Santa Maria Belen
Azitzimititlan (map courtesy of Hugo G. Nutini), the focus of our
study, is a small town in Tlaxcala, municipio of Apetatitlan de Antonio
Carvajal (#2 on the map of municipios),
about 8 km north of Chiautempan. Tlaxcala is the smallest
state in Mexico, but has a hefty presence on the web.
Sources for SECTUR
images cited below.
These images ©Copyright SECTUR 1995 Source: Secretario
del Turismo de Mexico
For a geographic overview of Tlaxcala we may
consult a relief map centering
on Mount Malinche, where Belen is on the highway just above Contla. Source:
Mexico Desconocido, Virtual,
Editorial Jilguero S.A. de C.V. (their narrative
on the desert region in the eastern part of Tlaxcala ends in the map image).
of the State of Tlaxcala and its major cities, and a
road map of Tlaxcala are ©Copyrighted by Tour
by Mexico® (source
of their map). Today the industrial
sector, including auto
factories, is the most important in the state economy,
and this is where most Belenos (and Tlaxcalans) get their wages.
The Day of the Dead in the Capital of Tlaxcala
has been marked for more than 30 years by annual competitions to make ofrendas.
Governmental and Historical
In June 1997, Tlaxcala voted
44% for PRI, 24% for PRD, and 19% for PAN. Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo
of the PRI gave a speech
in the cabecera of Belen's municipio on September 17, 1997.
Due to its alliance with the Spanish in
the conquest of central Mexico, Tlaxcala
is called the "cradle of mestizaje" on its government
home page. The colonial Codex Lienzo
de Tlaxcala was written to remind Spaniards that the conquest would
not have been possible without Tlaxcalan help. The haciendas in the region
did not displace but are in symbiosis with Indian-Mestizo communities descended
from the original Tlaxcalans.
Maps of Tlaxcala
Many of the following maps are scanned from
published work and hence are available by access with a classroom-use
A map of Tlaxcala in the Religious Colonial
period when the first
census was taken by the Franciscan
Friars administering to the population.
A map of the Haciendas
in 1712. Image ©Copyright Isabet Gonzalez Sanchez, Haciendas
y ranchos de Tlaxcala en 1712. 1969. INAH, Mexico, D.F.
The following images ©Copyright
Leonardo Ballesteros, Nueva Geografia Elemental del Estado del Tlaxcala.
1968. Mexico, D.F.:
Belen is one of the communities where both
maize and wheat are grown, but no pulque.
These images ©Copyright Instituto
Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Tlaxcala Cuaderno de Informacion
para la Planeacion. 1990. Aguascalientes, Ags.:
Density in 1980
per Capita in 1980
Belen is one of the communities of medium
population density, living standards, employment and income per capita