 528.  Control by Caretakers - Overall: Aver

 

       . = Missing data 171 166 138  162 175 136   178 182 169  158 162  71

       1 =                -   -   -    -   -   -     -   -   -    -   -   -

       2 = No Control     4   1  10    -   -   9     -   1   2    6   1  23

       3 =                -   -   2    -   -   2     -   -   -    1   1   9

       4 = Lax Control    6   2  16    5   3  11     2   -   2    8   6  23

       5 =                -   -   1    -   -   1     -   -   1    2   1   7

       6 = Firm Control   3   9  11   12   4  19     4   2  10    6   9  34

       7 =                1   3   3    1   1   2     1   -   1    1   1   9

       8 = Restrictive    1   5   5    6   3   6     1   1   1    4   5  10

 

    <stds21.cod>


ADOLESCENT INITIATION CEREMONIES

 

Schlegel, Alice, and Herbert Barry, III. 1979. Adolescent Initiation

       Ceremonies. ETHNOLOGY 18:199-210.

 

Datafile: STDS21.DAT Vars. 529-560 initiation ceremonies

 

                                                     Boys Girls

 529.  Occurrence: Boys

 530.  Occurrence: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent for both boys and girls              80   81

       1 = Absent for specified sex only               39   17

       2 = Present                                     63   85

 

 531.  Time: Boys

 532.  Time: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     120  100

       2 = before genital maturation                   13    9

       3 = at first signs of genital maturation        18   11

       4 = at genital maturation                        6   57

       5 = within one year after genital maturation    17    5

       6 = later (up to 18 years)                       8    1

 

 533.  Number of Concurrent Initiates: Boys

 534.  Number of Concurrent Initiates: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = Single                                      29   73

       3 = Small group                                  7    6

       4 = Large group                                 27    5

 

 535.  Duration of Ceremony: Boys

 536.  Duration of Ceremony: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = Short                                       28   36

       3 = Medium                                       7   21

       4 = Long                                        28   27

 

 537.  Number of Participants: Boys

 538.  Number of Participants: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     121   99

       2 = Immediate family                             7   40

       3 = Local group                                 25   29

       4 = Large group                                 29   15

 


 539.  Sexes of Participants: Boys

 540.  Sexes of Participants: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = Both sexes                                  12   11

       3 = Partially limited to same sex as initiates  17   28

       4 = Exclusively same sex as initiates           34   45

 

 541.  Primary Physical Components: Boys

 542.  Primary Physical Components: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = None                                         6   11

       3 = Manipulations or activities                 17   45

       4 = Pain other than genital operation           20   21

       5 = Genital operation                           13    7

       6 = Genital operation and other pain             7    -

 

 543.  Secondary Physical Components: Boys

 544.  Secondary Physical Components: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = Neither manipulations nor activities        15   20

       3 = Activities                                  14   10

       4 = Manipulation                                 9   26

       5 = Both manipulations and activities           25   28

 

 545.  Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys

 546.  Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = Symbolic only                               20   15

       3 = Learning skills, sharing secrets, or other   3    3

       4 = Observing taboos                             8    1

       5 = Seclusion                                    7    9

       6 = Both seclusion and observing taboos         18   54

       7 = Fear                                         7    2

 

 547.  Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys

 548.  Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     118  100

       2 = Neither learning skills nor sharing secrets 43   60

       3 = Sharing secrets                              8    2

       4 = Learning skills                              4   11

       5 = Both learning skills and sharing secrets     9   10

 


 549.  Primary Emic Interpretations: Boys

 550.  Primary Emic Interpretations: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     119   99

       2 = None                                         4    5

       3 = Status marker, physical change, or          41   75

            behavior change

       4 = Spiritual change                            11    2

       5 = Death-rebirth                                7    2

 

 551.  Secondary Emic Interpretations: Boys

 552.  Secondary Emic Interpretations: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     118  100

       2 = No status marker                             8    8

       3 = General status marker                       17   25

       4 = Status marker for adolescence or youth      14   12

       5 = Status marker for full adulthood            25   38

 

 553.  Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Boys

 554.  Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     118  100

       2 = Neither physical nor behavior change        31   48

       3 = Behavior change                             10   12

       4 = Physical change                             12   16

       5 = Both physical and behavior change           11    7

 

 555.  Primary Social Consequences: Boys

 556.  Primary Social Consequences: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     118  100

       2 = None                                        19   32

       3 = Familial integration, familial              14   20

            independence, or other

       4 = Heterosexual intercourse                     8   25

       5 = Same-sex bonding                            17    3

       6 = Both same-sex bonding and heterosexual       6    3

            intercourse

 

 557.  Secondary Social Consequences: Boys

 558.  Secondary Social Consequences: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     118  100

       2 = None                                        36   57

       3 = Other                                        6    8

       4 = Familial independence                       13    9

       5 = Familial integration                         9    9

 


 559.  Principal Focus: Boys

 560.  Principal Focus: Girls

 

       . = Missing data                                 4    3

       0 = Absent                                     120  111

       2 = Fertility                                   11   34

       3 = Sexuality                                   10   18

       4 = Valor                                        6    1

       5 = Wisdom                                       7    1

       6 = Responsibility                              26   23

       7 = Other                                        2    7

 

    <stds22.cod>


REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS

 

Paige, Karen Paige and Jeffrey Paige.  1981.  THE POLITICS OF

       REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS.  University of California Press.  Reprinted with

       Permission of Authors and Publishers.

 

Datafile: STDS22.DAT Vars. 561-575 reproductive rituals

 

 561.  Menarcheal Ceremonies

 

     98    . = Missing data

     44    1 = Absent if onset of menstruation not marked by

               special public ritual       

     44    2 = Present if onset of menstruation associated with

               either elaborate or limited rites

      

 562.  Circumcision

      

     94    . = Missing data

     70    1 = Superincision, or subincision, or absent    

     22    2 = Circumcision

      

 563.  Maternal Restrictions

      

     97    . = Missing Data

     43    1 = Absent      

     46    2 = Present     

      

 564.  Husband Involvement Scale (Couvade)

      

     99    . = Missing Data

     51    1 = Minor Observance or informal

     36    2 = Seclusion, or postpartum work taboo, or food taboo

      

 565.  Menstrual Segregation

                                    Note: marginals off +-2 from here on

    104    . = Missing data

     54    1 = Absent      

     28    2 = Present (either menstrual hut or structural

               isolation is reported)      

      

 566.  Male Segregation Practices

      

    105    . = Missing data

     59    1 = Absent or Minor  

     22    2 = Present     

      

 567.  Combined Segregation Practices

      

    111    . = Missing data

     41    1 = Absent      

     34    2 = Present     

      


 568.  Compensation Demands

      

    119    . = Missing data

     34    2 = Present     

     33    1 = Absent      

      

 569.  Fraternal Interest Group Size

      

    103    . = Missing Data

     53    1 = Absent      

     30    2 = Present     

 

 570.  Fraternal Interest Group Strength

    105    . = Missing data

     33    1 = Both brideprice and patrilineality are absent, and

               size of effective kin-based political subunit is less than 100

     14    2 = Either brideprice or patrilineality; size of political

               subunit between 100 and 999 

     15    3 = a. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and

               brideprice and patrilineality are absent; or

               b. Size of political subunit is less than 100 and both

               brideprice and patrilineality are present; or

               c. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999

               and either brideprice or patrilineality is present          

      8    4 = a. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999,

               and both brideprice and patrilineality are present; or

               b. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and

               either brideprice or patrilineality is present              

     11    5 = Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greateb, and both

               brideprice and patrilineality are present   

      

 571.  Resource Base

     96    . = Missing data

     18    1 = Low         

     34    2 = Unstable    

     38    3 = High        

      

 572.  Residence Pattern

     96    . = Missing data

     56    1 = Not favoring formation of fraternal interest groups including:

               a. Matrilocal or Uxorilocal Residence

               b. Ambilocal Residence

               c. Neolocal Residence       

     34    2 = Favoring formation of fraternal interest groups: including

               a. Avunculocal Residence

               b. Patrilocal or Virilocal Residence

               c. Optionally Patrilocal or Avunculocal Residence            

      

 573.  Ritual Warfare

    106    . = Missing data

     50    1 = Absent      

     30    2 = Present     

 


 574.  Achieved Leadership Through Wealth Distribution

    107    . = Missing data

     60    1 = Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to

               the giver are not one of the most important factors

               in attaining and maintaining the highest degree of

               political power in the society              

     19    2 = Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to

               the giver are one of the most important factors in

               attaining and maintaining the highest degree of

               political power in the society              

      

 575.  Unstable Political Power Index

    112    . = One, two, or three of the three variables have a score of 9 

     42    1 = All three variables--ritual warfare, achieved

               leadership, and social indebtedness--have a score of 0.     

     11    2 = Only one of the three variables has a score of 1;

               the other two score 0       

     16    3 = Two of the variables have a score of 1; the other has

               a score of 0

      5    4 = All three variables have a score of 1

 

    <stds23.cod>


THE RELATIVE STATUS OF WOMEN

      

Whyte, Martin K.  1978.  ETHNOLOGY 17:211-237.

 

Datafile: STDS22.DAT Vars. 576-615 status of women

Datafile: STDS23.DAT Vars. 616-636 status of women

 

Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study.

Some of the even numbered societies, however, have been coded by undergraduates at U.C. Irvine.  Many of these even-numbered societal codes are less reliable than the original codes, and it is advised that a sample of odd-numbered cases be selected for hypothesis testing.

 

 576.  Sex of Gods and Spirits and Other Super-Natural Beings

    119    . = Missing data

     10    1 = All male    

     24    2 = Male are more numerous or more powerful     

     13    3 = Male are more numerous while power equal or

               male are more powerful while numbers equal  

     20    4 = Both and equal in numbers of power or women more numerous

               while power equal, or women more powerful while numbers equal

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

      

 577.  Mythical Founders of the Culture

    121    . = Missing Data

     21    1 = All male    

     18    2 = Both sexes, but the role of men more important   

     19    3 = Both sexes, and the role of both sexes fairly equal         

      7    4 = Both sexes, but female role more important, or solely female

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

      

 578.  Sex of Shamans

    113    . = Missing Data

     14    1 = All male    

     26    2 = Male more numerous, or more powerful        

     26    3 = Male more numerous while power equal, or male more powerful

               while numbers equal, or about equal in both 

      7    4 = Female more powerful or more numerous or solely female shamans

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

      

 579.  Sex of Reputed Witches

    118    . = Missing Data

     16    1 = All male    

     21    2 = Male predominance in numbers or power       

     23    3 = Both, and equal in numbers or power         

      8    4 = Female predominance in numbers of power or only female witches

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

      

 580.  Participation in Collective Religious Ceremonies and Rituals

    113    . = Missing Data

      4    1 = Only males  

     36    2 = Both, but males more commonly or more prominently

     28    3 = Both, and fairly equal participation        

      5    4 = Both, but women more prominent   

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

 

 581.  Funeral or Burial Ceremonies Held

    102    . = Missing Data

     11    1 = Only for males, or for both, but male more elaborate        

     73    2 = For both, and roughly equal 

           : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement

      

 582.  Intermediate or Local Political Leaders

    112    . = Missing Data

     65    1 = Only males  

      7