Social Networks Theory and Analysis Graduate Seminar SS 241B 69610 Fall 1998 "Network Theories of Social Structure" Professor Douglas R. White
Proseminar in Social Networks;
Introduction to Network Theory and Methods for
1. Social Networks Program core seminar
2. Anthropology and Sociology students
4. Social History
5. Other Social Sciences
6. Social Ecology
Wasserman & Faust (1994) Social Network Analysis. Cambridge. Further Recommended Readings:
This seminar provides an overview of social network analysis, theories and methods, and their applicability to social science disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, social history and social demography. This year focuses on a "hands-on" approach using standard network analysis software to analyze data from one's own project(s), exercises of the W&F textbook and exercises related through the additional readings to each subject presented, as discussed by the participants.
Students should have or gain access to UCINET, KRACKPLOT and PGRAPH (IBM compatible PC programs) through the internet or our SST computer labs, and be able to edit their datasets as ASCII text (standard word processor option). We will try the Boyd method of dividing up sections of the readings for presentations by a series of students. John will cover Chapters 8, 11, 12, 13, 17; here I we will cover 3, some topics in 4 (Graph Theory), 5, 6, 7, and (new from last year) 9 and 10 (Structural Equivalence and Blockmodeling).
ANTICIPATED CLASS SCHEDULE
SESSION ONE: Introduction to Structural AnalysisDiscussions: Narda Alcantara Four-Subfields Doug White Network Theory home page Contents: Revision of the structuralist/functionalist discussion; the structuralism of Levi-Strauss; structure in social networks; from social groups to social networks and back again; networks, groups, roles, rules, norms and sanctions, institutions, activities. Overview of -- statistics for large networks -- statistics for small subnetworks (dyads, triads)
----- break -----Discussion about the organization of sessions Four to Ten. Teams of two students will prepare one chapter (or section of a chapter, depending on the length and/or difficulty of the subject) to be presented and discussed at the seminar. Presentations should include examples and solution to exercises from the book or from other sources. The class is expected to attend each one of the sessions, to do the same readings as the lecturers in order to make comments and raise questions about the subject in turn, and to do the exercise for each session as homework from one week to the next. Overview of UCINET data entry and analyses. How to code a network, how to edit, sort and manipulate files in and out of UCINET. Exercise: Prepare a network dataset in a form for UCINET analysis. Assignment (readings for following week): Wasserman & Faust, Chapters 1 and 2 Berkowitz & Wellman (1988), Introduction Scott (1992), Chapters 1-3
SESSION TWO: An Overview of Social Network AnalysisLecturer: Doug White Contents: Discussion about the readings: Is network analysis a compound of techniques (Scott); is it an array of methods grounded on its own theoretical stance? (W&F). Is it a comprehensive or a specialized approach? Is network theory formal, substantive or both? What is the debate over grounded theory?
----- break -----History of social network analysis; theoretical motivations; types of networks (whole networks, ego-centered, kinship networks); the tie- strength issue; network data collection. Introduction to defining variables in different notational formats. Exercises (for following week): 1) Specify a series of raw variables (individual and group level characteristics, relational characteristics, context variables) and a set of finished variables (network properties at the level of individual, group, and network characteristics) that you will use in the analysis of your data using your own computations or UCINET or other program packages; 2) translations from one notation to another, with examples taken from the readings and from your own dataset. Assignment: W&F, Chapter 3 Freeman, White & Romney (1989), Chapter 1
SESSION THREE: Network Analysis: An Introduction to Formal Definitions and Notation.Lecturers: Contents: Graph theoretic, sociometric and algebraic notations. Their uses in network analysis. 3.1 Graph Theoretic - Maitn 3.2 Sociometric - Silvia 3.3 Algebraic - Bob Ch1 F-W-R - Ryuhei
----- break -----Introduction to Centrality Concepts -- Bob Exercises: Compute pairwise dependencies; betweenness, closeness and degree centralities and centralization 1) with data provided by the lecturers, who should explain the method they used to obtain the data and the techniques they applied to do the analysis, and 2) on your dataset and examples taken from the readings. Assignment: W&F, Chapter 5 (Chapter 4 on Graph Theory goes to John's course) Freeman, The Gatekeeper Freeman et al., Centrality II
SESSION FOUR: Centrality Concepts and MeasuresLecturers: 5.1 Prominance - Maitn & Silvia 5.2 Degree Closeness Betweenness,Pairwise Dependency and Power Centrality - Bob 5.3 Centralities for Directed Graphs - Silvia Contents: Definitions of actor centrality and graph centralization; degree (actor) centrality and (graph) centralization; betweenness (actor) centrality and (graph) centralization; closeness (actor) centrality and (graph) centralization. How the latter two are derived from pairwise dependencies (see "Gatekeeper"). Examples of each one.
----- break -----General discussion and comments. Exercise: on balance and transitivity with data provided by the lecturers. General discussion and comments. Assignment: W&F, Chapter 6 Cartwright & Harary (1979) (Davis article on balance, clusterability and transitivity)
SESSION FIVE: Balance, Clusterability and TransitivityLecturers: 4.2.5-.8,4.3.3-.6-7 Ryuhei 7.1-7.5 Maitn Critique - Doug review of Lindenberg - Robert 7.6-end Ti-Lien Contents: Heider's idea of balance; formal definitions: balance in signed graphs; clusterability and transitivity in digraphs. Examples.
----- break -----Exercise: _______________________ Assignment: W&F - Topics in Chapter 4 (Graph Theory) and Chapter 7. Siegwart Lindenberg 1997. Grounding Groups in Theory: Functional, Cognitive, and Structural Interdependencies. Advances in Group Process 14:281-331. Lindenberg 1998. Solidarity: Its Microfoundations and Macro Dependence. A Framing Approach. In, Patrick Doreian and Thomas Fararo. The Problem of Solidarity: Theories and Models. Harary and White 1998, White and Harary 1998, White, Schnegg and Brudner 1998; see
SESSION SIX: The Group Dynamics Traditions: Rethinking Cohesive Subgroups, and the Behavioral Study of Group Solidarity Sampson Monastery examplesLecturers: 1/2/3/4/5 DRW and 4 students for 5 presentations Contents: 1 The notion of social cohesion; theoretical motivations of identifying social subgroups; network formalizations of subgroups; 2 cohesion and the behavioral study of group solidarity; 3 concepts of node connectivity as the formal basis for cohesion; 4 LS-Sets and edge connectivity; 5 the limitations of generalized clique concepts such as n-cliques, n-clans, n-clubs, k-plexes, k-cores, lambda sets, clique intersections.
----- break -----Graph theoretic and other approaches to represent cohesive subgroups (MDS, matrix permutation, factor analysis), including examples with data provided by the lecturers. General discussion and comments. Exercise: Assignment: W&F Ch. 9 [[[[Boyd will take: W&F, Chapter 8 (pp.291-312)]]] Freeman & White (1993) on Galois lattices
SESSION SEVEN: Structural EquivalenceLecturers: Lorrain and White, White/Boorman/Breiger - Bob and Narda 9.1-9.2 - Silvia 9.3 - Ti-Lien 9.4-9.5 - Ryuhei 9.5 - Bob Contents:
----- break -----Exercises: Assignment: W&F, Chapter 10
SESSION EIGHT: BlockmodelingLecturers: 10.1-10.2 - Ti-Lien 10.3 - 10.4 - Silvia Contents:
----- break -----General discussion and comments. Exercises: 1) Create a kinship dataset from raw data, analyze with p- graph; 2) learning to read P-Graphs; finding patterns of re-linking and other properties on data provided by the lecturers (and/or the professor); 3) Apply principles of balance theory and clusterability to the kinship network. Assignment: Chapters 1-3 in Schweizer and White (1997) White (1997) article in M.I.S.H. Literature about the P-Graph Harary & White (1998a,b)
SESSION NINE: Large Scale Societal NetworksLecturers: Contents: Kinship systems and their importance as indicators of social structure; definitions of re-linking and structural endogamy, and other relevant properties of P-Graphs. Other "matching" structures for incorporation into p-graphs: people/jobs, people/corporations, padres/compadres, etc. Examples (Pul Eliya, the Tory Islanders, the Austrian Village, the Tlaxcalan compadrazgo study). Click for larger Image (39K)
----- break -----Exercise and Readings: None (by this time of the quarter everyone will be overwhelmed by TAships and papers for other courses).
SESSION TEN : free for subjects lagging behind, for general discussion and/or issues raised by the participants (or for the Lion to roar).Party: Happy New Year.