R Codebooks for R datasets: SCCS, EthnoAtlas, Louis R. Binford forager data, Western North American Datasets

In using online computation at http://socscigate.oit.uci.edu/uci/root do not choose a dependent variable with less than ca. 65 coded societies. Use DEF2 LOCAL.
These are too few for DEf statistical analysis and the online program will give no result even while wasting minutes of your time. Use DEF2 LOCAL in any case.
The R code and instructions for use in an R GUI can be found at http://capone.mtsu.edu/eaeff/Dow-Eff%20functions.html. SCCCodesJune8.13.htm

    Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Codebook

(Edited from the original editions, e.g., SCCCodes.doc Jan-09-2009, and earlier): ** for corrections (changed 8/15/12 and 7/14/13)
Current edition 2013 - original system by White retained to variable 2019, Eff's automatic R codebook begins at v2020 List of SCCS societies ALL here and below AWC: E24 Semang I09 Kimam S08 Djuka=Saramacca Simpler List of SCCS societies List of SCCS societies, eHraf/Hraf files, close facsimile of the 60 society 1976 Hraf Probability Sample and Some Levinson 1994 Summaries. The N=60 consists of 58 SCCS societies, 40 picked by HRAF, 18 most-similar SCCS substitutes, and 2 randomly chosen well-described Ethnographic Atlas societies, with missing data imputation for all variables. List of SCCS societies and Levinson 1994 summaries Examples of SCCS society features from Levinson Subject Index Cumulatively edited by Douglas R. White, E. Anthon Eff, William Divale, J. Patrick Gray, Andrey Korotayev, Daria Khalturina, and Michael L. Burton

IMPORTANT: When doing a search in Mozilla Firefox (but not IExplorer), the search word is case sensitive, so Safari or IE are preferred: e.g., searching for infanticide, also finds Infanticide (capitalized: first letter only). Variables marked.GONE indicate row numbers in an earlier version that are no longer separate variables. Datasets: STDS01.DAT-STDS98.DAT topical index of variables 1-2013 of 2300+ in the present codebook (below) download SCCS database sccsfac.Rdata for World Cultures THIS IS A NEW VERSION WITH "FACTORS", i.e., category labels for crosstabs. Or copy link http://dl.dropbox.com/u/9256203/sccsfac.Rdata to your browser to download. Eff codebook for R version of SCCS THIS CODEBOOK has annotations for 20 variables in the range 1714-1778 that show how the R coding was changed. Computer-made SCCS....sav codebook 180 variable Cultural Diversity Database a subset of the most important codes, with separate variables for the data in the Spss and R datafiles. index of 180 variables <-- Useful first pass for students: some key variables up to 1987. index of 180 variables sorted by study and variable number <-- Useful 2nd pass for students: where your variables are in the 2000+ variable codebook Google all published studies contributing or using SCCS coded data index of studies contributing SCCS coded variables SCCCodes.lab variable labels only Rdata code freqs v1-450 no missing data Rdata code freqs v451-900 no missing dats

Please notify Douglas.White @uci.edu of further variables that need the notation "(codes not ordered)" or "(VAR LABEL REVERSED)" - 60+ variables. All 280+ variables marked "(codes not ordered)" would need recoding before computing correlates or factors American Anthropologist clarification of the principle no claim of copyright of published data by publishers. Complete reference to the original article has always been provided for SCCS codes From: Emilia M. Guevara My sincere apologies for the continued confusion on the part of our permissions assistant and for my delay in responding. I was recently made aware of your question concerning your request to use coded data from The Evolutionary Forms of the Religious Life: A Cross-Cultural, Quantitative Analysis by Stephen K. Sanderson and Wesley W. Roberts. You are correct that the use of the two coded pages of underlying data belong to the authors and not AAA. AAA makes no claim to this data. Please disregard the previous communications from AAA permissions department. However, as a courtesy we would ask that you include a complete reference to the original article. Feel free to contact me if you have further questions. Regards, Emilia Anthropology News Digital Editorial Assistant American Anthropological Association Tel: 571-483-1185 Fax: 703-528-3546 AN online | www.anthropology-news.org AN on Twitter | @news4anthros New AAA address: 2300 Clarendon Blvd, Suite 1301 Arlington, VA 22201 RECENT CODES CONTRIBUTED SOURCE: Elizabeth Cashdan and Matt Steele. 2013. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Human Nature 24(1):59-75. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (abstract) Appendix pp25-30: The sum score is the total of the individual pathogen scores. The z-score includes additional data (a finer breakdown of schistosomes and leishmanias, plus two of Low's pathogen scores). Human Nature 24(1):59-75. r = 0.96 corr.test(x = dx$v2178, y = dx$v2177) #Correlation matrix v2177. The sum score is the total of the individual pathogen scores. 8-27 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 24 4 7 4 11 12 9 13 6 10 15 10 8 15 10 7 12 6 2 1 v2178. Historical scores were used in order to get pathogen data that matched the SCCS time focus as closely as possible. The z-score includes additional data (a finer breakdown of schistosomes and leishmanias, plus two of Low's pathogen scores). Z-scores (rounded: original three decimal places). -1 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 23 3 6 4 5 9 13 6 10 9 8 12 9 8 10 15 6 6 9 7 4 2 1 1 STDS93.DAT Var. 2013. 2013. Stages of Religious evolution 8 -1 = Too missionized 10 . = Missing data (cases 29 & 30 are 0) 30 1 = Shamanistic 89 2 = Communal 12 3 = Polytheistic 37 4 = Monotheistic SOURCE: Rosenblatt, Paul C. Marital Residence and the Functions of RomanticLove." Ethnology 6, no. 4 (October 1, 1967): 471-480. doi:10.2307/3772832. v2106. Romantic Love Ratings (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=51; Number of unique values=18 Stat Value nobs 51 mean 10.216 min 1 max 20 sd 5.693 table(dx$v2106) 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 5 2 3 7 2 1 2 3 4 5 3 2 1 2 4 3 1 v2107. Premarital Sex (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 19 0 Disapproved/prohibited 23 1 Allowed/tolerated 144 NA NA v2108. Extramarital Sex (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=38; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 9 1 Allowed for both 11 2 Allowed for husband only 18 3 Prohibited for both 148 NA NA NOTE: There are still some R Spss 1 1 . = Missing Data entries to edit (200-217 already changed but Pat Gray to check) from Ethnoatlas codes 200-291 were changed in the World Cultures revision by J. Patrick Gray, 1998 PDF Ethnographic Atlas Codebook]. World Cultures] 10(1):86-136. eclectic.ss.uci.edu Changes in this part of the codebook need to be checked and aligned with ATLAS CODES and frequencies recomputed. They. were partly corrected starting with v.208 on May 8, 2009). *Note: ADD LABEL 8 to your Spss file v210. Correction: 50 Basques and 75 Khmer summed to 110% of subsistance vars 203-207, Comparative Ethnographic Data, coded for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Ethnology 8: 329-369. George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White. 1969. The first study in this series was published by Murdock and Morrow (1970) and has twenty-two variables. Preceding the bibliographic entry is the name of the machine-readable codebook file for this study, e.g., notes on these codes
, originally published in World Cultures. Following the entry is the name of the file that contains the coded data, the number of variables in the study, and an abbreviated heading for the contents of the study. There follows the codebook for that study. As new codes are published, each variable coded in the study is numbered sequentially and cumulatively. An abbreviated variable name follows each variable number. Under each variable are two columns of numbers corresponding to a frequency and a number for the coding category described after the equals sign. For example, the line reading "7 1 = No Trade" under variable 1 indicates that seven of the 186 societies in the standard sample are coded as having no interintercommunity trade as source of food. Just above that we see that three societies of the 186 could not be coded by the coders for this study, who in this case are Murdock and Morrow. The frequency column under each variable number should always sum to 186 (including missing data). Some series of variables, such as those listed below, have an alternate means of listing the frequencies of cases coded for each variables. 99-148 203-209 219-230 248-273 278-281 294-560 Subsets of variables in these series are ones that share identical coding categories. Hence the names of the variables are listed first, and the categories for each of these variables are defined only once, with the frequencies of societies for each category listed in columns following the variable. Consult variables 93-98 or 108-115 for examples. In each case the frequencies in each column (under the heading for a particular variable number) should, as always for this sample, sum to 186. notes on these codes
SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY AND SUPPORTIVE PRACTICES George P. Murdock and Diana O. Morrow. 1970. ETHNOLOGY 9:302-330. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 1. Datafile: STDS01.DAT Vars. 1- 22 subsistence 1. INTERCOMMUNITY TRADE AS FOOD SOURCE ..Comment: here are the frequencies, code, and label headings for this variable # of Code Descriptive Cases # = Label --- - ----- 3 . = (dot) Missing Data 7 1 = No Trade 51 2 = Food Imports absent although trade present Food Imports present, and contribute: 4 3 = Salt or Minerals only 81 4 = < 10% of food (90% form local extractive sources) 38 5 = < 50% of food, and less than any single local source - 6 = < 50% of food, and more than any single local source 2 7 = > 50% of food 2. FOOD IMPORT ACQUISITION 62 . = Missing Data 49 1 = Direct individual exchanges 10 2 = Indirect individual exchanges 28 3 = Local markets 34 4 = Middlemen 3 5 = Three or four of above 3. AGRICULTURE- CONTRIBUTION TO LOCAL FOOD SUPPLY 35 1 = None 3 2 = Non-food Crops 17 3 = < 10% 12 4 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade 42 5 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade 77 6 = Primarily agricultural 4. CROPS- PRINCIPAL 36 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Non-food - 2 = Vegetables 14 3 = Tree or Vine 38 4 = Roots 96 5 = Cereals 5. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY 8 1 = None 41 2 = Present, not food source 67 3 = < 10% food supply 33 4 = < 50% - chiefly meat 21 5 = < 50% - chiefly dairy - 6 = < 50% - chiefly honey 16 7 = > 50% 6. ANIMALS- DOMESTICATED 8 . = Missing Data 54 1 = Small Species, e.g. Bees, Cats, Dogs, Fowl 34 2 = Pigs 23 3 = Ovides 14 4 = Equines 3 5 = Reindeer 4 6 = Camels 46 7 = Bovines 7. FISHING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY 2 . = Missing Data 27 1 = None 79 2 = < 10% food supply 55 3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade 10 4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade 13 5 = > 50% 8. FISH 29 . = Missing Data 6 1 = Shellfish 122 2 = True fish 1 3 = Large aquatic animals 28 4 = Two or more of above 9. HUNTING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY 4 . = Missing Data 18 1 = None 3 2 = Not food source 85 2 = < 10% food supply 61 3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade 8 4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade 7 5 = > 50% 10. ANIMALS HUNTED 23 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Birds or Waterfowl 35 2 = Small Mammals 65 3 = Large Game 45 4 = Two or more of above 11. GATHERING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY 4 . = Missing Data 16 1 = None 116 2 = < 10% food supply 40 3 = < 50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade 7 4 = < 50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade 3 5 = > 50% 12. GATHERED FOODS 21 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Wild Animal products 15 2 = Wild Herbs, Leaves, Blossoms 7 3 = Tree Pith, e.g., Sago 11 4 = Wild Roots or Tubers 54 5 = Wild Fruit, seeds, nuts, berries 60 6 = Two or more of the above 13. LAND TRANSPORT (especially regarding food transport) 1 . = Missing Data 108 1 = Human Carriers, incl. tumpline 41 2 = Pack Animals 13 3 = Draft Animals (sleds, travois) 12 4 = Animal Drawn Wheeled vehicles 11 5 = Motorized vehicles 14. ROUTES OF LAND TRANSPORT 5 . = Missing Data 124 1 = Unimproved Trails 26 2 = Improved Trails, for porters or animal carriers 22 3 = Unpaved Roads, for wheeled vehicles 9 4 = Paved Roads 15. WATER TRANSPORT 5 . = Missing Data 20 1 = None, but feasible note: 1 & 2 should be reversed 56 2 = Not feasible 10 3 = Floats or rafts 73 4 = Human powered craft 20 5 = Sail powered craft 2 6 = Motorized craft 16. WATER CRAFT 91 0 = None 50 1 = Small, for <10 people or load equivalent 31 2 = Medium, for >10 people or load equivalent 14 3 = Large, for >40 people or load equivalent 17. MONEY (MEDIA OF EXCHANGE) AND CREDIT 3 . = Missing Data 77 1 = No media of exchange or money 12 2 = Domestically usable articles as media of exchange 26 3 = Tokens of conventional value as media of exchange 42 4 = Foreign coinage or paper currency 26 5 = Indigenous coinage or paper currency 18. CREDIT SOURCE 17 . = Missing Data 113 1 = Personal loans between friends or relatives 26 2 = Internal money lending specialists 23 3 = External money lending specialists 7 5 = Banks or comparable institutions 19. PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF FOOD 31A 1 = Year-round food supply, none 29B 2 = Year-round food supply, simple 14C 3 = Year-round food supply, complex 8E 4 = Daily variation, none 2F 5 = Daily variation, simple -G 6 = Daily variation, complex 24I 7 = Seasonal variation, barely adequate 46J 8 = Seasonal variation, adequate 16K 9 = Seasonal variation, adequate 6L 10 = Annual variation, barely adequate 5M 11 = Annual variation, adequate 3N 12 = Annual variation, adequate 2O 13 = Imported food, barely adequate -P 14 = Imported food, adequate Note: Remove Letters 20. FOOD STORAGE 4 . = Missing Data 36 1 = None 129 2 = Individual households 7 3 = Communal facilities 3 4 = Political agent controlled repositories 7 5 = Economic agent controlled repositories 21. FOOD SURPLUS VIA STORAGE 69 1 = None or barely adequate 84 2 = Simple or adequate 33 3 = Complex or More than adequate 22. FOOD SUPPLY (ECOLOGICAL OR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK) 74 1 = Year-round food supply locally 10 2 = Daily variation in food supply 86 3 = Seasonal variation 14 4 = Annual variation 2 5 = Imported food supply notes on these codes
INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD Barry, Herbert, III, and Leonora M. Paxson. 1971. ETHNOLOGY 10: 466-508. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 2. Datafile: STDS02.DAT Vars. 23- 60 infancy & early childhood Variables 23-32 deal with infancy only, from the first year until the transition to early childhood (see 38-39, 42, 44), usually at 12-18 months.The early and late infancy periods of variables 24-27 refer to the first few months after birth versus the period after crawling begins,usually around 9 months. Variables 33-38 include both infancy and early childhood, the latter usually to the age of 4-5 years. Variables 39-50 deal with the transition to childhood, around 12-18 months.Variables 51-60 provide a comparison of infancy and childhood. 23. SLEEPING PROXIMITY OF PARENTS TO INFANT ..Comment: here are the frequencies, code, and label headings for this variable # of Code Descriptive Cases # = Label --- - ----- 13 . = Missing Data - 1 = Mo and Fa in different room than infant 12 2 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different room - 3 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa unspecified 30 4 = Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different bed 55 5 = Mo, Fa same room as infant, beds not specified 24 6 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa different room 5 7 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa not specified 24 8 = Mo same bed as infant, Fa same room 23 9 = Mo and Fa in same bed as infant 24. BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - EARLY INFANCY 55 . = Missing Data 42 1 = None except in emergency 1 2 = Loose confinement - Tether or playpen 21 3 = Limited space - Bed or hammock 41 4 = Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets 26 5 = Often Bound - Cradle Board 25. BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - LATER INFANCY 63 . = Missing Data 61 1 = None except in emergency 8 2 = Loose confinement - Tether or playpen 14 3 = Limited space - Bed or hammock 23 4 = Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets 17 5 = Often Bound - Cradle Board 26. BODILY CONTACT - EARLY INFANCY 65 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Limited to routine and precautionary care 16 2 = Occasionally 33 3 = Up to 1/2 time 49 4 = > 1/2 time 20 5 = Almost Constantly 27. BODILY CONTACT - LATE INFANCY 69 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Limited to routine and precautionary care 15 2 = Occasionally 41 3 = Up to 1/2 time 43 4 = > 1/2 time 15 5 = Almost Constantly 28. INFANT CARRYING DEVICES 30 . = Missing Data 22 1 = None, skin contact 22 2 = None, clothing or blanket 75 3 = Sling or Pouch 9 4 = Basket 28 5 = Rigid Cradleboard 29. INFANT CARRYING POSITION 30 . = Missing Data 91 1 = Back 54 2 = Side 10 3 = Front 1 4 = Other 30. INFANT EYE CONTACT WITH CARRIER 44 . = Missing Data 26 1 = Away from carrier 116 2 = Toward carrier 31. INFANT CRYING- RESPONSE 83 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Indifferent or punitive 3 2 = Slow or perfunctory, nurturant 19 3 = Speedy but inconsistently nurturant 67 4 = Generally speedy, nurturant 11 5 = Always speedy, nurturant 32. INFANT CRYING- AMOUNT 139 . = Missing Data 16 1 = Very Infrequent and brief 10 2 = Infrequent and short 9 3 = Infrequent and prolonged 11 4 = Frequent and short 1 5 = Frequent and prolonged 33. CHILDHOOD PAIN INFLICTION 38 . = Missing Data 17 1 = Absent 37 2 = Only neonatally or very mild pain 63 3 = Occasional mild pain 25 4 = Frequent mild pain or infrequent severe pain 6 5 = Frequent pain - 6 = Very painful 34. POST - PARTUM SEX TABOO 52 . = Missing data 2 1 = Intercourse expected soon after birth 7 2 = None 29 3 = 1 month or less 42 4 = 6 months or less 12 5 = 1 year or less 20 6 = 2 years or less 22 7 = > 2 years 35. CEREMONIALISM SURROUNDING CHILD, BEYOND NUCLEAR FAMILY 7 . = Missing Data 20 1 = None 73 2 = Only within first 2 months 56 3 = One occasion at later age 20 4 = Two or more ceremonies 10 5 = Prominent 36. MAGICAL PROTECTIVENESS APPLIED TO PARENTS AND CHILD 8 . = Missing Data 8 1 = None 22 2 = Only neonatal period, e.g., couvade 76 3 = Slight, neonatally and later 66 4 = Moderate, neonatally and later 6 5 = Exaggerated, neonatally and later 37. PHYSICAL PROTECTIVENESS AGAINST CHILDHOOD ILLNESS 20 . = Missing Data 1 1 = No special effort 43 2 = Slight 79 3 = Moderate, e.g., regular baths 4 = Some exceptional techniques, e.g., medicines, ointments, diapers 4 5 = Variety of exceptional techniques 38. INTRODUCTION OF NEW FOODS (OTHER THAN MILK) IN CHILDHOOD 95 . = Missing Data 33 1 = Before 1 month 27 2 = 1-6 months 11 3 = 7-12 months, including solids 6 4 = 7-12 months, only liquids or premasticated 14 5 = After 12 months 39. WEANING- AGE AND SEVERITY 29 . = Missing Data 103 1 = > 2 years and gentle 27 2 = > 2 years and severe 17 3 = > 1 year and gentle 5 4 = > 1 year and severe 3 5 = > 6 months and gentle 1 6 = > 6 months and severe 1 7 = < 6 months and gentle - 8 = < 6 months and severe 40. MOTOR SKILLS- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD 109 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Discourage or punish early development 2 2 = Ignore development 22 3 = No active assistance, but attention given 42 4 = Definite but inconsistent rewards 9 5 = Strong Encouragement and assistance 41. AUTONOMY- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD 81 . = Missing Data 25 1 = > 4 years and gradual 3 2 = > 4 years and abrupt 54 3 = 2-4 years and gradual 23 4 = 2-4 years and abrupt, or < 2 years and gradual - 5 = < 2 years and abrupt * note: recode category 4 ======================= 42. ELIMINATION- ENCOURAGEMENT OF CONTROL IN CHILDHOOD 123 0 = None 7 1 = 3-5 years 27 2 = > 18 months 9 3 = > 1 year 7 4 = > 6 months 13 5 = < 6 month 43. COVERING GENITALS- AGE 50 0 = Even adults uncovered 85 1 = Very late 14 2 = Late 2 3 = > 1 year 1 4 = < 6 months 34 5 = After birth 44. WEANING- AGE OF ONSET 30 . = Missing Data 19 1 = up to 12 months 12 2 = 13 - 20 months 67 3 = 21 - 24 6 4 = 25 - 30 36 5 = 31 - 36 9 6 = 37 - 42 7 7 = 43 - 48 - 8 = 49 - 60 - 9 = 61 - 72 45. WEANING- AGE OF TERMINATION 30 . = Missing Data 7 1 = up to 12 months 5 2 = 13 - 20 38 3 = 21 - 24 8 4 = 25 - 30 64 5 = 31 - 36 16 6 = 37 - 42 14 7 = 43 - 48 4 8 = 49 - 60 - 9 = 61 - 72 months 46. WEANING- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER OF ONSET 27 . = Missing Data 7 1 = 1st in onset (among variables 46-50) 80 2 = 2nd 57 3 = 3rd 15 4 = 4th - 5 = 5th 47. MOTOR SKILLS- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER 10 . = Missing Data 121 1 = 1st 46 2 = 2nd 7 3 = 3rd 2 4 = 4th - 5 = 5th 48. AUTONOMY- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER 80 . = Missing Data - 1 = 1st 18 2 = 2nd 46 3 = 3rd 33 4 = 4th 9 5 = 5th 49. ELIMINATION CONTROL- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER 122 . = Missing Data 17 1 = 1st 31 2 = 2nd 10 3 = 3rd 5 4 = 4th 5 = 5th 50. COVERING GENITALS- CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER 36 . = Missing Data 32 1 = 1st 9 2 = 2nd 34 3 = 3rd 45 4 = 4th 30 5 = 5th 51. NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY 24 . = Missing Data 5 1 = Almost Exclusively Mother 81 2 = Principally Mother, others minor roles 63 3 = Principally Mother, others important roles 10 4 = Mother < 1/2 care 2 5 = Mother minor but significant 1 6 = Mother minimal except for nursing 52. NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD 50 . = Missing Data - 1 = Almost Exclusively Mother 36 2 = Principally Mother, others important roles 60 3 = Mother < 1/2 care 38 4 = Primarily others 2 5 = Exclusively others 53. ROLE OF FATHER, INFANCY 32 . = Missing Data 8 1 = Distant 27 2 = Rarely close 72 3 = Occasionally close 44 4 = Frequently close 3 5 = Regularly close 54. ROLE OF FATHER, EARLY CHILDHOOD 36 . = Missing Data 4 1 = Distant 18 2 = Rarely Close 46 3 = Occasionally Close 73 4 = Frequently Close 9 5 = Regularly Close 55. PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS 48 . = Missing Data 31 1 = Children, Females 4 2 = Children, unspecified 11 3 = Children, both sexes 60 4 = Adult Family, Females 0 5 = Adult Family, unspecified 0 6 = Adult Family, both sexe 17 7 = Others, Female 1 9 = Others, both sexes 56. PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS 45 . = Missing Data 10 1 = Peer Group, single sex 1 2 = Peer Group, unspecified 43 3 = Peer Group, both sexes 22 4 = Older Children, single sex 8 5 = Older Children, unspecified 22 6 = Older Children, both sexes 14 7 = Adults, single sex 21 9 = Adults, both sexes 57. GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY (taking 51 and 52 into account) 67 . = Missing Data 1 1 = Severe or neglectful 8 2 = Lesser severity 19 3 = Occasional indulgence 80 4 = Greater 11 5 = Highly affectionate 58. GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY- MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES 67 . = Missing Data 36 1 = Low in category 34 2 = Medium in category 49 3 = High in category * Note: Combine 57 and 58 ======================= 59. GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD (taking 51 and 52 into account) 54 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Severe 24 2 = Less Severity 32 3 = Occasional Severity 64 4 = Greater Leniency 10 5 = Consistently Lenient 60. GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD- MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES 54 . = Missing Data 43 1 = Low in Category 44 2 = Medium in Category 45 3 = High in Category * Note: Combine 59 and 60 ======================= notes on these codes
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION George P. Murdock and Suzanne F. Wilson. 1972. ETHNOLOGY 11: 254-295. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 3. Datafile: STDS03.DAT Vars. 61- 80 settlement & community 61. FIXITY OF SETTLEMENT # of Code Descriptive Cases # = Label --- - ----- 28 1 = Migratory 21 2 = Seminomadic- fixed then migratory 6 3 = Rotating among 2+ fixed 14 4 = Semisedentary- fixed core, some migratory 15 5 = Impermanent- periodically moved 102 6 = Permanent 62. COMPACTNESS OF SETTLEMENT 18 2 = Dispersed 20 3 = Spatially separated subsettlements 44 4 = Partially dispersed with central core 104 1 = Compact * Note: Recode Ordinally ====================== 63. COMMUNITY SIZE 1 . = Missing Data 28 1 = < 50 28 2 = 50-99 45 3 = 100-199 32 4 = 200-399 29 5 = 400-999 15 6 = 1,000-4,999 5 7 = 5,000-49,999 3 8 = > 50,000 64. POPULATION DENSITY 2 . = Missing Data 36 1 = < 1 person per 5 sq. mile 22 2 = 1 person per 1-5 sq. mile 25 3 = 1-5 persons per sq. mile 27 4 = 1-25 persons per sq. mile 34 5 = 26-100 persons per sq. mile 20 6 = 101-500 persons per sq. mile 20 7 = over 500 persons per sq. mile 65. TYPES OF DWELLING - . = Missing Data 13 1 = Conical 2 2 = Beehive 11 3 = Dome or hemispherical 5 4 = Wedge-shape roof 6 5 = Semicylindrical 24 6 = Cone-cylinder 49 7 = Rectangular on ground, vegetal material walls 18 8 = Rectangular on piles 17 9 = Rectangular on ground, mineral material walls 12F 10 = Flat roofs 9R 11 = Caves or rock shelters 9T 12 = Tents 8S 13 = Semisubterranean 3X 14 = Miscellaneous * note: eliminate letters 66. LARGE OR IMPRESSIVE STRUCTURES 96 1 = None 24 2 = Residences of influential individuals 31 3 = Secular or public building(s) 27 4 = Religious or ceremonial building(s) 4 5 = Military structure(s) 4 6 = Economic or industrial building(s) 67. HOUSEHOLD FORM 6 1 = Large communal structures 4 2 = Multi-family dwellings 87 3 = Single family dwellings 37 4 = Family homestead 24 5 = Multi-dwelling households, each with married pair 9 6 = Multi-dwelling households, husband rotates among wives 3 7 = Mother-child households, husbands separate 16 8 = Multi-dwelling households, each dwelling occupied by individual married man or woman 68. FORM OF FAMILY (SEE 79, 80) 7 1 = Monogamous, no polygyny 42 2 = Monogamous, < 20% polygyny 26 3 = Polygynous, > 20% 2 4 = Polyandrous 9 5 = Stem family, monogamy 7 6 = Stem family, < 20% polygyny 10 7 = Small extended, monogamy 30 8 = Small extended, < 20% polygyny 19 9 = Small extended, > 20% polygyny 5M 10 = Large extended, monogamy 17N 11 = Large extended, < 20% polygyny 12P 12 = Large extended, > 20% polygyny * note: eliminate letters ======================= 69. MARITAL RESIDENCE 1 . = Missing data 38 1 = Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin 8 2 = Avunculocal - with husband's mother's brother's kin 118 3 = Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin 12 4 = Ambilocal - with either wife's or husband's kin 9 5 = Neolocal - separate from kin 70. DESCENT - MEMBERSHIP IN CORPORATE KINSHIP GROUPS 26 1 = Matrilineal - through female line 10 2 = Double descent - separate groups through male and female lines 75 3 = Patrilineal - through male line 6 4 = Ambilineal - through one parent in each generation 69 5 = Bilateral - not a corporate kin group 71. DESCENT GROUPS, LOCATION OF CORE GENDER GROUP 69 0 = None - Bilateral 22 1 = Localized lineages - in community, more than one per community 6 2 = Clan communities - core group and spouses constitute community 89 3 = Dispersed sibs - core group dispersed in different communities 72. INTERCOMMUNITY MARRIAGE 1 . = Missing data 11 1 = Local endogamy 90-100% 50 2 = Local endogamy 61-89% (agamous) 51 3 = Local endogamy 40-60% (agamous) 38 4 = Local endogamy 11-39% (agamous) 35 5 = Local endogamy 0-10% (exogamy) 73. COMMUNITY INTEGRATION 6 1 = Lacking or low compared to community segments or larger polity 26 2 = By common residence only 16 3 = Common Identity, dialect, subculture 78 4 = Overlapping Kin ties 8 5 = Common social or economic status 20 6 = Common political ties 32 7 = Common religious ties 74. PROMINENT COMMUNITY CEREMONIALS 67 1 = Rites of passage 69 2 = Calendrical 36 3 = Magical or religious 14 4 = Individual sponsored and communally attended (e.g., potlatch) 75. CEREMONIAL ELEMENTS 54 1 = Feasting and/or drinking 10 2 = Exchanges other than food 51 3 = Entertainment 57 4 = Sacrifice other than human 13 5 = Human sacrifice 1 6 = Masochistic behavior 76. COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP 13 1 = No centralized local leadership 4 2 = Higher level only 54 3 = Single local leader 8 4 = Dual/plural headmen 72 5 = Single local leader and council 15 6 = Local councils 10 7 = Single local leader and subordinates 10 8 = Too complex to be coded 77. LOCAL POLITICAL SUCCESSION, PRIMARY 3 . = Missing data 17 1 = No headman or council 10 2 = By appointment 10 3 = Seniority 2 4 = Divination 37 5 = Informal consensus 22 6 = Electoral process 61 7 = Patrilineal 14 8 = Matrilineal 10 9 = Hereditary with personal qualifications 78. LOCAL POLITICAL SUCCESSION, SECONDARY 126 . = Missing Data - 1 = No headman or council - 2 = By appointment 33 3 = Seniority - 4 = Divination 22 5 = Informal consensus 3 6 = Electoral process 2 7 = Patrilineal 79. POLYGAMY 2 1 = Polyandry - primarily monogamous with some plural husbands 31 2 = Monogamy 96 3 = Polygyny < 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry) 67 4 = Polygyny > 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry) 80. FAMILY SIZE 7 1 = Nuclear Monogamous 70 2 = Nuclear Polygynous 16 3 = Stem Family 59 4 = Small extended 34 5 = Large extended notes on these codes
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION Tuden, Arthur, and Catherine Marshall. 1972. ETHNOLOGY 11:436-464. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 4. Datafile: STDS04.DAT Vars. 81- 98 political organization 81. POLITICAL AUTONOMY 2 . = Missing data 16 1 = Dependent totally 41 2 = Semi-autonomous 4 3 = Tribute paid 78 4 = De facto autonomy 16 5 = Equal status in pluralistic society 29 6 = Fully autonomous 82. TREND IN AUTONOMY 2 . = Missing data 54 1 = Declining autonomy 43 2 = Declining territory or population control 49 3 = State of equilibrium 22 4 = State of equilibrium, expanding territory 16 5 = Increasing autonomy 83. LEVELS OF SOVEREIGNTY 2 . = Missing data 98 1 = Stateless society 31 2 = Sovereignty 1st hierarchical level up 14 3 = Sovereignty 2nd hierarchical level up 41 4 = Sovereignty 3rd or higher hierarchical level 84. HIGHER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION 3 . = Missing data 85 1 = Absent 28 2 = Peace group 46 3 = Alliances 7 4 = Confederation 17 5 = International organization 85. EXECUTIVE 3 . = Missing data 98 1 = Absent 7 2 = Council 22 3 = Executive and Council 2 4 = Plural executive 54 5 = Single leader 86. SELECTION OF EXECUTIVE 7 . = Missing data 98 1 = Absent 21 2 = Patrilineal, Fa to So 3 3 = Patrilineal, Fa to FaBr, then to So 5 4 = Matrilineal, MoBr to SiSo 1 5 = Matrilineal, MoBr to MoBr 24 6 = Ruling family 1 7 = Decision by limited power group 12 8 = Elected by council 2 9 = Informal recognition 6(10)E = Formal elections 5 (11) A = Appointee of alien society 1 (12) D = Divination 87. DELIBERATIVE AND CONSULTATIVE BODIES 5 . = Missing data 154 1 = Absent 5 2 = Aristocrats 5 3 = Appointed 9 4 = By ethnic components 8 5 = Elective 88. ADVISORY BODIES 5 . = Missing data 98 1 = Absence of sovereignty 28 2 = Absent 14 3 = Relatives of executive 2 4 = Favorites of executive - 5 = Secret society 13 6 = Subordinate groups 3 7 = Hereditary 23 8 = Subordinate functionaries 89. JUDICIARY 3 . = Missing data 103 1 = Absent 6 2 = Not local 49 3 = Executive 23 4 = Appointed by executive 1 5 = Priesthood 1 6 = Hereditary 90. POLICE 6 . = Missing data 124 1 = Not specialized 4 2 = Incipient specialization 4 3 = Retainers of chiefs 6 4 = Military 42 5 = Specialized 91. ADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY 3 . = Missing data 98 1 = Absent 7 2 = Popular Assemblies 8 3 = Heads of kin groups 38 4 = Heads of decentralized territorial divisions 31 5 = Heads of centralized territorial divisions 1 6 = Part of centralized system 92. SELECTION OF SUBORDINATE OFFICIALS 9 . = Missing data 98 1 = Absent 16 2 = Patrilineal succession 2 3 = Matrilineal succession 12 4 = Ruling lineage 2 5 = Seniority of age 4 6 = Personal qualities 10 7 = Formal election 33 8 = Appointment by executive VARIABLES 93-98: SOURCES OF POLITICAL POWER 93. POLITICAL POWER- MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE 94. SECOND MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE 95. THIRD 96. FOURTH 97. FIFTH 98. SIXTH Number of Cases for Each Variable: 93 94 95 96 97 98 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th . = Missing data 3 114 145 170 181 184 0 = Direct subsistence production 90 1 = Warfare wealth 11 5 6 3 2 = Tribute or taxes 3 4 1 1 1 3 = Slaves 13 12 4 1 2 4 = Contributions of free citizens 20 7 2 5 = Large land-holdings 12 5 1 6 = Political office 14 8 14 6 1 7 = Foreign Commerce 6 19 9 2 1 1 8 = Capitalistic enterprises 11 6 4 1 9 = Priestly services 3 6 2 1 notes on these codes
DIVISION OF LABOR Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost. 1973. ETHNOLOGY 12:203-225. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. Datafile: STDS05.DAT Vars. 99-148 division of labor Description of study
Codebook corrections: 3/16/2007 Variables 99-148 . = Task Present, sex --> -1 = Task Present, sex -1 = No data on task --> . = No data on task FOOD COLLECTION Table 1 99. VEGETAL 100. EGGS, INSECTS, AND/OR SMALL LAND FAUNA 101. SHELLFISH/SMALL AQUATIC FAUNA 102. HONEY 103. FOWLING 104. FISHING 105. TRAPPING 106. LARGE LAND FAUNA 107. LARGE AQUATIC FAUNA Number of Cases for Each Variable: Murdock&P. 1973 Table 1: 44 37 39 16 8 18 20 5 1 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 -- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- . = Missing data 7 53 24 80 29 4 15 6 9 -1 = Task Present, sex ? 34 48 22 20 2 10 1 2 0 = Task absent 10 18 85 38 16 29 20 36 127 1 = Males exclusively 6 27 11 39 131 83 136 139 48 2 = Males predominant 4 3 4 5 5 45 12 5 3 = Equally 18 9 1 2 3 8 1 4 = Females predominant 42 13 12 5 1 5 = Females exclusively 65 15 27 2 2 FOOD PRODUCTION 108. LAND CLEARANCE 109. SOIL PREPARATION 110. PLANTING 111. CROP TENDING 112. HARVESTING 113. SMALL DOMESTIC ANIMALS 114. LARGE DOMESTIC ANIMALS 115. MILKING Number of Cases for Each Variable: 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -1 = Task Present, sex 1 1 3 70 10 10 . = No data on task 2 2 1 4 1 6 2 1 0 = Task absent 44 49 44 48 44 13 76 127 1 = Males exclusively 95 66 27 22 10 19 54 15 2 = Males predominantly 34 27 35 23 37 8 24 2 3 = Equally 6 14 33 24 34 14 14 8 4 = Females predominant 3 17 26 30 34 12 3 2 5 = Females exclusively 1 10 20 32 26 44 3 21 FOOD PREPARATION 116. VEGETAL 117. BUTCHERING 118. PRESERVATION 119. DRINKS 120. DAIRY 121. COOKING Number of Cases for Each Variable: 116 117 118 119 120 121 --- --- --- --- --- --- . = Missing data 8 19 25 16 8 1 -1 = Task Present, sex ? 2 16 64 42 20 1 0 = Task absent 2 8 31 37 130 1 = Males exclusively 3 122 18 15 4 2 = Males predominantly 1 9 2 3 2 3 = Equally 4 4 3 4 2 4 = Females predominant 21 4 3 4 63 5 = Females exclusively 145 4 40 65 24 117 EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 122. MINING/QUARRYING 123. FUEL GATHERING 124. LUMBERING 125. WATER FETCHING Number of Cases for Each Variable: 122 123 124 125 --- --- --- --- -1 = Task Present, sex 6 11 16 25 . = No data on task 39 7 17 1 0 = Task absent 106 1 14 1 = Males exclusively 31 25 135 4 2 = Males predominantly 1 12 4 4 3 = Equally 2 12 8 4 = Females predominant 24 13 5 = Females exclusively 1 94 131 INTERMEDIATE PROCESSING 126. SKINS 127. SPINNING 128. LOOM WEAVING 129. SMELTING Number of Cases for Each Variable: 126 127 128 129 --- --- --- --- -1 = Task Present, sex 44 9 1 . = No data on task 13 30 16 24 0 = Task absent 48 56 81 125 1 = Males exclusively 39 7 24 37 2 = Males predominantly 4 3 3 = Equally 2 4 6 4 = Females predominant 5 5 8 5 = Females exclusively 31 72 50 MANUFACTURING 130. MATMAKING 131. NETMAKING 132. BASKETMAKING 133. ROPE OR CORDAGE 134. LEATHER 135. CLOTHING 136. POTTERY 137. WOOD 138. BONE 139. STONE 140. METAL 141. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Number of Cases for Each Variable: 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- . = No data on task 23 31 16 16 23 23 14 4 46 43 16 0 = Task absent 29 45 22 3 57 36 61 1 14 39 93 8 1 = Males exclusively 30 42 37 62 35 16 14 159 71 67 85 83 2 = Males predominantly 4 2 9 7 3 4 5 3 7 1 3 3 = Equally 9 5 15 18 2 11 6 1 2 6 1 4 = Females predominant 5 1 18 5 5 13 6 1 5 = Females exclusively 55 15 51 19 29 78 74 2 1 -1 = Task Present, sex 31 45 19 56 32 5 6 17 44 31 7 74 MISCELLANEOUS 142. FIRE 143. LAUNDERING 144. BODILY MUTILATION 145. BONESETTING/SURGERY 146. BURDEN CARRYING 147. BOATBUILDING 148. HOUSEBUILDING Number of Cases for Each Variable: 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -1 = Task Present, sex 96 9 45 17 6 5 6 . = No data on task 1 59 22 88 31 11 1 0 = Task absent 3 52 13 37 3 79 1 1 = Males exclusively 40 5 36 34 18 84 105 2 = Males predominantly 6 4 6 12 3 30 3 = Equally 16 4 48 4 46 3 14 4 = Females predominant 4 8 6 34 9 5 = Females exclusively 20 49 12 36 1 20 notes on these codes
CULTURAL COMPLEXITY (aka MODERNIZATION: see On Campus: Cultural Complexity Revisited Trevor Denton
OffCampus: Cultural Complexity Revisited Trevor Denton) Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost. 1971. ETHNOLOGY 12:379-392. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. Datafile: STDS06.DAT Vars. 149-158 cultural complexity 149. SCALE 1- WRITING AND RECORDS 73 1 = None 49 2 = Mnemonic devices 21 3 = Nonwritten records 12 4 = True writing; no records 31 5 = True writing; records 150. SCALE 2- FIXITY OF RESIDENCE 28 1 = Nomadic 21 2 = Seminomadic 20 3 = Semisedentary 15 4 = Sedentary; impermanent 102 5 = Sedentary 151. SCALE 3- AGRICULTURE 38 1 = None 17 2 = 10% food supply 11 3 = 10%; secondary 63 4 = Primary; not intensive 57 5 = Primary; intensive 152. SCALE 4- URBANIZATION 56 1 = fewer than 100 persons 43 2 = 100-199 persons 33 3 = 200-399 persons 30 4 = 400-999 persons 24 5 = 1000 persons 153. SCALE 5- TECHNOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION 39 1 = None 27 2 = Pottery only 31 3 = Loom weaving only 56 4 = Metalwork only 33 5 = Smiths, weavers, potters 154. SCALE 6- LAND TRANSPORT 108 1 = Human only 42 2 = Pack animals 14 3 = Draft animals 11 4 = Animal-drawn vehicles 11 5 = Automotive vehicles 155. SCALE 7- MONEY 77 1 = None 14 2 = Domestically usable articles 43 3 = Alien currency 27 4 = Elementary forms 25 5 = True money 156. SCALE 8- DENSITY OF POPULATION 58 1 = less than 1 person/square mile 25 2 = 1-5 persons/square mile 28 3 = 5.1-25 persons/square mile 35 4 = 26-100 persons/square mile 40 5 = 100 persons/square mile 157. SCALE 9- POLITICAL INTEGRATION 11 1 = None 72 2 = Autonomous local communities 46 3 = 1 level above community 28 4 = 2 levels above community 29 5 = 3 levels above community 158. SCALE 10- SOCIAL STRATIFICATION 65 1 = Egalitarian 52 2 = Hereditary slavery 19 3 = 2 social classes, no castes/slavery 20 4 = 2 social classes, castes/slavery 30 5 = 3 social classes or castes, with or without slavery 158.1. SUM OF CULTURAL COMPLEXITY (v149-v158) v158.1. Sum of Complexity measures Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=40 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 27.823 min 10 max 50 sd 10.312 notes on these codes
SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES Broude,Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene. 1976. ETHNOLOGY 15:409-429. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. Datafile: STDS07.DAT Vars. 159-178 sexual practices & attitudes 159. TALK ABOUT SEX 126 . = Missing data 18 1 = Adults and adults talk explicitly 2 2 = Except with children 13 3 = Except with certain people 9 4 = Only with intimates 18 5 = Never 160. SEX FREQUENCY IN MARRIAGE 120 . = Missing data 11 1 = No abstinence 40 2 = Abstinence at times 6 3 = Moderation 9 4 = Abstinence admired 161. SEX BELIEVED DANGEROUS 152 . = Missing data 14 1 = Absent 4 2 = With specific categories 9 3 = Only unusual practices 1 4 = Only sexual secretions 6 5 = Always 162. FOREPLAY 151 . = Missing data 18 1 = Present 4 2 = Minimal 13 3 = Absent 163. AGE FOR CLOTHING- MALE 147 . = Missing data 6 1 = Never 1 2 = Adulthood 9 3 = Puberty 19 4 = Toddler to puberty 1 5 = Toddler 3 6 = At birth 164. AGE FOR CLOTHING- FEMALE 138 . = Missing data 4 1 = Never 2 2 = Adulthood 7 3 = Puberty 27 4 = Toddler to puberty 5 5 = Toddler 3 6 = At birth 165. PREMARITAL SEX ATTITUDES- FEMALE 56 . = Missing data 30 1 = Expected 28 2 = Tolerated 22 3 = Mildly disapproved 11 4 = Moderately disapproved 4 5 = Disallowed 35 6 = Strongly disapproved 166. FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX- MALE 84 . = Missing data 60 1 = Universal 18 2 = Moderate 11 3 = Occasional 13 4 = Uncommon 167. FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX- FEMALE 77 . = Missing data 51 1 = Universal 19 2 = Moderate 16 3 = Occasional 23 4 = Uncommon 168. INITIATOR OF PREMARITAL SEX 156 . = Missing data 5 1 = Women always - 2 = Women more than men 9 3 = Both equally 5 4 = Men more than women 11 5 = Men always 169. EXTRAMARITAL SEX 77 . = Missing data 13 1 = Single standard- both allowed 48 2 = Double standard- husband only 24 3 = Double standard- both forbidden, women punished more 24 4 = Single standard- both condemned equally 170. FREQUENCY OF EXTRAMARITAL SEX- MALE 135 . = Missing data 6 1 = Universal 29 2 = Moderate 6 3 = Occasional 10 4 = Uncommon 171. FREQUENCY OF EXTRAMARITAL SEX- FEMALE 133 . = Missing data 6 1 = Universal 23 2 = Moderate 9 3 = Occasional 15 4 = Uncommon 172. WIFESHARING 83 . = Missing data 4 1 = For any reason 11 2 = Vis-a-vis specific group men 5 3 = Vis-a-vis specific man 7 4 = Occasionally for sex gratification 3 5 = For husband's economic benefit 11 6 = Aside from sex gratification 62 7 = None 173. RAPE 147 . = Missing data 9 1 = Accepted/ignored 4 2 = Ridiculed 8 3 = Mildly disapproved 18 4 = Strongly disapproved 174. FREQUENCY OF RAPE 155 . = Missing data 8 1 = Absent 10 2 = Rare 13 3 = Common 175. MALE SEXUAL AGGRESSIVENESS 126 . = Missing data 5 1 = Men diffident, shy 7 2 = Men sexually forward but not diffident 26 3 = Men forward verbally 7 4 = Men forward physically 6 5 = Men forward; hostile occasionally 9 6 = Men forward; hostile typically 176. HOMOSEXUALITY 146 . = Missing data 9 1 = Accepted/ignored 4 2 = None 6 3 = Ridiculed, no punishment 4 4 = Mildly disapproved 17 5 = Strongly disapproved 177. FREQUENCY OF HOMOSEXUALITY 117 . = Missing data 40 1 = Absent 29 2 = Present 178. IMPOTENCE 149 . = Missing data 7 1 = No concern 30 2 = Concern notes on these codes
CLIMATE DATA FROM WEATHER STATIONS. Referenced in "Winter temperature as a constraint to the migration of preindustrial peoples" Whiting et al. American Anthropologist 84:279-298 (1982). The weather data is cited as coming from Walter, H., and H. Leith (1964) Klimadiagramm-Weltatlas, Jena: Gustav Fischer. Whiting, John W. M. (New Codes: Not Previously Published) Datafile: STDS08.DAT Vars. 179-199 climate These codes are taken from Climate maps, for weather stations closest to the time and place of each societal focus. 179. LATITUDE OF WEATHER STATION 0 = Min (Equator) 80 = Max (Pole) 180. LATITUDE HEMISPHERE 128 1 = North 52 2 = South 181. LONGITUDE OF WEATHER STATION 0 = Min (Greenwich Meridian passes through London) 180 = Max (mid-Pacific Meridian) 182. LONGITUDE HEMISPHERE 104 3 = East 75 4 = West 183. ALTITUDE IN METERS 0 = Min 3822 = Max 184. YEARS OF OBSERVATION--TEMPERATURE 00 = Min (l900) 70 = Max (l970) 185. YEARS OF OBSERVATION--PRECIPITATION 00 = Min (l900) 73 = Max (l973) 186. MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (xC) -16 = Min 29 = Max 187. HOTTEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (xC) 3 = Min 46 = Max 188. COLDEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (xC) -28 = Min 44 = Max 189. MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (mm) 0 = Min 4819 = Max 190. MEAN DAILY MIN COLDEST MONTH (xC) -61 = Min 24 = Max 191. MEAN DAILY MAX HOTTEST MONTH (xC) -2 = Min 41 = Max 192. HIGHEST PRECIPITATION IN WETTEST MONTH (mm) 0 = Min 670 = Max 193. LOWEST PRECIPITATION IN DRYEST MONTH (mm) 0 = Min 295 = Max 194. WETTEST MONTH 11 1 = Jan - 2 = Feb 2 3 = March 6 4 = Apr 12 5 = May 20 6 = June 39 7 = July 38 8 = Aug 23 9 = Sept 15 10 = Oct 5 11 = Nov 7 12 = Dec 195. DRYEST MONTH 52 1 = Jan 36 2 = Feb 12 3 = March 11 4 = Apr 4 5 = May 10 6 = June 16 7 = July 8 8 = Aug 3 9 = Sept 2 10 = Oct 4 11 = Nov 20 12 = Dec 196. NUMBER OF DRY MONTHS 76 0 = None 8 1 = 13 2 = 10 3 = 19 4 = 13 5 = 15 6 = 10 7 = 8 8 = 1 9 = 3 10 = 1 11 = 9 12 = 197. HOTTEST MONTH 2 1 = Jan 5 2 = Feb 11 3 = Mar 23 4 = Apr 30 5 = May 13 6 = June 66 7 = July 18 8 = Aug 7 9 = Sept 2 10 = Oct 2 11 = Nov 24 12 = Dec 198. COLDEST MONTH 117 1 = Jan 14 2 = Feb 1 3 = Mar 1 4 = Apr - 5 = May 4 6 = June 7 7 = July 8 8 = Aug 1 9 = Sept 2 10 = Oct 1 11 = Nov 22 12 = Dec Note distribution of sample and earth's population is more towards the cold Northerly regions (coldest in January) than the cold Southerly regions (coldest in July). 199. NUMBER OF FROST MONTHS 158 0 = None 1 1 = - 2 = - 3 = - 4 = 1 5 = 1 6 = 7 7 = 3 8 = 6 9 = 2 10 = 5 11 = 2 12 = notes on these codes
ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS. Ethnoatlas codes 200-291 were changed in the World Cultures revision by J. Patrick Gray, 1998 PDF Ethnographic Atlas Codebook]. World Cultures] 10(1):86-136. eclectic.ss.uci.edu Changes in this part of the codebook need to be checked and aligned with ATLAS CODES and frequencies recomputed. They. were partly corrected starting with v.208 on May 8, 2009). These still need extensive work to integrate the new codebook into this document. Murdock, George P. 1962-1971. Installments in ETHNOLOGY. STDS09.DAT 200-231 STDS10.DAT 232-268 STDS11.DAT 269 STDS12.DAT 270-292 200. REGION 28 1 = Africa Exclusive of Madagascar and the Sahara 28 2 = Circum-Mediterranean North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Semitic Near East 34 3 = East Eurasia including Madagascar and Islands in Indian Ocean 31 4 = Insular Pacific including Australia, Indonesia, Formosa, Phillipines 33 5 = North America indigenous societies to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec 32 6 = South America including Antilles, Yucatan, Central America 201. AREA 1 - 10 (Murdock 1962, ETHNOLOGY 1: 124-134) 1 AFRICA 2 CIRCUM 3 E EUR 4 INS PAC 5 N AMER 6 S AMER 1 Afr. Hunters Ethiop-Horn Middle East Phl-Formosa Arctic Amer C.America 2 S.Afr. Bantu Mosl. Sudan Cntrl. Asia W.Indonesia N.W.Coast Caribbean 3 C. Bantu Sahara Arctic Asia E.Indonesia California Guiana 4 N.E.Bantu N. Africa East Asia New Guinea Gr.Basin-Pl Lower Amaz 5 Equit. Bantu S. Europe Himalayas Australia Plains Inner Amaz 6 Guinea Coast Overseas E. N.-C.India Micronesia Prarie Andes 7 W. Sudan N.W. Europe South India W.Melanesia E.Woodlands Chile-Pata 8 Nigerian Pt. E. Europe Indian Ocn. E.Melanesia Southwest Gran Chago 9 E. Sudan Turk-Caus. Assam-Burma W.Polynesia N.W.Mexico Mato Grosso 0 Upper Nile Sem.Near E. S.E.Asia E.Polynesia C.Mexico E. Brazil 202. EA NUMBER 1 - 51 (Within Area) 203-207: SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY: PERCENTAGE DEPENDENCE 203. DEPENDENCE ON GATHERING (Atlas 1) 204. DEPENDENCE ON HUNTING (Atlas 3) 205. DEPENDENCE ON FISHING (Atlas 3) 206. DEPENDENCE ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (Atlas 4) *Correct Spss case 50: Basque: Husbandry should be 3 not 4 *Coding on 75: Khmer inconsistently coded 10235 sums to 110% 207. DEPENDENCE ON AGRICULTURE (Atlas 5) R Spss Number of Cases for Each Variable: Khmer (Rdata case 75 cols. 203&204 1 to 0 July 10 2012 DRW) Col 215-219 also changed 203 204 205 206 207 Gath Hunt Fish Anim Agri 1 0 = 0 - 5% Dependence 87 63 57 77 44 2 1 = 6 - 15% 50 48 55 39 11 3 2 = 16 - 25% 23 33 29 29 4 4 3 = 26 - 35% 9 19 14 19 2 5 4 = 36 - 45% 9 11 12 7 16 6 5 = 46 - 55% 4 5 11 3 36 7 6 = 56 - 65% 3 3 5 2 39 8 7 = 66 - 75% - 2 1 1 17 9 8 = 76 - 85% 1 1 1 4 13 10 9 = 86 - 100% - 1 1 5 4 208. MODE OF MARRIAGE (Atlas 6) 209. MODE OF MARRIAGE (ALTERNATE) (Atlas 7) R Spss 208 209 Mode Altern 1 1 = Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family 71 9 2 7 = Dowry, to bride from her family 24 15 3 4 = Gift Exchange, reciprocal 16 4 4 6 = Absence of Consideration 15 - 5 5 = Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride 9 9 6 3 = Token Bride-price 42 - 7 2 = Bride-Service, to bride's family 9 3 THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM OF CONTRAST FROM BRIDE-PRICE WITH DOWRY THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009 208 209 Mode Altern 1 = Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family 71 9 2 = Dowry, to bride from her family 24 15 3 = Gift Exchange, reciprocal 16 4 4 = Absence of Consideration 15 - 5 = Bride-Service, to bride's family 9 3 6 = Token Bride-price 42 - 7 = Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride 9 9 9 = No Alternative 146 PAT GRAY SAYS THESE CODES SHOULD HAVE THESE FREQUENCIES BUT THE FREQS ARE STILL(?) NOT CORRECT. Bride-Price 71 Bride-Service 24 Token Bride-price 16 Gift-Exchange 15 Sister ... 9 Absence... 42 Dowry 9 210. DOMESTIC ORGANIZATION (Atlas 8) R Spss 1 NA . = Missing Data 14 1 = Independent Nuclear Family, Monogamous 43 2 = Independent Nuclear Family, occasional Polygyny 2 3 = Independent Polyandrous Families changed 8/15/12 3->2 6 4 = Polygynous: Unusual Co-wives Pattern (4, 6 below) 21 22 5 = Polygynous: Usual Co-Wife Pattern (3, 5 below) changed 8/15/12 21 22->22 22 12 6 = Minimal (stem) extended families 44 7 = Small Extended Families 42 8 = Large Extended Families * ADD LABEL 8 to your Spss file v210 211. COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC GROUP (Atlas 9 combined) R Spss 1 NA . = Missing Data 14 1 = Independent Nuclear, Monogamous 43 2 = Independent Nuclear, Occasional Polygyny 4 3 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling 1 4 = Preferentially Sororal, Cowives separate dwellings 18 18 5 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in separate dwellings changed 8/15/12 17 18->18 18 5 6 = Non-Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling 2 7 = Independent Polyandrous Families changed 8/15/12 3->2 98 8 = Extended Family * 8 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9 212. MARITAL COMPOSITION WITHIN EXTENDED FAMILIES (Atlas 9 combined) R Spss 1 NA . = Missing Data changed 8/15/12 0->1 21 1 = Monogamy 39 2 = Occasional or limited polygyny 12 3 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives in same dwelling 1 4 = Preferentially sororal, co-wives separate dwelling 16 5 = Non-sororal, co-wives separate dwelling 9 6 = Non-sororal polygyny, co-wives in same dwelling 87 7 = Polyandry, or no extended family changed 8/15/12 88->87 * 7 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9 213. MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: FIRST YEARS (Atlas 10 combined) R Spss 1 NA . = Missing Data 1 1 1 = Ambilocal: with either kin group 4 2 2 = Nonestablishment of Common Household 32 3 3 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents 3 4 4 = Virilocal: with husband's parents 145 5 5 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215) NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM FROM BILOCAL TO VIRILOCAL EXCLUDING 5 THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009 1 NA . = Missing Data 4 2 0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household 32 3 2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents 1 4 = Bilocal: with either kin group (no cases) 4 4 7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents 145 9 -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215) changed 8/15/12 5 -1 -> 9 -1 214. TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: FIRST YEARS (Atlas 10 combined) R Spss 1 NA . = Missing Data 3 1 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (7 in 213) changed 8/15/12 (7 in 213)->(4 in 213) 1 2 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 in 213) changed 8/15/12 (4 in 213)->(1 in 213) 32 3 3 = Husband to Wife's Group (2 in 213) changed 8/15/12 (2 in 213)->(3 in 213) 4 4 4 = No Common Residence (0 in 213) changed 8/15/12 (0 in 213)->(2 in 213) 145 5 5 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#216) changed 8/15/12 ( in 213)->(5 in 213) * Note: get rid of this variable (redundant) NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS THE CODE ABOVE WAS REVISED TO FORM A CONTINUUM FROM BILOCAL TO VIRILOCAL EXCLUDING 5 THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 30, 2009 1 . = Missing Data 147 -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#216) 3 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (7 above) 1 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 above) 30 3 = Husband to Wife's Group (2 above) 4 9 = No Common Residence (0 above) * Note: get rid of this variable (redundant) 215. MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: AFTER FIRST YEARS (Atlas 12) changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 11)->(Atlas 12) Khmer (Rdata case 75 cols. 215-219 to be changed) July 10 2012 DRW R Spss 1 . = Missing Data 1 7 1 0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household changed 8/15/12 1 1 0-> 1 7 1 0 16 5 2 1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group changed 8/15/12 16 2 1->16 5 2 1 14 9 3 2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents changed 8/15/12 14 3 2->14 9 3 2 1 3 4 3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local changed 8/15/12 1 4 3-> 1 3 4 3 12 2 5 4 = Bilocal: with either kin group changed 8/15/12 15 12 5 4->12 2 5 4 8 1 6 5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother changed 8/15/12 8 6 5-> 8 1 6 5 1 4 7 6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality changed 8/15/12 1 7 6-> 1 4 7 6 41 10 8 7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents changed 8/15/12 41 48 8 7->41 10 8 7 16 8 9 8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group changed 8/15/12 71 69 9 8->16 8 9 8 15 6 10 9 = Neolocal: independent of kin changed 8/15/12 17 15 10 9->15 6 10 9 NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS 216. TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: AFTER FIRST YEARS (Atlas 11) changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 12)->(Atlas 11) 1 0 . = Missing Data changed 8/15/12 121126 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (1,4,8,10 above) changed 8/15/12 (5,6,7,8 above)->(1,4,8,10 above) 121126 1->121126 1 (was ok) 33 28 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (2,3,6 above) changed 8/15/12 (3,4,9 above)->(2,3,6 above) 33 28 2-> (was ok) 30 3 = Husband to Wife's Group (5,9 above) changed 8/15/12 (1,2 above)-> (5,9 above) 1 4 = No Common Residence (9 above) changed 8/15/12 (0 above)-> (7 above) * 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as 9 NEW FREQUENCIES FROM PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS OBSOLETE changed 8/15/12 217. MARITAL RESIDENCE WITH KIN: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 13) changed 8/15/12 (Atlas 12***) ->(Atlas 13) R Spss 1 1 . = Missing Data - 0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household - 1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group 28 29 3 2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents 1 1 4 3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local ? 2 5 4 = Bilocal: with either kin group 9 9 6 5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother - 7 6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality 16 17 8 7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents 2 2 9 8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group 20 22 10 9 = Neolocal: independent of kin 107105 11 10 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215) * 10 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1 * 2 in original code RECODED IN PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS CORRECTIONS THE FOLLOWING CODE IS OBSOLETE and the code above was substituted May 9, 2009 1 . = Missing Data 107 -1 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215) - 0 = Nonestablishment of Common Household - 1 = Matrilocal: with wife's unilineal kin group 28 2 = Uxorilocal: with wife's parents 1 3 = Optional avuncu- or uxori-local 2 4 = Bilocal: with either kin group 9 5 = Avunculocal: with husband's mother's brother - 6 = Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality 16 7 = Virilocal: with husband's parents 2 8 = Patrilocal: with husband's unilineal kin group 20 9 = Neolocal: independent of kin * 10 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1 REPLACEMENT FOR 217. <-------------------------------------- changed 8/15/12 217. TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 13) changed 8/15/12 . 0 = Missing Data changed 8/15/12 19 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (Patrilocal, Virilocal) changed 8/15/12 22 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (bilocal, optional patr-,-viri- or avuncu-,neolocal) changed 8/15/12 39 3 = Husband to Wife's Group (Avunculocal, matrilocal, uxorilocal, optional avuncu- or uxori-) changed 8/15/12 105 4 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#215) changed 8/15/12 * 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1 218. TRANSFER OF RESIDENCE AT MARRIAGE: ALTERNATE FORM (Atlas 14) 1 . = Missing Data 27 1 = Wife to Husband's Group (8,10 in Atlas 14) changed 8/15/12 27-> 19 (5, 6, 7, 8 above)->(8,10 in Atlas 14) 23 2 = Couple to either Group or Neolocal (2,4,6 in Atlas 14) changed 8/15/12 23-> 22 (3, 4, 9 above) ->(2,4,6 in Atlas 14) 28 3 = Husband to Wife's Group (1,3,5,9 in Atlas 14) changed 8/15/12 28-> 39 (1, 2 above) ->(1,3,5,9 in Atlas 14) 107 4 = Same as Prevalent Residence (#214) changed 8/15/12 107->105 (#215) ->(#214) * 4 in Spss: was previously coded here as -1 219. COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION (Atlas 15) 220. COMMUNITY MARRIAGE ORGANIZATION (Alternate) (Atlas 16) 219 220 Cmnty. Altern. . = Missing Data 4 - 1 = Demes (not segmented into clan barrios) 17 - 2 = Segmented communities without local exogamy 40 3 3 = Agamous communities 66 - 4 = Exogamous communities (not clans) 28 - 5 = Segmented communities (containing localized clans) with local exogamy 2 - 6 = Clan communities (or clan barrios) 29 - 9 = No secondary organization - 183 221. LARGEST PATRILINEAL KIN GROUP (Atlas 17) 222. LARGEST PATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT) 223. LARGEST MATRILINEAL KIN GROUP 224. LARGEST MATRILINEAL EXOGAMOUS GROUP (IF DIFFERENT) Patrilineal Matrilineal 221 222 223 224 Largest Exog. . = Missing Data 1 - 1 - 1 = None 104 - 144 - 2 = Exogamous Group - - 3 - 3 = Lineages in a Single Community 18 12 7 2 4 = Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities) 42 5 15 3 5 = Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs) 15 - 5 - 6 = Moieties 6 - 11 - 7 = No Difference 169 181 225. COGNATIC KIN GROUPS 226. SECONDARY COGNATIC KIN GROUP: WHERE BOTH KINDREDS AND RAMAGES 225 226 Cogn. 2nd . = Missing Data 1 - 1 = Bilateral descent 48 - 2 = Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups 27 2 3 = Ambilineal descent: lacking true ramages - - 4 = Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups 7 1 5 = Exogamous ramages 2 - 6 = Quasi-lineages: filiation based, not descent 4 - 9 = Unilineal descent groups 97 n.a. 9 = No Secondary cognatic group n.. 183 227. NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed) 228. NUMBER OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred) * Note change in order from 227 229 228 230 239 227 228 228 Alwd. Pref. GRAY . = Missing Data 13 2 12* 1 = All four cousins 25 - 12* 2 = Three of four cousins 8 - 1* 3 = Two of four cousins (e.g., paternal) 44 19 38* 4 = One of four cousins (e.g., FaBrDa) 6 36 8* 5 = No first cousins 19 4 4* 6 = First and some second cousins excluded 2 2 2* 7 = No first, unknown for second 27 - -* 8 = No first or second cousins 42 - -* 9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions 123 113 *228 HAS MAJOR DISCREPANCIES WITH PATRICK GRAY ETHNOATLAS RECODES (SEEM CORRECT) 229. SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Allowed) 230. SUBTYPES OF COUSIN MARRIAGES (Preferred) 228 229 230 Alwd. Pref. . = Missing Data 13 2 1 = FaSiDa - 5 2 = Paternal (FBD if only one) 1 8 3 = Uncle's Da - - 4 = Other 165 25 5 = Aunt's Da - - 6 = Maternal 1 - 8 = MoBrDa 6 23 9 = No preferential or prescriptive unions 123 231. KIN TERMS FOR COUSINS 14 . = Missing Data 16 1 = Descriptive terms, e.g. 'mothers brothers son' 1 2 = Sudanese: Siblings, cross and parallel cousins distinguished but not by descriptive terms 45 3 = Iroquois: Cross cousins versus parallel are siblings 4 4 = Mixed or deviant 14 5 = Omaha: Generational merging; MoBrCh up; FaSCh down 15 6 = Crow: Generational merging; MoBrCh down; FaSCh up 23 7 = Eskimo: Cousins versus siblings 54 8 = Hawaiian: Siblings plus cousins equated notes on these codes
232. INTENSITY OF CULTIVATION 42 1 = No agriculture 10 2 = Casual agriculture, incidental to other subsistence modes 55 3 = Extensive or shifting agriculture, long fallow, and new fields cleared annually 18 4 = Horticulture, vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees 32 5 = Intensive agriculture, using fertilization, crop rotation, or other techniques to shorten or eliminate fallow period 29 6 = Intensive irrigated agriculture 233. MAJOR CROP TYPE 44 1 = None or none specified - 2 = Non-food crops only, such as cotton or tobacco - 3 = Vegetables 13 4 = Tree fruits 38 5 = Roots or tubers 91 6 = Cereal grains 234. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 26 1 = Nomadic or fully migratory 24 2 = Seminomadic 13 3 = Semisedentary 3 4 = Compact but impermanent settlements 20 5 = Neighborhoods of dispersed family homesteads 17 6 = Separated hamlets, forming a single community 75 7 = Compact and relatively permanent settlements 8 8 = Complex settlements 235. MEAN SIZE OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES 38 . = Missing data 31 1 = Fewer than 50 29 2 = 50-99 24 3 = 100-199 17 4 = 200-399 12 5 = 400-1000 4 6 = 1,000 without any town of more than 5000 10 7 = One or more towns of 5,000-50,000 21 8 = One or more cities of more than 50,000 236. JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY OF LOCAL COMMUNITY 45 3 = Two levels (theoretical minimum, e.g., family and band) 117 4 = Three levels 24 5 = Four levels (e.g., nuclear family, extended family, clan barrios, village levels) * Note: Recode this variable 2-4 237. JURISDICTIONAL HIERARCHY BEYOND LOCAL COMMUNITY 2 . = Missing data 82 1 = No levels (no political authority beyond community) 48 2 = One level (e.g., petty chiefdoms) 23 3 = Two levels (e.g., larger chiefdoms) 19 4 = Three levels (e.g., states) 12 5 = Four levels (e.g., large states) 238. HIGH GODS 18 . = Missing data 68 1 = Absent or not reported 47 2 = Present but not active in human affairs 13 3 = Present and active in human affairs but not supportive of human morality 40 4 = Present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality 239. GAMES The code below can also be expressed in a semi-order or partial Guttman scale, as there are five latent classes or dominant scale types: for P C S, these are - - - + - - + + - + - + + + + 14 . = Missing data 12 1 = None of the three types 64 2 = Physical skill 1 3 = Chance 4 4 = Strategy 47 5 = Skill and chance 22 6 = Skill and strategy - 7 = Chance and strategy 22 8 = All 240. POST-PARTUM SEX TABOOS 79 . = Missing data 5 1 = None 24 2 = No longer than 1 month 33 3 = 1 to 6 months 8 4 = 6 months to 1 year 19 5 = More than one year to two years 18 6 = More than two years 241. MALE GENITAL MUTILATIONS 5 . = Missing data 131 0 = Absent 5 1 = Within first two months after birth 1 2 = Two months to two years 5 3 = Two to five years 16 4 = Six to ten years 17 5 = 11 to 15 years 2 6 = 16 to 25 years - 7 = 25 to 50 years 1 8 = After 50 years 3 9 = Normal age unclear 242. SEGREGATION OF ADOLESCENT BOYS 29 . = Missing data 108 1 = Absence 19 2 = Partial 8 3 = Complete, with relatives outside nuclear family 4 4 = Complete, with non-relatives 18 5 = Complete, with peers 243. ANIMALS AND PLOW CULTIVATION 153 1 = Absent (no plow animals) 2 2 = Not aboriginal but well established at period of observation 31 3 = Prior to contract 244. PREDOMINANT TYPE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 55 1 = Absence or near absence of large domestic animals 30 2 = Pigs the only large domestic animals 15 3 = Sheep and/or goats without larger domestic animals 10 4 = Equine animals (horses, donkeys) 3 5 = Deer (reindeer) 5 6 = Camels, alpacas, or llamas 68 7 = Bovine animals (cattle, mithun, water buffalo, yaks) 245. MILKING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS 129 1 = Little or no milking, or insufficient information 57 2 = Milked more often than sporadically 246. SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY roughly equal to the categores below for 858. Subsistence Type - Ecological Classification (858 categories) 15 1 = Gathering 1 Gathering 19 2 = Fishing 3 Fishing 12 3 = Hunting 2 Hunting, or Marine animals, or 5 Mounted Hunting 16 4 = Pastoral 6 Pastoralism 22 5 = Incipient agriculture no such category in 858 45 6 = Extensive agriculture 7-9 Shifting Cultivation or Horticulture or Tree fruits 57 7 = Intensive agriculture 11-12 Intensive agriculture Note: this is a poor code, not in the original EA; use with care given the categories 247. DESCENT: MAJOR TYPE (From Variables 121-126) 72 1 = Patrilineal 9 2 = Duolateral 27 3 = Matrilineal 5 4 = Quasi-lineages 8 5 = Ambilineal 65 6 = Bilateral 248. SEX DIFFERENCES IN METAL WORKING 249. SEX DIFFERENCES IN WEAVING 250. SEX DIFFERENCES IN LEATHER WORKING 251. SEX DIFFERENCES IN POTTERY MAKING 252. SEX DIFFERENCES IN BOAT BUILDING 253. SEX DIFFERENCES IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION * Note changes in order from 248 250 252 254 256 258 * 248 249 250 251 252 253 * MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU . = Missing data 2 13 48 15 26 35 . 1 = Males alone or almost alone 79 20 32 10 75 91 M 2 = Males appreciably more 1 3 1 2 5 17 N 3 = Differentiation but equal participation - 5 - 4 - 19 D 4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation - - 1 2 - 4 E 5 = Females appreciably more - 1 3 2 - 5 G 6 = Females alone or almost alone - 48 32 72 1 14 F 7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized 1 - - 1 - - I 8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified 1 9 22 20 19 1 P 9 = Activity absent or unimportant 102 87 47 58 60 - O 254. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN METAL WORKING 255. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN WEAVING 256. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN LEATHER WORKING 257. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN POTTERY MAKING 258. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN BOAT BUILDING 259. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION * Note changes in order from 249 251 253 255 257 259 * 249 250 251 252 253 254 * MET WEA LEA POT BOA HOU . = Missing data 2 13 48 15 26 35 0 = Performed by any or most adults 4 69 73 89 88 137 1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty) - - - - - - 2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime) - - - - - - 3 = Craft specialization 76 16 18 23 12 14 4 = Industrialized specialization 2 1 - 1 - - 9 = Activity absent 102 87 47 58 60 - * Note: check which is missing data 260. SEX DIFFERENCES IN GATHERING 261. SEX DIFFERENCES IN HUNTING 262. SEX DIFFERENCES IN FISHING 263. SEX DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 264. SEX DIFFERENCES IN AGRICULTURE * Note changes in order from 260 262 264 266 268 * 260 261 262 263 264 * GAT HUN FIS ANI AGR . = Missing data 23 6 12 21 7 0 1 1 = Males alone or almost alone 4 153 66 37 17 2 = Males appreciably more 5 2 43 23 38 3 = Differentiation but equal participation 3 - 10 18 14 4 = Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation 11 - 8 14 25 5 = Females appreciably more 24 - 5 4 36 6 = Females alone or almost alone 64 - 3 12 6 7 = Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized 8 = Activity present: sex partic. unspecified 4 - 1 2 - 9 = Activity absent or unimportant 48 25 38 55 42 265. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN GATHERING 266. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN HUNTING 267. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN FISHING 268. AGE OR OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . AGRICULTURE (NOT CODED) * Note changes in order from 261 263 265 267 * 265 266 267 268 * GAT HUN FIS ANI . = Missing data 23 6 12 21 0 = Performed by any or most adults 114 147 126 104 1 = Junior age specialization (before puberty) 1 1 - 4 2 = Senior age specialization (beyond prime) 3 = Craft specialization - 7 10 3 4 = Industrialized specialization - - - - 9 = Activity absent or unimportant 48 25 38 55 notes on these codes
269. Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a later issue; no codes here. v269. Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a Later Issue; No Codes Here. Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=0; Number of unique values=0 Freq Value 186 NA notes on these codes
270. CLASS STRATIFICATION 271. CLASS STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY FEATURE * 270 271 R Spss Class Secd. NA . = Missing data - - 2 1 = Absence among freemen 76 - 3 2 = Wealth distinctions 45 3 4 3 = Elite (based on control of land or other resources) 3 4 5 4 = Dual (hereditary aristocracy) 37 4 6 5 = Complex (social classes) 25 2 NA 9 = No second type or absence of stratification 173 272. CASTE STRATIFICATION (ENDOGAMY) 273. CASTE STRATIFICATION, SECONDARY TYPE * 272 273 Caste Secd. . = Missing data 5 - 1 = Absent or insignificant 154 - 2 = Despised occupational group(s) 17 1 3 = Ethnic stratification 3 1 4 = Complex 7 - 9 = No second type or absence of stratification 184 274. TYPE OF SLAVERY 6 . = Missing data 100 1 = Absence or near absence 27 2 = Incipient or nonhereditary 9 3 = Reported but type not identified 44 4 = Hereditary and socially significant 275. FORMER PRESENCE OF SLAVERY 136 1 = Absent or no difference from preceding column 50 2 = Formerly present 276. SUCCESSION TO THE OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN 23 . = Missing data 58 1 = Patrilineal heir 17 2 = Matrilineal heir 5 3 = Nonhereditary (appointed by higher authority) 7 4 = Nonhereditary on basis of seniority or age 9 5 = Nonhereditary through influence (wealth or social status) 24 6 = Nonhereditary through election or other formal consensus 23 7 = Nonhereditary through informal consensus 20 9 = Absence of any such office 277. SUCCESSION TO OFFICE OF LOCAL HEADMAN, BREAKDOWN OF HEREDITARY SUCCESSION 23 . = Missing data 44 1 = Hereditary by a son (patrilineal) 14 2 = Hereditary by other patrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr) 8 3 = Hereditary by a sister's son (matrilineal) 9 4 = Hereditary by other matrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr) 88 9 = Nonhereditary or absence of any such office RULE OR PRACTICE FOR INHERITANCE 278. INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY (LAND) 279. INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY * Note change in order from 278 280 278 279 Land Movables . = Missing data 31 34 1 = Absence of individual property rights or rules 59 22 2 = Matrilineal (sister's sons) 4 5 3 = Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers) 9 9 4 = Children, with daughters receiving less 12 14 5 = Children, equally for both sexes 9 22 6 = Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers) 8 9 7 = Patrilineal (sons) 54 71 DISTRIBUTION OF INHERITANCE AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAME CATEGORY 280. INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY 281. INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY * Note change in order from 279 281 280 281 Land Movables . = Missing data or absense of rights (#1 above) 91 55 1 = Equal or relatively equal 54 86 2 = Exclusively or predominantly to the one adjudged best qualified 6 6 3 = Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual) 4 5 4 = Primogeniture (to the senior individual) 28 27 9 = Missing data Note: Change 9 to "." 3 7 282. NORMS OF PREMARITAL SEX BEHAVIOR OF GIRLS 40 . = Missing data 13 1 = Early marriage of females (at or before puberty) 38 2 = Insistence on virginity 37 3 = Prohibited but weakly censured and not infrequent 16 4 = Allowed, censured only if pregnancy results 5 5 = Trial marriage, promiscuous relations prohibited 37 6 = Freely permitted, even if pregnancy results 283. PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: GROUND PLAN 4 . = Missing data 1 1 = Semicircular 59 2 = Circular 6 3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends - 4 = Polygonal 107 5 = Rectangular or square 9 6 = Quadrangular around (if only partially) inner court 284. PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: FLOOR LEVEL 5 . = Missing data 13 1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars) 138 2 = Floor formed by ground 12 3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform 18 4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers 285. PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: WALL MATERIAL 65 . = Missing data 12 1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick 19 2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub 33 3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles 1 4 = Bark 1 5 = Hides or skin 6 6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics 17 7 = Mats, latticework, or wattle 14 8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch 17 9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick - 10)= Open walls, including temporary screens *)= Walls indistinguishable from roof * Note: disaggregate 9 and 10 286. PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: SHAPE OF ROOF 10 . = Missing data 10 1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical 20 2 = Dome or hemisphere 7 3 = Beehive with pointed peak 34 4 = Conical 2 5 = Semi-hemisphere 6 6 = Shad (one slope) 14 7 = Flat or horizontal 68 8 = Gabled (two slopes) 15 9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes) 287. PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: ROOFING MATERIALS 10 . = Missing data 2 1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick 3 2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub 10 3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles 6 4 = Bark 5 5 = Hides or skin 5 6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabric 9 7 = Mats 118 8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch 18 9 = Earth or turf 10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9) * Note: disaggregate 9 and 10 288. SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: GROUND PLAN 2 1 = Semicircular 18 2 = Circular 3 3 = Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends - 4 = Polygonal 38 5 = Rectangular or square 7 6 = Quadrangular around (or partially around) an inner court 118 9 = No secondary type 289. SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: FLOOR LEVEL 1 . = Missing data 1 1 = Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars) 50 2 = Floor formed by ground 8 3 = Elevated slightly or on raised platform 8 4 = Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers 118 9 = No secondary type 290. SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: WALL MATERIAL 145 . = Missing data or no secondary type 7 1 = Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick 5 2 = Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub 10 3 = Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles 3 4 = Bark - 5 = Hides or skin 2 6 = Felt, cloth, or other fabrics 3 7 = Mats, latticework or wattle 3 8 = Grass, leaves, or other thatch 8 9 = Adobe, clay, or dried brick - 10)= Open walls, including temporary screens )= Walls indistinguishable from roof * Note: separate . and 0 * Note: disaggregate 9 and 10 291. SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: SHAPE OF ROOF 119 . = Missing data or no secondary type - 1 = Rounded or semi-cylindrical 1 2 = Dome or hemisphere - 3 = Beehive with pointed peak 16 4 = Conical 2 5 = Semi-hemisphere 2 6 = Shad (one slope) 7 7 = Flat or horizontal 31 8 = Gabled (two slopes) 8 9 = Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes) * Note: separate . and 0 292. SECONDARY OR ALTERNATIVE HOUSE TYPE: ROOFING MATERIALS 120 . = Missing data or no secondary type 3 1 = Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick 1 2 = Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub 3 3 = Wood, incl. logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles 1 4 = Bark 5 5 = Hides or skin 2 6 = Felt, cloth or other fabric 4 7 = Mats 42 8 = Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch 5 9 = Earth or turf 10)= Ice or snow (combined with 9) * Note: separate . and 0 * Note: disaggregate 9 and 10 notes on these codes
TRAITS INCULCATED IN CHILDHOOD Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall. 1976. ETHNOLOGY 15:83-114. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 5. STDS13.DAT Variables: 293-336 293. Duration of Early Childhood 87 1 = short (ending at about 7 years of age) 36 2 = medium (ending at about 9 years of age) 56 3 = long (ending at about 11 years of age or later) 7 . = Missing data 294. Fortitude: Early Boy 295. Fortitude: Early Girl 296. Fortitude: Late Boy 297. Fortitude: Late Girl Early Late Boy Girl Boy Girl . = Missing data 46 55 31 41 0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait - - - - 1 = - 1 - - 2 = 17 19 3 5 3 = 16 17 5 11 4 = 11 13 11 9 5 = moderately strong inculcation 61 60 40 50 6 = 24 15 49 44 7 = 3 1 14 12 8 = 6 3 24 12 9 = 2 2 8 12 extremely strong inculcation - - 1 - 298. Aggression: Early Boy 299. Aggression: Early Girl 300. Aggression: Late Boy 301. Aggression: Late Girl . = Missing data 53 68 38 58 0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait - - - - 1 = 6 7 4 5 2 = 25 30 9 16 3 = 14 15 11 16 4 = 7 10 9 10 5 = moderately strong inculcation 40 30 40 38 6 = 28 17 43 26 7 = 1 2 5 5 8 = 8 5 19 10 9 = 3 1 6 1 extremely strong inculcation 1 1 2 1 302. Competitiveness: Early Boy 303. Competitiveness: Early Girl 304. Competitiveness: Late Boy 305. Competitiveness: Late Girl . = Missing data 75 80 51 60 0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait 6 6 5 5 1 = - - - - 2 = 21 21 15 17 3 = 15 15 18 16 4 = 9 9 9 10 5 = moderately strong inculcation 38 35 42 44 6 = 18 18 30 25 7 = 2 1 2 1 8 = - - 11 7 9 = 2 1 3 1 306. Self-reliance: Early Boy 307. Self-reliance: Early Girl 308. Self-reliance: Late Boy 309. Self-reliance: Late Girl . = Missing data 31 33 26 33 0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait 1 2 1 1 1 = 7 8 4 5 2 = 39 48 6 10 3 = 27 29 5 15 4 = 9 11 5 10 5 = moderately strong inculcation 42 35 34 48 6 = 16 12 39 34 7 = 2 4 6 6 8 = 10 4 48 19 9 = 2 - 11 4 extremely strong inculcation - - 1 1 310. Achievement: Early Boy 311. Achievement: Early Girl 312. Achievement: Late Boy 313. Achievement: Late Girl . = Missing data 40 50 24 33 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 1 1 - - 1 = 3 2 1 2 2 = 49 49 14 7 3 = 23 24 16 16 4 = 4 4 8 8 5 = moderately strong inculcation 44 36 46 51 6 = 17 17 47 45 7 = 1 1 3 4 8 = 3 2 22 18 9 = 1 - 5 2 314. Industry: Early Boy 315. Industry: Early Girl 316. Industry: Late Boy 317. Industry: Late Girl . = Missing data 20 21 11 11 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 4 3 - - 1 = 10 3 1 - 2 = 83 62 10 4 3 = 28 35 17 11 4 = 14 13 16 6 5 = moderately strong inculcation 20 35 69 41 6 = 6 14 37 63 7 = - - 3 8 8 = 1 - 19 38 9 = - - 3 4 extremely strong inculcation 318. Responsibility: Early Boy 319. Responsibility: Early Girl 320. Responsibility: Late Boy 321. Responsibility: Late Girl . = Missing data 35 36 25 28 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 11 4 3 - 1 = 8 5 - - 2 = 73 63 15 3 3 = 23 32 20 11 4 = 6 5 15 12 5 = moderately strong inculcation 21 33 49 50 6 = 8 7 37 51 7 = - - 2 3 8 = 1 1 19 28 9 = - - 1 - 322. Obedience: Early Boy 323. Obedience: Early Girl 324. Obedience: Late Boy 325. Obedience: Late Girl . = Missing data 26 25 24 24 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 2 - 1 - 1 = 3 3 1 - 2 = 27 23 15 10 3 = 11 13 10 10 4 = 14 11 12 11 5 = moderately strong inculcation 45 44 45 45 6 = 27 31 33 36 7 = 2 2 2 3 8 = 22 25 32 32 9 = 4 5 8 11 extremely strong inculcation 3 4 3 4 326. Self-restraint: Early Boy 327. Self-restraint: Early Girl 328. Self-restraint: Late Boy 329. Self-restraint: Late Girl . = Missing data 52 53 51 54 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait - - - - 1 = 6 7 1 1 2 = 38 32 19 16 3 = 35 31 19 16 4 = 5 7 12 11 5 = moderately strong inculcation 29 34 35 45 6 = 13 14 26 26 7 = - - 2 1 8 = 8 7 20 13 9 = - 1 1 3 330. Sexual restraint: Early Boy 331. Sexual restraint: Early Girl 332. Sexual restraint: Late Boy 333. Sexual restraint: Late Girl . = Missing data 30 32 22 21 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 1 1 - - 1 = 14 11 7 4 2 = 67 57 41 32 3 = 22 19 27 18 4 = 14 14 25 25 5 = moderately strong inculcation 30 32 41 24 6 = 7 14 15 27 7 = - 1 2 6 8 = 1 5 6 18 9 = - - - 5 extremely strong inculcation - - - 6 334. Generosity . = Missing data 82 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait - 1 = 1 2 = 4 3 = 6 4 = 4 5 = moderately strong inculcation 24 6 = 31 7 = 2 8 = 27 9 = 4 extremely strong inculcation 1 335. Trust . = Missing data 48 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 1 1 = 6 2 = 19 3 = 5 4 = 15 5 = moderately strong inculcation 34 6 = 18 7 = 11 8 = 25 9 = 3 extremely strong inculcation 1 336. Honesty . = Missing data 76 0 = no inculcation or opposite trait 1 1 = 5 2 = 18 3 = 15 4 = 12 5 = moderately strong inculcation 28 6 = 16 7 = 5 8 = 8 9 = 1 extremely strong inculcation 1 notes on these codes
AGENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF CHILD TRAINING Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall 1977. ETHNOLOGY 16:191-230. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 6. STDS14.DAT Variables: 337-376 STDS15.DAT Variables: 377-404 STDS16.DAT Variables: 405-432 STDS17.DAT Variables: 433-460 STDS18.DAT Variables: 461-480 337. Importance of Non-Family Companions: Early Boy 338. Importance of Non-Family Companions: Early Girl 339. Importance of Non-Family Companions: Late Boy 340. Importance of Non-Family Companions: Late Girl Early Late Boy Girl Boy Girl . = Missing data 6 6 6 8 1 = Parents predominantly 2 2 1 1 2 = Siblings; not other children 11 12 3 8 3 = Primarily siblings, secondarily other children 104 105 80 91 4 = Primarily other children, secondarily siblings 45 44 47 37 5 = Other children; not siblings 18 17 49 41 341. Sex of Companions: Early Boy 342. Sex of Companions: Early Girl 343. Sex of Companions: Late Boy 344. Sex of Companions: Late Girl . = Missing data 6 6 6 8 1 = Male exclusively 6 - 58 - 2 = Male predominantly 62 - 90 1 3 = Both sexes equally 111 112 31 32 4 = Female predominantly 1 62 1 84 5 = Female exclusively - 6 - 61 345. Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Early Boy 346. Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Early Girl 347. Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Late Boy 348. Importance of Non-Parent in Residence: Late Girl . = Missing data 4 4 4 5 1 = Exclusively parental 56 62 44 48 2 = Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent 63 67 52 67 3 = Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent 7 10 4 11 4 = Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents 39 28 34 24 5 = Two or more categories, at least oneof which typical and frequent, but less important than parents 14 12 19 14 6 = More typical and frequent than parents 3 3 5 3 7 = Exclusively non-parental - - 24 14 349. Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Early Boy 350. Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Early Girl 351. Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Late Boy 352. Principal Category of Non-Parental Agent: Late Girl . = Missing data 60 66 53 54 1 = Foster parent 99 90 77 74 2 = Sibling - - - - 3 = Grandparent 7 9 4 11 4 = Uncle (mother's brother only) 4 2 5 2 5 = Relative (including father's brother) 10 7 15 13 6 = Child 2 3 20 9 7 = Nonrelative 3 9 12 23 8 = Teacher 1 - - - 353. Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Boy 354. Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Girl 355. Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Boy 356. Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Girl . = Missing data 4 4 28 18 1 = Male exclusively - - 9 - 2 = Male predominantly 2 1 1 1 3 = Both sexes equally 135 135 124 127 4 = Female predominantly 22 21 13 16 5 = Female exclusively 23 25 11 24 357. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Boy 358. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Girl 359. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Boy 360. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Girl . = Missing data 61 65 52 53 1 = Male exclusively 8 4 33 9 2 = Male predominantly 1 - 1 1 3 = Both sexes equally 114 107 98 105 4 = Female predominantly - 1 - - 5 = Female exclusively 2 9 2 18 361. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Boy 362. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Girl 363. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Boy 364. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Girl . = Missing data 7 6 26 23 1 = Exclusively parental 33 35 34 39 2 = Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent 19 19 13 14 3 = Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent 21 21 17 19 4 = Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents 26 24 24 22 5 = Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents 57 59 35 41 6 = More typical and frequent than parents 17 17 9 10 7 = Exclusively non-parental 6 5 28 18 365. Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Early Boy 366. Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Early Girl 367. Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Late Boy 368. Principal Category of Non-Parental Caretaker: Late Girl . = Missing data 40 41 82 74 1 = Foster parent - - - - 2 = Sibling 58 59 40 42 3 = Grandparent 38 39 26 32 4 = Uncle (mother's brother only) 4 1 2 2 5 = Relative (including father's brother) 18 17 13 14 6 = Child 4 4 4 2 7 = Nonrelative 22 24 18 19 8 = Teacher 1 - 1 1 9 = No agent 1 1 - - 369. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Boy 370. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Girl 371. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Boy 372. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Girl . = Missing data 18 11 54 41 1 = Male exclusively 1 2 11 2 2 = Male predominantly 4 2 3 1 3 = Both sexes equally 26 25 17 17 4 = Female predominantly 35 29 22 22 5 = Female exclusively 102 117 79 103 373. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Early Boy 374. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Early Girl 375. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Late Boy 376. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Caretakers: Late Girl . = Missing data 41 42 83 77 1 = Male exclusively 5 2 11 2 2 = Male predominantly 4 2 1 - 3 = Both sexes equally 59 54 43 42 4 = Female predominantly 12 11 7 6 5 = Female exclusively 65 75 41 59 notes on these codes
STDS15.DAT Variables: 377-404 377. Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Early Boy 378. Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Early Girl 379. Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Late Boy 380. Non-Parental Involvement in Authority: Late Girl . = Missing data 11 10 14 10 1 = Exclusively parental 61 67 49 62 2 = Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent 13 15 12 13 3 = Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent 8 10 5 9 4 = Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents 45 42 38 41 5 = Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important 34 30 33 28 than parents 6 = More typical and frequent than parents 11 9 10 7 7 = Exclusively non-parental 3 3 25 16 381. Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy 382. Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl 383. Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 384. Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl . = Missing data 73 78 65 74 1 = Foster parent - - - - 2 = Sibling 33 34 32 32 3 = Grandparent 26 28 22 26 4 = Uncle (mother's brother only) 17 12 15 8 5 = Relative (including father's brother) 24 23 19 22 6 = Child 3 1 9 4 7 = Nonrelative 9 9 17 15 8 = Teacher 1 1 7 5 385. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy 386. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl 387. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 388. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl . = Missing data 14 13 39 26 1 = Male exclusively 36 17 43 17 2 = Male predominantly 66 58 53 50 3 = Both sexes equally 55 59 43 52 4 = Female predominantly 8 20 3 20 5 = Female exclusively 7 19 5 21 389. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy 390. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl 391. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy 392. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl . = Missing data 73 78 65 112 1 = Male exclusively 66 48 80 36 2 = Male predominantly 4 5 6 5 3 = Both sexes equally 37 35 29 14 4 = Female predominantly 2 2 2 4 5 = Female exclusively 4 18 4 15 393. Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Boy 394. Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Girl 395. Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Boy 396. Non-Parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Girl . = Missing data 57 112 109 113 1 = Exclusively parental 70 32 25 28 2 = Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent 2 3 2 6 3 = Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent 3 2 3 2 4 = Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents 12 11 18 14 5 = Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents 14 13 12 8 6 = More typical and frequent than parents 20 3 4 3 7 = Exclusively non-parental 8 10 13 12 397. Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy 398. Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl 399. Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy 400. Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl . = Missing data 147 147 137 144 1 = Foster parent - - - - 2 = Sibling 12 13 10 13 3 = Grandparent 6 7 6 5 4 = Uncle (mother's brother only) 4 3 3 3 5 = Relative (including father's brother) 5 5 5 5 6 = Child 2 2 7 1 7 = Nonrelative 8 7 9 10 8 = Teacher 2 2 9 5 401. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy 402. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl 403. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy 404. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl . = Missing data 118 122 122 125 1 = Male exclusively 18 8 24 7 2 = Male predominantly 9 7 8 6 3 = Both sexes equally 21 21 18 18 4 = Female predominantly 6 7 2 7 5 = Female exclusively 14 21 12 23 notes on these codes
STDS16.DAT Variables: 405-432 405. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boys 406. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girls 407. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boys 408. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girls . = Missing data 147 147 137 144 1 = Male exclusively 13 7 24 9 2 = Male predominantly 1 - 1 - 3 = Both sexes equally 20 21 20 21 4 = Female predominantly 1 1 - - 5 = Female exclusively 5 10 4 12 409. Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Early Boys 410. Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Early Girls 411. Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Late Boys 412. Non-Parental Involvement in Education: Late Girls . = Missing data 10 10 9 9 1 = Exclusively parental 36 51 23 53 2 = Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent 18 16 16 16 3 = Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent 7 10 7 7 4 = Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents 26 30 31 26 5 = Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents 46 42 50 44 6 = More typical and frequent than parents 30 21 29 15 7 = Exclusively non-parental 13 6 21 16 413. Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Early Boys 414. Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Early Girls 415. Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Late Boys 416. Principal Category of Non-Parental Educators: Late Girls . = Missing data 47 61 33 62 1 = Foster parent - - - - 2 = Sibling 28 28 21 21 3 = Grandparent 18 23 13 15 4 = Uncle (mother's brother only) 7 2 11 1 5 = Relative (including father's brother) 19 20 13 19 6 = Child 37 28 26 13 7 = Nonrelative 21 20 34 33 8 = Teacher 9 4 35 22 417. Sex of Parental Educators: Early Boys 418. Sex of Parental Educators: Early Girls 419. Sex of Parental Educators: Late Boys 420. Sex of Parental Educators: Late Girls . = Missing data 23 16 31 26 1 = Male exclusively 58 4 117 3 2 = Male predominantly 27 2 18 1 3 = Both sexes equally 51 40 14 11 4 = Female predominantly 17 20 3 12 5 = Female exclusively 10 104 3 133 421. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Early Boys 422. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Early Girls 423. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Late Boys 424. Sex of Principal Non-Parental Educators: Late Girls . = Missing data 46 61 32 60 1 = Male exclusively 67 5 106 6 2 = Male predominantly 6 1 3 - 3 = Both sexes equally 61 53 42 32 4 = Female predominantly - 5 - 3 5 = Female exclusively 6 61 3 85 425. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Boys 426. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Girls 427. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Boys 428. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Girls . = Missing data 9 9 8 13 1 = Informal training, with minimal guidance 47 45 14 15 2 = Apprenticeship atypical or occasional 20 11 6 1 3 = Apprenticeship typical and frequent but informal training more prevalent 79 87 42 55 4 = Apprenticeship predominant 8 11 44 46 5 = Formal schooling atypical or occasional 14 10 34 31 6 = Formal schooling typical and frequent 9 13 38 25 429. Use of Example: Early Boys 430. Use of Example: Early Girls 431. Use of Example: Late Boys 432. Use of Example: Late Girls . = Missing data 34 33 33 31 2 = Childrens activities differ from adults are not expected to behave like them - - - - 3 = - - - - 4 = - - - - 5 = Children are expected to do things more or less by example 25 24 20 20 6 = 22 23 23 23 7 = 2 2 2 2 8 = Children frequently shown example; consi- dered very important in socializing child 79 79 83 84 9 = 21 22 22 23 Example given as most important method of education, or adults are constantly showing children how to do things. 3 3 3 3 notes on these codes
STDS17.DAT Variables: 433-460 433. Control by Public Opinion: Early Boys 434. Control by Public Opinion: Early Girls 435. Control by Public Opinion: Late Boys 436. Control by Public Opinion: Late Girls Public Opinion: degree to which approval by people in general controls the behavior of children . = Missing data 95 94 91 92 2 = 3 3 2 2 3 = 2 2 2 2 4 = 2 2 2 2 5 = 20 20 21 20 6 = 28 28 29 30 7 = 2 2 2 2 8 = 30 30 33 31 9 = 4 5 4 5 437. Lecturing: Early Boys 438. Lecturing: Early Girls 439. Lecturing: Late Boys 440. Lecturing: Late Girls . = Missing data 49 52 45 47 0 = 1 - - - 1 = - - - - 2 = 10 10 6 6 3 = 10 11 9 10 4 = 7 8 6 8 5 = Often, but not constant lectures / myths 48 46 44 42 6 = 25 24 31 28 7 = 4 4 5 5 8 = Almost daily 22 22 29 29 9 = 6 5 8 7 Constant and one of the most important methods used in socializing child 4 4 3 4 441. Teasing: Early Boys 442. Teasing: Early Girls 443. Teasing: Late Boys 444. Teasing: Late Girls Teasing: refers to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct. . = Missing data 85 85 73 74 2 = 9 8 5 5 3 = 8 10 8 9 4 = 4 4 4 4 5 = 34 33 39 38 6 = 24 23 31 30 7 = 2 2 2 2 8 = 19 20 23 23 9 = 1 1 1 1 445. Scolding: Early Boys 446. Scolding: Early Girls 447. Scolding: Late Boys 448. Scolding: Late Girls Scolding: includes verbal reprimants, nagging, scolding for misbehavior. . = Missing data 76 74 71 69 0 = 2 2 2 1 1 = 3 2 1 1 2 = 11 13 8 9 3 = 8 7 8 7 4 = 9 9 11 11 5 = 54 54 51 51 6 = 15 16 19 21 7 = 1 1 - - 8 = 7 8 13 14 9 = - - 1 1 449. Warning: Early Boys 450. Warning: Early Girls 451. Warning: Late Boys 452. Warning: Late Girls Warning: threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers. . = Missing data 87 87 86 87 0 = 1 1 1 - 1 = - - 1 1 2 = 4 4 5 5 3 = 3 3 4 4 4 = 4 4 4 4 5 = 29 29 32 32 6 = 38 38 36 36 7 = 1 1 1 1 8 = 14 14 11 11 9 = 5 5 5 5 453. Corporal Punishment: Early Boys 454. Corporal Punishment: Early Girls 455. Corporal Punishment: Late Boys 456. Corporal Punishment: Late Girls Corporal Punishment: whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment. . = Missing data 41 46 39 46 0 = 9 9 10 8 1 = 6 6 4 4 2 = 35 35 29 30 3 = 17 18 15 15 4 = 12 12 8 9 5 = 39 37 41 39 6 = 20 16 17 16 7 = - - 1 1 8 = 3 3 18 16 9 = 3 1 3 1 457. Ceremonies for Children: Early Boys 458. Ceremonies for Children: Early Girls 459. Ceremonies for Children: Late Boys 460. Ceremonies for Children: Late Girls Ceremonies for Children: included are those for first animal killed or first basket woven by young child, or ceremonies like birthday parties or children's days. Inclusion of children in cultural ceremonies justifies only moderate scores. . = Missing data 54 62 40 55 0 = 3 4 1 - 1 = 1 5 - 2 2 = 48 47 20 32 3 = 20 22 18 25 4 = 6 5 5 9 5 = 38 26 61 42 6 = 13 11 32 13 7 = - - 1 - 8 = 3 4 8 8 notes on these codes
STDS18.DAT Variables: 461-480 461. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Boys 462. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Girls 463. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Boys 464. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Girls Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Material rewards for approved behaviors, e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges. . = Missing data 45 50 41 43 2 = 24 20 17 17 3 = 18 22 19 23 4 = 8 8 8 8 5 = 65 61 72 66 6 = 22 19 23 21 7 = - - - - 8 = 4 6 6 8 465. Permissiveness: Early Boys 466. Permissiveness: Early Girls 467. Permissiveness: Late Boys 468. Permissiveness: Late Girls . = Missing data 17 19 18 18 0 = Harsh socialization by parents or other authority figures with severe punishment 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 1 5 7 2 = Generally harsh treatment, not extreme 4 7 6 8 3 = 9 7 10 13 4 = 12 17 23 31 5 = Generally moderate or balanced degree of both harshness and permissiveness 31 37 52 61 6 = 37 41 32 22 7 = 31 29 14 9 8 = Generally indulgent, not extreme 28 19 15 12 9 = 10 6 8 3 Generally lenient and indulgent permissiveness, minimal punishment or expression of disapproval 5 2 2 1 469. Affection: Early Boys 470. Affection: Early Girls 471. Affection: Late Boys 472. Affection: Late Girls Affection: refers primarily to attention and positive interest expressed toward child. . = Missing data 31 31 32 33 0 = Minimal expression of affection, attention, positive interest in child - - - - 1 = - 1 - 1 2 = Generally low expression of affection 6 9 10 13 and attention 3 = 3 3 4 4 4 = 16 19 20 24 5 = Moderate or sporadic expression of affection and attention 40 35 43 37 6 = 43 41 44 42 7 = 19 21 17 19 8 = Consistent, occasional strong expression 24 22 16 14 9 = 4 4 - - 473. Evaluation by Society: Early Boys 474. Evaluation by Society: Early Girls 475. Evaluation by Society: Late Boys 476. Evaluation by Society: Late Girls Evaluation by Society: degree to which children are desired and valued. . = Missing data 14 15 15 15 0 = Children are viewed indifferently or as a liability by society and local community - - - - 1 = - 1 - 1 2 = Only slight, sporadic expression of valuation of children 2 7 2 6 3 = 3 9 3 9 4 = 11 23 9 21 5 = Moderate or occasionally strong expression of value of children 39 30 39 35 6 = 46 50 48 49 7 = 32 25 32 26 8 = Strong, but no extreme valuation of children 26 18 27 17 9 = 12 9 11 8 Intense, repeated expression of cultural valuation for children 1 - 1 - 477. Incorporation into Society: Early Boys 478. Incorporation into Society: Early Girls 479. Incorporation into Society: Late Boys 480. Incorporation into Society: Late Girls Incorporation into Society: refers to inclusion of children in adult activities. . = Missing data 16 16 15 15 0 = Almost complete exclusion from adult working, ceremonial, social activities 3 3 - - 1 = 22 21 2 - 2 = Children are usually excluded from membership in adult activities 50 38 7 2 3 = 49 47 14 7 4 = 22 25 13 12 5 = Inconsistent but substantial participation by children in adult activities 19 32 54 40 6 = 4 3 37 44 7 = - - 27 37 8 = Children closely integrated in adult family activities with substantial participation in adult community life 1 1 11 17 9 = - - 6 11 Almost complete, continual inclusion of children in adult activities - - - 1 notes on these codes
PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION AND PARENTAL CONTROL Rohner, Ronald P., and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1982. ETHNOLOGY 20:245-260. STDS19.DAT Variables: 481-504 481. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Boy 482. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Girl 483. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Aver 484. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Boy 485. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Girl 486. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Aver 487. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Boy 488. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Girl 489. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Aver 490. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Boy 491. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Girl 492. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Aver Significant Maternal Paternal Others Overall ------------ ------------ ------------ ----------- Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Ave . = Missing data 174 174 115 175 174 126 184 185 165 181 180 89 1 = - - - - - - - - - - - 0 2 = Rarely - - 2 - 1 8 1 - 2 - - 3 3 = - - 1 - - - - - - - - 0 4 = Sometimes - 3 2 4 1 3 - - 1 - - 3 5 = 1 - 3 - 2 2 - - - - - 4 6 = Frequently 2 2 10 1 5 5 - 1 7 - 3 14 7 = 1 1 7 3 1 5 - - 2 2 2 16 8 = Almost Always 8 6 46 3 2 37 1 - 9 3 1 57 493. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Boy 494. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Girl 495. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Aver 496. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Boy 497. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Girl 498. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Aver 499. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Boy 500. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Girl 501. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Aver 502. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Boy 503. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Girl 504. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Aver Significant Maternal Paternal Others Overall ------------ ------------ ------------ ----------- Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Ave . = Missing data 182 182 141 185 185 145 185 184 171 181 185 74 1 = - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 2 = Rarely 1 2 21 1 0 23 - - 3 2 1 58 3 = - - 3 - - - - - - 1 - 9 4 = Sometimes 2 2 13 - 1 11 - 1 6 2 0 31 5 = - - 2 - - 2 - - - - - 5 6 = Frequently 1 - 3 - - 4 - - 2 - - 5 7 = - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - 2 8 = Almost Always - - 2 - - - 1 1 3 - - 1 notes on these codes
STDS20.DAT Variables: 505-528 505. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Boy 506. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Girl 507. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Aver 508. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Boy 509. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Girl 510. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Aver 511. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Boy 512. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Girl 513. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Aver 514. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Boy 515. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Girl 516. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Aver Significant Maternal Paternal Others Overall ------------ ------------ ------------ ----------- Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Av. Boy Grl Ave . = Missing data 178 169 134 169 181 146 181 183 171 171 182 88 1 = - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 2 = Rarely 6 15 38 13 2 27 4 3 11 5 3 67 3 = - - 2 1 - 2 - - 1 - - 5 4 = Sometimes 1 1 5 1 - 6 - - 1 - 1 18 5 = - - - - - - - - - - - 1 6 = Frequently 1 1 4 2 - 3 - - - 1 - 3 7 = - - 1 - - 1 1 - 1 - - 2 8 = Almost Always - - 1 - 3 1 - - 1 - - 1 517. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Boy 518. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Girl 519. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Aver 520. Control by Caretakers - Father: Boy 521. Control by Caretakers - Father: Girl 522. Control by Caretakers - Father: Aver 523. Control by Caretakers - Others: Boy 524. Control by Caretakers - Others: Girl 525. Control by Caretakers - Others: Aver 526. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Boy 527. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Girl 528. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Aver . = Missing data 171 166 138 162 175 136 178 182 169 158 162 71 1 = - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 = No Control 4 1 10 - - 9 - 1 2 6 1 23 3 = - - 2 - - 2 - - - 1 1 9 4 = Lax Control 6 2 16 5 3 11 2 - 2 8 6 23 5 = - - 1 - - 1 - - 1 2 1 7 6 = Firm Control 3 9 11 12 4 19 4 2 10 6 9 34 7 = 1 3 3 1 1 2 1 - 1 1 1 9 8 = Restrictive 1 5 5 6 3 6 1 1 1 4 5 10 notes on these codes
ADOLESCENT INITIATION CEREMONIES Schlegel, Alice, and Herbert Barry, III. 1979. Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies. ETHNOLOGY 18:199-210. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. STDS21.DAT Variables: 529-560 Boys Girls 529. Initiation Occurrence: Boys 530. Initiation Occurrence: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent for both boys and girls 80 81 1 = Absent for specified sex only 39 17 2 = Present 63 85 531. Initiation Time: Boys 532. Initiation Time: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 120 100 2 = before genital maturation 13 9 3 = at first signs of genital maturation 18 11 4 = at genital maturation 6 57 5 = within one year after genital maturation 17 5 6 = later (up to 18 years) 8 1 533. Number of Concurrent Initiates: Boys 534. Number of Concurrent Initiates: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = Single 29 73 3 = Small group 7 6 4 = Large group 27 5 535. Duration of Initiation Ceremony: Boys 536. Duration of Initiation Ceremony: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = Short 28 36 3 = Medium 7 21 4 = Long 28 27 537. Number of Participants: Boys 538. Number of Participants: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 121 99 2 = Immediate family 7 40 3 = Local group 25 29 4 = Large group 29 15 539. Sexes of Participants: Boys 540. Sexes of Participants: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = Both sexes 12 11 3 = Partially limited to same sex as initiates 17 28 4 = Exclusively same sex as initiates 34 45 541. Primary Physical Components: Boys 542. Primary Physical Components: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = None 6 11 3 = Manipulations or activities 17 45 4 = Pain other than genital operation 20 21 5 = Genital operation 13 7 6 = Genital operation and other pain 7 - 543. Secondary Physical Components: Boys 544. Secondary Physical Components: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = Neither manipulations nor activities 15 20 3 = Activities 14 10 4 = Manipulation 9 26 5 = Both manipulations and activities 25 28 545. Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys 546. Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = Symbolic only 20 15 3 = Learning skills, sharing secrets, or other 3 3 4 = Observing taboos 8 1 5 = Seclusion 7 9 6 = Both seclusion and observing taboos 18 54 7 = Fear 7 2 547. Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys 548. Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 118 100 2 = Neither learning skills nor sharing secrets 43 60 3 = Sharing secrets 8 2 4 = Learning skills 4 11 5 = Both learning skills and sharing secrets 9 10 549. Primary Emic Interpretations: Boys 550. Primary Emic Interpretations: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 119 99 2 = None 4 5 3 = Status marker, physical change, or 41 75 behavior change 4 = Spiritual change 11 2 5 = Death-rebirth 7 2 551. Secondary Emic Interpretations: Boys 552. Secondary Emic Interpretations: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 118 100 2 = No status marker 8 8 3 = General status marker 17 25 4 = Status marker for adolescence or youth 14 12 5 = Status marker for full adulthood 25 38 553. Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Boys 554. Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 118 100 2 = Neither physical nor behavior change 31 48 3 = Behavior change 10 12 4 = Physical change 12 16 5 = Both physical and behavior change 11 7 555. Primary Social Consequences: Boys 556. Primary Social Consequences: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 118 100 2 = None 19 32 3 = Familial integration, familial 14 20 independence, or other 4 = Heterosexual intercourse 8 25 5 = Same-sex bonding 17 3 6 = Both same-sex bonding and heterosexual 6 3 intercourse 557. Secondary Social Consequences: Boys 558. Secondary Social Consequences: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 118 100 2 = None 36 57 3 = Other 6 8 4 = Familial independence 13 9 5 = Familial integration 9 9 559. Principal Focus: Boys 560. Principal Focus: Girls . = Missing data 4 3 0 = Absent 120 111 2 = Fertility 11 34 3 = Sexuality 10 18 4 = Valor 6 1 5 = Wisdom 7 1 6 = Responsibility 26 23 7 = Other 2 7 notes on these codes
REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS Paige, Karen Paige and Jeffrey Paige. 1981. THE POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS. University of California Press. Reprinted with Permission of Authors and Publishers. STDS22.DAT Variables: 561-575 561. Menarcheal Ceremonies 98 . = Missing data 44 1 = Absent if onset of menstruation not marked by special public ritual 44 2 = Present if onset of menstruation associated with either elaborate or limited rites 562. Circumcision 94 . = Missing data 70 1 = Superincision, or subincision, or absent 22 2 = Circumcision 563. Maternal Restrictions 97 . = Missing Data 43 1 = Absent 46 2 = Present 564. Husband Involvement Scale (Couvade) 99 . = Missing Data 51 1 = Minor Observance or informal 36 2 = Seclusion, or postpartum work taboo, or food taboo 565. Menstrual Segregation Note: marginals off +-2 from here on 104 . = Missing data 54 1 = Absent 28 2 = Present (either menstrual hut or structural isolation is reported) 566. Male Segregation Practices 105 . = Missing data 59 1 = Absent or Minor 22 2 = Present 567. Combined Segregation Practices 111 . = Missing data 41 1 = Absent 34 2 = Present 568. Compensation Demands 119 . = Missing data 34 2 = Present 33 1 = Absent 569. Fraternal Interest Group Size 103 . = Missing Data 53 1 = Absent 30 2 = Present 570. Fraternal Interest Group Strength 105 . = Missing data 33 1 = Both brideprice and patrilineality are absent, and size of effective kin-based political subunit is less than 100 14 2 = Either brideprice or patrilineality; size of political subunit between 100 and 999 15 3 = a. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and brideprice and patrilineality are absent; or b. Size of political subunit is less than 100 and both brideprice and patrilineality are present; or c. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999 and either brideprice or patrilineality is present 8 4 = a. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999, and both brideprice and patrilineality are present; or b. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and either brideprice or patrilineality is present 11 5 = Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greateb, and both brideprice and patrilineality are present 571. Resource Base 96 . = Missing data 18 1 = Low 34 2 = Unstable 38 3 = High 572. Residence Pattern 96 . = Missing data 56 1 = Not favoring formation of fraternal interest groups including: a. Matrilocal or Uxorilocal Residence b. Ambilocal Residence c. Neolocal Residence 34 2 = Favoring formation of fraternal interest groups: including a. Avunculocal Residence b. Patrilocal or Virilocal Residence c. Optionally Patrilocal or Avunculocal Residence 573. Ritual Warfare 106 . = Missing data 50 1 = Absent 30 2 = Present 574. Achieved Leadership Through Wealth Distribution 107 . = Missing data 60 1 = Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to the giver are not one of the most important factors in attaining and maintaining the highest degree of political power in the society 19 2 = Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to the giver are one of the most important factors in attaining and maintaining the highest degree of political power in the society 575. Unstable Political Power Index 112 . = One, two, or three of the three variables have a score of 9 42 1 = All three variables--ritual warfare, achieved leadership, and social indebtedness--have a score of 0. 11 2 = Only one of the three variables has a score of 1; the other two score 0 16 3 = Two of the variables have a score of 1; the other has a score of 0 5 4 = All three variables have a score of 1 notes on these codes
THE RELATIVE STATUS OF WOMEN Whyte, Martin K. 1978. ETHNOLOGY 17:211-237. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. STDS22.DAT Variables: 576-615 STDS23.DAT Variables: 616-636 Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study. Some of the even numbered societies, however, have been coded by undergraduates at U.C. Irvine. Many of these even-numbered societal codes are less reliable than the original codes, and it is advised that a sample of odd-numbered cases be selected for hypothesis testing. 576. Sex of Gods and Spirits and Other Super-Natural Beings 119 . = Missing data 10 1 = All male 24 2 = Male are more numerous or more powerful 13 3 = Male are more numerous while power equal or male are more powerful while numbers equal 20 4 = Both and equal in numbers of power or women more numerous while power equal, or women more powerful while numbers equal : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 577. Mythical Founders of the Culture 121 . = Missing Data 21 1 = All male 18 2 = Both sexes, but the role of men more important 19 3 = Both sexes, and the role of both sexes fairly equal 7 4 = Both sexes, but female role more important, or solely female : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 578. Sex of Shamans 113 . = Missing Data 14 1 = All male 26 2 = Male more numerous, or more powerful 26 3 = Male more numerous while power equal, or male more powerful while numbers equal, or about equal in both 7 4 = Female more powerful or more numerous or solely female shamans : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 579. Sex of Reputed Witches 118 . = Missing Data 16 1 = All male 21 2 = Male predominance in numbers or power 23 3 = Both, and equal in numbers or power 8 4 = Female predominance in numbers of power or only female witches : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 580. Participation in Collective Religious Ceremonies and Rituals 113 . = Missing Data 4 1 = Only males 36 2 = Both, but males more commonly or more prominently 28 3 = Both, and fairly equal participation 5 4 = Both, but women more prominent : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 581. Funeral or Burial Ceremonies Held 102 . = Missing Data 11 1 = Only for males, or for both, but male more elaborate 73 2 = For both, and roughly equal : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 582. Intermediate or Local Political Leaders 112 . = Missing Data 65 1 = Only males 7 2 = Both sexes, but males more numerous or more powerful 2 3 = Both sexes, and males more numerous while females equally powerful or males more powerful while females equally numerous 583. Leadership Posts in Kinship or Extended Family Units 124 . = Missing Data 52 1 = Include men only 6 2 = Both, but men have more say and influence 4 3 = Both, with roughly equal influence : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 584. Participation in Collective Fighting and Warfare 116 . = Missing Data 62 1 = Only men 8 2 = Both, but men do most fighting, women only aid : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 585. Proportional Contribution of Women to Overall Subsistence 94 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Low 2 2 14 3 23 4 27 5 18 6 2 7 4 8 = High : = Recode as Missing data, coder disagreement 586. Relative Time and Effort Expended on Subsistence Activities 98 . = Missing Data 14 1 = Men clearly expend more 54 2 = Men and women expend roughly equal 20 3 = Women clearly expend more 587. Community-wide Exclusively Male Work Groups 108 . = Missing Data 20 1 = None 44 2 = For one activity 14 3 = For two or more activities 588. Community-wide Exclusively Female Work Groups 114 . = Missing data 45 1 = None 27 2 = For one or more activity 589. Degree of Segregation in Subsistence Activities 109 . = Missing Data 15 1 = Men and women are sharply segregated 41 2 = Some segregation 21 3 = Little or no segregation in these activities 590. Inheritance of Property of Some Economic Value 105 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Only males, or males except in unusual circumstances 27 2 = Both, but males have definite preference 22 3 = Roughly equal inheritance rights by sex 4 4 = Female preference, or exclusive female rights 591. Ownership or Control of the Use of Dwellings 114 . = Missing Data 22 1 = Solely by men 12 2 = Most owned by men 25 3 = Equal ownership, or no preferential rights 13 4 = Most or all owned or controlled by women 592. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Men 94 . = Missing Data 30 1 = Men have virtually total say 41 2 = Men have predominant say, or no indication of preference 12 3 = Men and women have equal say 9 4 = Women have the predominant or total say 593. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done by Men and Women 105 . = Missing Data 7 1 = Men have virtually total say 6 2 = Men have the predominant say 60 3 = Men and women have equal say, or no indication of preference 8 4 = Women have the predominant or total say 594. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Women 94 . = Missing Data 6 1 = Men have virtually total say or predominant say 10 2 = Men and women have equal say 62 3 = Women have the predominant say, or no indication of preference 14 4 = Women have virtually total say 595. Men's Domestic work 94 . = Missing Data 47 1 = Males do virtually none, females virtually all 45 2 = Males do some, but mostly done by females 596. (No) Double Standard in Regard to Premarital Sex (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 113 . = Missing Data 32 1 = Yes 41 2 = No, equal restrictions on male and female 597. (No) Double Standard in Regard to Extramarital Sex (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 111 . = Missing Data 32 1 = Yes 41 2 = No, equal restrictions 2 3 = Male punished more severely for transgression 598. Extramarital Affairs of Married Women 100 . = Missing Data 40 1 = Not allowed, and apparently rare 29 2 = Not allowed, but apparently not uncommon 17 3 = Allowed, or very common 599. Menstrual Taboos 124 . = Missing Data 11 1 = No menstrual taboos 15 2 = Rule vs. intercourse with menstruating woman 9 3 = Personal restrictions on menstruants, e.g., dietary 3 4 = Stated belief that menstrual blood is dangerous to men 3 5 = A rule that menstruating women may not cook for men 6 6 = Menstruating women are segregated from men, perhaps in a menstrual hut 15 7 = A rule that menstruating women may not have contact with some male things, e.g., fishing gear, bows 600. The Role of Men and Women in Procreation Understood 93 . = Missing Data 7 1 = Men are thought to play the more important role 80 2 = Belief in roughly equal contributions, or no evidence of greater contribution by either sex 6 3 = Women are thought to play the more important role 601. Sexual Drives and Urges Understood 93 . = Missing Data 17 1 = Men are thought to have stronger urges 71 2 = Belief that urges are roughly equal, or no evidence of belief in greater urges by either sex 5 3 = Women are thought to have stronger urges 602. (No) Explicit View that Sexual Activity is Dangerous or Contaminating (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 118 . = Missing Data 15 1 = Yes 53 2 = No 603. Role of the Older Generation in Arranging Marriages (1st Marriages Only) 103 . = Missing Data 13 1 = Males monopolize arrangement 33 2 = Both males and females participate, males have more say 28 3 = Both participate, and with roughly equal say 9 4 = Both males and females participate, females have more say 604. Voice of the Potential Bride and Groom in Marriage Decisions 106 . = Missing Data 4 1 = Only the groom can initiate or refuse a match 27 2 = Groom has more ability to initiate or refuse 46 3 = Equal ability to initiate or refuse a match 3 4 = Bride has more ability to initiate or refuse 605. Marriage Payments 109 . = Missing Data 5 1 = Woman exchange 36 2 = Substantial bride price 10 3 = Bride service 10 4 = Token bride price 10 5 = Gift exchange 6 6 = Dowry 606. Preferred Marriage Forms 93 . = Missing Data 22 1 = Polygynous unions over 20% 36 2 = Polygynous unions under 20% 34 3 = Monogamy 1 4 = Polyandry 607. (No Male) Multiple Spouses (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 94 . = Missing Data 71 1 = Only for males 4 2 = For both, but more commonly for males 15 3 = For neither 2 4 = For both, but more commonly for females 608. (No) Levirate (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 110 . = Missing Data 54 1 = Present 22 2 = Absent 609. Relative Distances Moved by the Bride and Groom Away from their Families of Orientation at First Marriage 102 . = Missing Data 58 1 = The female moves farther away 7 2 = About equal distance 19 3 = The male moves farther away 610. Relative Ease of Initiating Divorce 93 . = Missing Data 5 1 = Divorce is in theory only available to male 12 2 = Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for female 72 3 = Divorce equally possible, no indication of bias 4 4 = Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for male, or in theory only available to female 611. Relative Ease of Remarriage 101 . = Missing Data 21 1 = Possible for both, but fewer obstacles for men 64 2 = Equally possible for both men and women 612. Average Relative Age at First Marriage of Men and of Women 116 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Women generally older 7 2 = Ages about equal 12 3 = Men 1-2 years older 18 4 = Men 3-4 years older 31 5 = Men more than 4 years older 613. Final Authority over the Care, Handling and Discipline of Infants 119 . = Missing Data 12 1 = monopolized by males, or males have more say 11 2 = is divided roughly equally 21 3 = is divided, but females have more say 23 4 = is monopolized by females 614. Final Authority over the Up-bringing and Discipline of Post-infant Unmarried Children Living in the Home 118 . = Missing Data 11 1 = is virtually monopolized by males 14 2 = is divided, but males have more say 34 3 = is divided roughly equally 9 4 = is divided but females have more say, or final say is virtually monopolized by females 615. Wife to Husband Institutionalized Deference (Guttman Scale) 102 . = Missing Data 29 1 = None of the following coded 15 2 = Husband dominates domestic decision making 21 3 = + Wife excluded from many social gatherings 9 4 = + Wife rarely disputes husband 7 5 = + Husband has seating priority 3 6 = + Wife kneels and bows when greeting husband notes on these codes
STDS23.DAT Variables: 616-636 616. A Stated Preference for Children of One Sex 93 . = Missing Data 28 1 = For males 54 2 = Equal, no preference 11 3 = For females 617. Any Evidence of Infanticide 115 . = Missing Data 6 1 = Mostly for females 64 2 = For both, or for neither 1 3 = Mostly for males 618. Early Training for Adult Duties 93 . = Missing Data 1 1 = Boys are trained earlier generally 70 2 = Training begins at roughly equal ages, no stated bias by sex 22 3 = Girls are trained earlier generally 619. Punishment for Equal Misbehavior 93 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Boys are punished more severely 82 2 = Punishment about equal, no stated bias by sex 8 3 = Girls are punished more severely 620. Physical Punishment of the Spouse Condoned 123 . = Missing Data 39 1 = Only husband hitting wife generally 16 2 = Physical punishment by neither 8 3 = Either may hit the other, or only wife may hit husband 621. (No) Explicit View that Men Should and Do Dominate their Wives (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 123 . = Missing Data 42 1 = Yes 19 2 = No, evidence of rough equality 2 3 = No, evidence of wife dominance 622. Attendance and Participation in General Community Gathering 124 . = Missing Data 27 1 = Only men, or both, but men more often or more prominently 35 2 = Both equally, although perhaps segregated 623. Existence of General Female Initiation Ceremonies 110 . = Missing Data 36 1 = No initiations for females 8 2 = Customary minimal social recognition 10 3 = +Personal dramatization of the initiate 12 4 = +Organized social response 10 5 = +Affective social response (e.g., punishment or operations 624. Any Belief that the Status of Women has Changed in Folklore or History 93 . = Missing Data 6 1 = A belief it has declined 83 2 = No such belief, or no change 4 3 = A belief it has improved 625. High Value Placed on Males being Aggressive, Strong, and Sexually Potent 105 . = Missing Data 26 1 = Marked emphasis 33 2 = Moderate emphasis 22 3 = Little or no emphasis 626. (No) Belief that Women are Generally Inferior to Men (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 93 . = Missing Data 27 1 = Yes 66 2 = No such belief 627. A Statement that Women Have More Informal Influence than Formal Norms of the Society Would Make It Appear 93 . = Missing Data 49 1 = No such statement or implication 25 2 = A statement or implication of somewhat more informal influence 19 3 = A statement or implicaton of much more informal influence 628. Property Control Scale 93 . = Missing Data 4 1 = Women have low control over property 19 2 60 3 10 4 = Women have high control over property 629. Kin Power Scale 93 . = Missing Data 19 1 = Low power of women in kinship contexts 52 2 22 3 = High power of women in kinship contexts 630. Value of Life Scale 93 . = Missing Data 8 1 = Low value placed on women's lives 37 2 48 3 = High value placed on women's lives 631. Value of Labor 93 . = Missing Data 1 1 = Low value of women's labor 9 2 40 3 34 4 9 5 = High value of women's labor 632. Domestic Authority Scale 97 . = Missing Data 8 1 = Low women's domestic authority 21 2 = Med-Low 32 3 = Med-High 28 4 = High women's domestic authority 633. Ritualized Female Solidarity Scale 93 . = Missing Data 26 1 = Low female solidarity 38 2 29 3 = High female solidarity 634. Control of Sex Scale 94 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Stricter controls over women's marital and sexual lives 56 2 33 3 = More equal controls over women's marital and sexual lives 635. Ritualized Fear Scale 93 . = Missing Data 6 1 = High ritualized fear of women 18 2 69 3 = Low ritualized fear of women 636. Joint Participation Scale 95 . = Missing Data 10 1 = Low joint participation of men and women 50 2 31 3 = High joint participation of men and women notes on these codes
KIN TERM PATTERNS Murdock, George P. 1970. ETHNOLOGY 9:165-207. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. STDS25.DAT Variables 637-644 (not including 645-656) 637. PATTERNS FOR GRANDPARENTS 41 . = Missing Data 88 1 = Bisexual Pattern 25 2 = Merging Pattern 21 3 = Bifurcate Bisexual Pattern 4 4 = Matri-skewed Pattern 4 5 = Null Pattern 0 6 = Bifurcate Pattern 1 7 = Patri-Skewed Pattern 2 8 = Rare Patterns 638. PATTERNS FOR GRANDCHILDREN 45 . = Missing Data 74 1 = Merging Pattern 21 2 = Bisexual Pattern 21 3 = Self-Reciprocal Pattern 10 4 = Bifurcate Bisexual Pattern 5 5 = Null Pattern 4 6 = Speaker's Sex Pattern 2 7 = Bifurcate Pattern 4 8 = Bifuracte Speaker's Sex Pattern 0 9 = Rare Patterns 639. PATTERNS FOR UNCLES 41 . = Missing Data 44 1 = Simple Bifurcate Merging Pattern 42 2 = Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 22 3 = Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 21 4 = Lineal Pattern 7 5 = Generation Pattern 2 6 = Age-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 5 7 = Relative Age Pattern 1 8 = Speaker-Differentiated Bifurcate Merging Pattern 1 9 = Speaker-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 0 10= Rare Patterns 640. PATTERNS FOR AUNTS 41 . = Missing Data 41 1 = Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 41 2 = Bifurcate Merging Pattern 22 3 = Lineal Pattern 14 4 = Generation Pattern 16 5 = Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 5 6 = Relative Age Pattern 3 7 = Age-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 2 8 = Speaker-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 1 9 = Rare Patterns 641. PATTERNS FOR NEPHEWS AND NIECES (MALE SPEAKING) 45 . = Missing Data 30 1 = Simple Bifurcate Merging Pattern 20 2 = Sex-Differentiated Bifurcate Merging Pattern 19 3 = Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 17 4 = Simple Lineal Pattern 17 5 = Generation Pattern 15 6 = Sex-Differentiated Lineal Pattern 14 7 = Sex-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 3 8 = Age-Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 1 9 = Age-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 0 10 = Sister-Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern ? 11 = Brother-Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern 3 12 = Rare Pattern ElSbCh and YoSbCh distinguished by relative age 1 13 = Rare Pattern between 5 and 7, distinguishing BrSo, SiSo, SbDa 642. PATTERNS FOR SIBLINGS 44 . = Missing Data 31 1 = Dravidian Pattern 22 2 = European Pattern 17 3 = Yoruban Pattern 14 4 = Algonkian Pattern 6 5 = Kordofanian Pattern 9 6 = Southern Bantu Pattern 8 7 = East Polynesian Pattern 8 8 = Quechuan Pattern 6 9 = Carolinian Pattern ? 10 = Siouan Pattern 6 11 = Caddoan Pattern ? 12 = Malagasy Pattern 3 13 = Jivaran Pattern ? 14 = Voltaic Pattern ? 15 = Yukian Pattern 6 16 = Rare Patterns 643. PATTERNS FOR CROSS-COUSINS 42 . = Missing Data 42 1 = Hawaiian Pattern 39 2 = Iroquois Pattern 20 3 = Eskimo Pattern 9 4 = Omaha Pattern 17 5 = Crow Pattern 10 6 = Descriptive Pattern 7 7 = Sudanese Pattern 644. PATTERNS FOR SIBLINGS-IN-LAW 77 . = Missing Data 19 1 = Merging Pattern 12 2 = Simple Bisexual Pattern 15 3 = Speaker's Sex Bisexual Pattern 14 4 = Opposite Sex Pattern 10 5 = Null Pattern 5 6 = Differentiated Pattern 5 7 = Strongly Differentiated Pattern 4 8 = Relative Sex Pattern 6 9 = Sex-of-link Bisexual Pattern ? 10 = Spouse's Sibling vs. Sibling's Spouse Pattern ? 11 = Skewed Bisexual Pattern 1 12 = Paired Bisexual Pattern 3 13 = Potential Spouse Pattern 4 14 = Same Sex Pattern CULTURAL THEORIES OF ILLNESS George P. Murdock and Suzanne Wilson. 1978. ETHNOLOGY 17:449-470. STDS25.DAT Variables 645-656 (not including 637-644) 645. Theories of Infection 64 . = Missing data 91 1 = Absence of such a cause 30 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 0 3 = An important auxiliary cause 1 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 646. Theories of Stress 59 . = Missing data 56 1 = Absence of such a cause 68 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 3 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 647. Theories of Deterioration 58 . = Missing data 99 1 = Absence of such a cause 29 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 0 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 648. Theories of Accident 58 . = Missing data 91 1 = Absence of such a cause 37 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 0 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 649. Theories of Fate 59 . = Missing data 99 1 = Absence of such a cause 27 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 1 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 650. Theories of Ominous Sensation 59 . = Missing data 90 1 = Absence of such a cause 37 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 0 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 651. Theories of Contagion 58 . = Missing data 81 1 = Absence of such a cause 46 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 1 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 652. Theories of Mystical Retribution 55 . = Missing data 26 1 = Absence of such a cause 68 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 32 3 = An important auxiliary cause 5 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 653. Theories of Soul Loss 59 . = Missing data 96 1 = Absence of such a cause 30 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 1 3 = An important auxiliary cause 0 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 654. Theories of Spirit Aggression 55 . = Missing data 2 1 = Absence of such a cause 18 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 37 3 = An important auxiliary cause 74 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 655. Theories of Sorcery 56 . = Missing data 16 1 = Absence of such a cause 45 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 45 3 = An important auxiliary cause 24 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society 656. Theories of Witchcraft 55 . = Missing data 81 1 = Absence of such a cause 24 2 = Minor or relatively unimportant cause 17 3 = An important auxiliary cause 9 4 = Predominant cause recognized by the society notes on these codes
FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE Sanday, Peggy. 1981. FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE. Previously unpublished. STDS26.DAT Variables 657-679 657. Flexible Marriage Mores (Divorce for both men and women: or mild punishment for adultery) 44 . = Missing data 28 1 = Absent 114 2 = Present 658. Females Produce Goods for Nondomestic Distribution 34 . = Missing data 27 1 = Absent 125 2 = Present 659. Demand for Female Produce beyond Household 51 . = Missing data 40 1 = Absent 95 2 = Present 660. Female Economic Control of Products of Own Labor 47 . = Missing data 41 1 = Absent 98 2 = Present 661. Female Political Participation, at least informal influence 41 . = Missing data 62 1 = Absent 83 2 = Present 662. Female Solidarity Groups, formal or informal 56 . = Missing data 93 1 = Absent 37 2 = Present 663. Female Power Guttman Scale constructed from 657-662 53 . = Missing data 11 1 = all items absent 9 2 = flexible marriage mores only (657) 5 3 = plus female nondomestic production (658) 13 4 = plus demand for female produce (659) 23 5 = plus female economic control (660) 41 6 = plus female political participation (661) 31 7 = plus female solidarity groups (662) 664. Ideology of Male Toughness 78 . = Missing data 21 1 = Absent 87 2 = Present 665. Male Segregation: One or more places where males congregate alone, or males occupy a separate part of the household, or there is sharp ceremonial segregation of the sexes. 75 . = Missing data 24 1 = Absent 87 2 = Present 666. Moderate or Frequent Interpersonal Violence 55 . = Missing data 43 1 = Absent 88 2 = Present 667. Rape: Incidents reports, or thought of as means of punishment women, or part of ceremony. 91 . = Missing data 45 1 = Absent 50 2 = Present 668. At least some Wives taken from Hostile Groups 55 . = Missing data 84 1 = Absent 47 2 = Present 669. Male Aggression Guttman Scale constructed from 664-668 79 . = Missing data 15 1 = no items present (none of 664-668) 5 2 = ideology of male toughness only (664) 18 3 = plus separate places for men (665) 12 4 = plus interpersonal violence (666) 19 5 = plus rape institutionalized or reported (667) 38 6 = plus taking wives from hostile groups (668) 670. Composite of Male Dominance constructed from 663 plus 669 (657-669) 47 . = Missing data 45 1 = sexes `equal' -- i.e., female power scale 5 or above, and male aggression scale 4 or below 55 2 = `mythical' male -- female power scale 5 or above, and male aggression scale 5 or above 39 3 = sexes `unequal' -- female power scale 4 or below `Pollution' Beliefs 671. Menstrual Taboos (H16) 76 . = Missing data 8 1 = no menstrual restrictions 26 2 = one restriction present 25 3 = two restrictions 17 4 = three 15 5 = four 19 6 = five 672. Male Avoidance of Female Sexuality (A11) * (check if correct assignment of codes) 76 . = Missing data 26 1 = none 51 2 = sexual intercourse prohibited during menstruation 31 3 = sexual intercourse prohibited at other times also 8 4 = men avoid or fear female genitals Creation Stories 673. Sex of Creative Agent, Ancestor, or Culture-Hero 147 . = Missing data 6 1 = Female 2 2 = Sexless 6 3 = Couple 9 4 = Male 3 5 = Animal 13 6 = Supreme being or force 674. Origin of First Creator or Ancestor 147 . = Missing data, or no information 13 1 = From within (`feminine') 3 2 = From within and without 21 3 = From without (`masculine') 2 4 = Void 675. Mode of First-Mentioned Creation 147 . = Missing data 14 1 = From the body: Union and/or birth 2 2 = From the body: Self-propagation 20 3 = From other than the body 3 4 = Cannot be determined 676. Creation Stories (composite of 675 and 674, plus additional societies) Sanday p244: masculine-feminine (reverse) and inner-outer 74 . = Missing 20 1 = feminine symbolism 36 2 = couple symbolism 56 3 = masculine symbolism * Note: information in Table C.4 sufficient to distinguish: 74 . = Missing 1 = feminine symbolism 2 = masculine-feminine symbolism: ambiguous 3 = couple symbolism 4 = masculine symbolism: discrepant feminine element also present 5 = masculine symbolism Predictor Variables 677. Migration 81 . = Missing data 47 1 = aboriginal area or migrated centures ago 58 2 = recent migration, within past 100-150 years, or people are said to be migrating conquerors 678. Food Stress or Hunger 48 . = Missing data 47 1 = food constant 62 2 = occasional hunger or famine 26 3 = periodic or chronic hunger 3 4 = starvation or evidence of protein deficiency (note: exact coding distinction between 3 and 4 unclear) 679. Warfare or Fighting 53 . = Missing data 41 1 = absent or occasional or periodical 92 2 = frequent or endemic notes on these codes
FEMALE STATUS: INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Whyte, Martin K. 1978. THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN PREINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES. Princeton University Press. Previously Unpublished. STDS27.DAT Variables 680-709 STDS28.DAT Variables 710-738 Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study. 680. Plow 94 . = Missing data 66 1 = Absent 26 2 = Present 681. Irrigation 100 . = Missing data 55 1 = Absent 31 2 = Present 682. Cereal Grains the Principal Crop 94 . = Missing data 45 1 = Absent 47 2 = Present 683. Roots or Tubers the Principal Crop 93 . = Missing data 71 1 = Absent 22 2 = Present 684. Tree Fruits and Starches the Principal Crops 94 . = Missing data 82 1 = Absent 10 2 = Present 685. Large Nonmilked Aboriginal Domestic Animals 99 . = Missing data 75 1 = Absent 12 2 = Present 686. Large Milked Aboriginal Domestic Animals 96 . = Missing data 61 1 = Absent 29 2 = Present 687. Small Aboriginal Domestic Animals - excluding dogs, cats, fowl, guinea pigs 98 . = Missing data 39 1 = Absent 49 2 = Present 688. Large Domestic Animals, only since European contact 94 . = Missing data 77 1 = Absent 12 2 = Present 689. Small Domestic Animals, only since European contact 106 . = Missing data 71 1 = Absent 9 2 = Present Hunting 690. Large Animals are Hunted and Important to the Diet 100 . = Missing data 44 1 = Absent 42 2 = Present 691. Small Animals are Hunted and Important to the Diet 104 . = Missing data 35 1 = Absent 47 2 = Present 692. Intermediate Animals are Hunted and Important to the Diet 104 . = Missing data 33 1 = Absent 49 2 = Present Warfare 693. Frequency of Intercommunity Armed Conflict 95 . = Missing data 49 1 = Past, supralocal, or absent 42 2 = Present and endemic local warfare (collapsed from an original five categories) Male Solidarity 694. Male Initiation Ceremonies (Guttman Scale - see Frank Young, 1965) 111 . = Missing data 37 1 = No initiation 10 2 = Minimal social recognition 7 3 = Personal dramatization of the initiate 3 4 = Organized social response 18 5 = Affective social response: beating, hazing or operations (coefficient of scalability = .76) 695. Male Solidarity (Guttman Scale - see Young and Bacdayan 1965) 93 . = Missing data 57 1 = No institutionalized male solidarity 7 2 = Some exclusive male activity protected by physical or normative barriers 6 3 = Ritualization given to this activity 14 4 = Definite ranking of men within this activity 9 5 = War training or planning a part of this activity (scalability = .88) Matrilineal Descent 696. Matrilineal Descent 93 . = Missing data 76 1 = Patrilineal, dual, bilateral, or other 17 2 = Matrilineal 697. Matrilocal Residence 96 . = Missing data 72 1 = All other 18 2 = Matrilocal Extended Families 698. Preferred Family Form (adapted from Murdock 1961) 97 . = Missing data 26 1 = Nuclear 23 2 = Stem 10 3 = Lineal 30 4 = Extended Political and Legal 699. Political Organization (adapted from Murdock 1961, p. 207) 93 . = Missing data 11 1 = Absence of local political integration - family heads acknowledge no higher authority 40 2 = Autonomous local community -- population below 1500 13 3 = Minimal State -- political integration in independent units averaging 1500 - 10,000 27 4 = Little State -- political integration in independent units averaging 10,000 - 100,000 2 5 = State political integration in a unit of 100,000 plu 700. Crimes against Person Punished 94 . = Missing data 37 1 = By person or group wronged 55 2 = By government action 701. (No) Government full-time Bureaucrats (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 94 . = Missing data 62 1 = Full time bureaucrats unrelated to government head 30 2 = No full time bureaucrats, or only relatives of head 702. Community is part of a Kingdom (defined as a centralized political unit with centralized organs of political control, power to tax, and rule concentrated in a single office, which is hereditary -- following Stephens 1963) 99 . = Missing data 70 1 = No 17 2 = Yes 703. Community part of a Kingdom in the past that no longer exists 99 . = Missing data 74 1 = No 13 2 = Yes Private Property 704. Private Property reversal correction of code labels in 2013 by Martin K. Whyte, correct in the original, p. 205. 102 . = Missing data 70 1 = Present 14 2 = Absent Complexity 705. Settlement Type 93 . = Missing data 7 1 = Fully migratory or nomadic bands 21 2 = Seminomadic - bands which wander for at least half the year, but occupy a fixed settlement for some season(s) 22 3 = Neighborhoods of dispersed family settlements 28 4 = Separated hamlets, where several form more or less a single permanent community 12 5 = Compact and permanent village or town 3 6 = Complex settlements surrounded by homesteads or hamlets considered part of the community 706. Metalworking 100 . = Missing data 33 1 = Absent 53 2 = Present 707. Manufacture of Pottery 96 . = Missing data 26 1 = Absent 64 2 = Present 708. True Weaving 100 . = Missing data 43 1 = Absent 43 2 = Present 709. Social Stratification in the Larger Society 94 . = Missing data 24 1 = Lack of significant stratification among free men 31 2 = Differences in wealth and control, but not crystallized into distinct and hereditary social classes 11 3 = Dual stratification into hereditary elites and commoners 26 4 = Complex stratification into three or more classes/castes notes on these codes
STDS28.DAT Variables 710-738 710. Social Stratification in the Local Community 93 . = Missing data 29 1 = Lack of significant stratification among free men 36 2 = Differences in wealth and control, but not crystallized into distinct and hereditary social classes 8 3 = Dual stratification into hereditary elites and commoners 18 4 = Complex stratification into three or more classes/castes 711. Societal Complexity (Guttman Scale - Freeman and Winch 1957) 93 . = Missing data 37 1 = Absence of all traits in scale 13 2 = Crimes punished by government (704) 9 3 = Full-time specialized priests 1 4 = Formal education 8 5 = Written language 25 6 = Full-time bureaucrats (705) (scalability .643, a shade below accepted minimum of .65) 712. Institutionalized Envy (scaled by unweighted sum for presence or absence of four correlated indicators -- (a) men imitate women, (b) women imitate men, and (c) exclusive mother-infant sleeping, and (3) exclusive mother-child sleeping). Constructed arithmetically from means and cutting points. 100 . = Missing data 13 1 = No items present 14 2 = One or two item present 59 3 = Three of four items present Classical Religion 713. (Pre-Classical) Religion (**inaccurate for 27, see 713rev from 1807: additional 85 coded) in a previous edition of the codebook codes 1-3 were reversed 3-1 as were the frequencies for the named categories. 93 . = Missing data 14 1 = Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism) 31 2 = Mixture of classical and preclassical 48 3 = Preclassical 713rev. (Pre-Classical) Religion (retains 713 codes,takes new values from 2002-1807: additional 85 coded) This recode occurs in the SPSS edition but not SCCS.Rdata or sccs.Rdata where it is identical to 713. 0 . = Missing data 39 1 = Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism) 31 2 = Mixture of classical and preclassical 116 3 = Preclassical v713rev. Revised v713 Classical religions Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 39 1 Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism) 31 2 Mixture of classical and preclassical 116 3 Preclassical SHOULD THIS BE? 8 . = Missing data 26 1 = Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism) 36 2 = Mixture of classical and preclassical 116 3 = Preclassical Female Shortage 714. Sex Ratio 96 . = Missing data 10 1 = Female excess 60 2 = Roughly equal 20 3 = Male excess N=90 * Reliability high: Pearson R=-.595 as compared with N=59 v1689 cutpoints v1649: 1 < 95, 2 intermediate, 3 > 102.5 crosstab Male excess normal Female excess 10 1 = Female excess 0 3 5 60 2 = Roughly equal 3 2 4 20 3 = Male excess 7 2 0 Pvalue = 0.000000000083 N=121 for a combination of both variables r=.956 715. Systematic Absences of Married Males (Military service, Labor elsewhere, Extended trade expeditions, etc.) 94 . = Missing data 38 1 = No systematic absences 2 = Systematic absences -- not presently, but within 6 memory of present adults 48 3 = Systematic absences common presently Quality Control Variables 716. Sex of Coders 93 . = Missing data 12 1 = Both male 43 2 = Male and female 38 3 = Both female 717. Number of Sources Consulted 93 . = Missing data 11 1 = One 23 2 = Two 27 3 = Three 21 4 = Four or five 11 5 = Six to nine 718. Number of Authorities Consulted 93 . = Missing data 27 1 = One 31 2 = Two 17 3 = Three 18 4 = Four to seven 719. Total Pages in Sources Consulted 93 . = Missing data 15 1 = Under 300 22 2 = 300-499 44 3 = 500-999 12 4 = Over 1000 720. Sex of Authorities 93 . = Missing data 66 1 = All males 23 2 = Mixed males and females 4 3 = All females 721. Nationality of Authorities 93 . = Missing data 28 1 = All Americans 28 2 = Some Americans 37 3 = None Americans 722. Occupation of Authorities 95 . = Missing data (or some or all unknown) 55 1 = No anthropologist 30 2 = Some anthropologists 6 3 = All anthropologists 723. Formal Fieldwork training of authorities 94 . = Missing data (or some or all unknown) 56 1 = All had some 29 2 = some had 7 3 = None had any 724. Knowledge of native language **(e.g., by ethnographers) 99 . = Missing data (or some or all unknown) 52 1 = All knew it well 33 2 = Some knew it well 2 3 = None knew it well 725. Total periods of fieldwork 97 . = Missing data (or some or all unknown) 11 1 = One year or less 36 2 = One to three years 42 3 = More than three years 726. Anthropological Present 93 . = Missing data 8 1 = Before 1800 A.D. 34 2 = 1801-1900 40 3 = 1901-1950 11 4 = After 1950 A.D. 727. Importance of Agriculture in Subsistence, including gardening 728. Importance of Animal Husbandry in Subsistence 729. Importance of Fishing, Shellfishing and Marine Hunting 730. Importance of Hunting and Gathering in Subsistence 731. Importance of Handicrafts, Manufacturing 732. Importance of Trade in Subsistence 728 (raising domestic animals, using milk, eggs, etc. -- even if this involves only the raising of draft animals for use in agriculture) 731 (insofar as they contribute to subsistence, defined as supplying the overall needs for food, clothing, and shelter of the community) 732 (include trade conducted to gain needed subsistence items, not simply exchange of ceremonial items; measure of extent to which members of the community depend upon trading in order to acquire items needed for subsistence that they do not produce themselves) 727728729730731732 . = Missing data 93 93 93 93 93 93 1 = Dominant, the principal subsistence activity 43 6 4 12 0 0 2 = Co-dominant with one or more other categories 20 12 13 14 1 3 3 = Important, but not a major subsistence activity 6 32 26 28 42 33 4 = Present, but relatively unimportant 2 14 19 24 44 44 5 = Insignificant, sporadic, or absent 22 29 31 15 6 13 2 = Co-dominant, sharing position of principal subsistence activity with one or more other categories 4 = Present, but relatively unimportant as a subsistence activity 733. Contribution of the Sexes to Agriculture 734. Contribution of the Sexes to Animal Husbandry 735. Contribution of the Sexes to Fishing, Shellfishing, and Marine Hunting 736. Contribution of the Sexes to Hunting and Gathering 737. Relative Contribution of the Sexes to Handicrafts and Manufacture 738. Relative Contribution of the Sexes to Trade 733 734 735 736 737 738 . = Missing data 93 93 93 93 93 93 1 = Male participation exclusively, or 6 12 25 10 4 16 female contribution negligible 2 = Male participation appreciably greater 18 17 18 19 21 15 3 = Equal participation 22 11 13 37 44 24 4 = Female participation appreciably greater 17 7 2 6 10 5 5 = Female participation exclusively, or 3 4 2 1 1 3 male contribution negligible 6 = Activity conducted solely by slaves or 27 42 33 20 13 30 members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION notes on these codes
HUSBAND-WIFE RELATIONSHIPS Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene. 1983. ETHNOLOGY 22:263-280. STDS29.DAT Variables 739-755 739. Marriage Arrangements 38 . = Missing data 46 1 = Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: approval by parents or others unnecessary 26 2 = Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or highly desireable 5 3 = Individual suggests partner to parents or others: arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed if choice is approved OR parents ask approval of individuals to initiate a match OR individual is approached by parent or others on behalf of suitor and can accept or reject the match 27 4 = Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives 25 5 = Parents choose partner: individual can object 19 6 = Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object or rarely objects in fact 740. Marriage Arrangements (Female) 35 . = Missing data 12 1 = Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: approval by parents or others unnecessary 40 2 = Individual selects and/or courts partner authonomously: parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or highly desireable 4 3 = Individual suggests partner to parents or others; arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed if choice is approved OR parents ask approval of individuals to initiate a match OR individual is approached by parent or others on behalf of suitor and can accept or reject the match 27 4 = Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives 35 5 = Parents choose partner: individual can object 33 6 = Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object or rarely objects in fact 741. Widow Remarriage: Choice of Partner 94 . = Missing data 28 1 = Widow chooses new husband herself with no outside interferences 27 2 = Remarriage into first husband's kin group usually or preferred, but widow can choose new husband from elsewhere if she wishes 4 3 = Widow chooses new husband herself, but from first husband's kin group or community 27 4 = Widow's husband's kin chooses new husband 6 5 = Remarriage is absent, uncommon, or strongly disapproved 742. Time of Mourning Before Remarriage of Widows 147 . = Missing data 4 1 = No period of mourning: remarriage as soon as possible 3 2 = One week to two months of mourning 9 3 = Over two months but less than one year of mourning 18 4 = One year or over of mourning 5 5 = No remarriage 743. (Neg) Attitude towards Divorce (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 126 . = Missing data 11 1 = Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved 16 2 = Mildly disapproved, e.g., attempts by others to reconcile couple, marriages expected to be permanent but divorce accepted without stigma if inevitable 11 3 = Approved if reasons are considered justified; otherwise disapproved 11 4 = Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved in first years of marriage and/or before children; otherwise disapproved 11 5 = Strongly disapproved; stigma attached to divorce 744. (Neg) Frequency of Divorce (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 101 . = Missing data 8 1 = Universal or almost universal 31 2 = Common, frequent, not uncommon 11 3 = Moderate: a small minority of couples divorce 10 4 = Frequent in first years of marriage and/or before children; rare thereafter 25 5 = Rare, isolated instances, never 745. Grounds for Divorce (Male) 105 . = Missing data 54 1 = No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equaly easy or difficult with out without justification 17 2 = Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is financially, legally and/or socially earlier with them 7 3 = Divorce only with grounds 3 4 = No divorce 746. Grounds for Divorce (Female) 104 . = Missing data 39 1 = No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equally easy or difficult with or without justification 30 2 = Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is financially, legally and/or socially earier with them 9 3 = Divorce only with grounds 4 4 = No divorce 747. Honeymoon Customs 134 . = Missing data 6 1 = Couple goes off alone or is secluded for some period 7 2 = Special schedules set up to allow couple to spend time together; e.g., coule given special dispensation to work together, visit or receive visitors together 20 3 = Special schedules set up for newlyweds, but not necessarily for the purpose of allowing them time together, e.g., wife excused from housework, visitors received by spouses separately, wife secluded 11 4 = No special arrangements for newlyweds 8 5 = Newlyweds avoid each others, either by tradition or from shyness 748. Customs surrounding Consummation of Marriage 120 . = Missing data 21 1 = Socially recognized as a special occasion and couple granted privacy 6 2 = Special occasion and private, but signal of consummation proof of potency, virginity awaited by others 8 3 = Special occasion, others present 31 4 = Not a special occasion 749. Living Arrangements for Newlyweds 70 . = Missing data 43 1 = Couple move into own house ideally or in reality 12 2 = Couple move in with parents, but separate room or partitioned area is provided 29 3 = Couple move in with parents for first year or so and then set up a separate household 26 4 = Couple live permanently in extended family setting; no special arrangements for newlyweds 5 5 = Couple live separated from each other for a period of time 750. (Distant) Sleeping Proximity between Husbands and Wives (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 76 . = Missing data 43 1 = Same room and close proximity: e.g., same bed, same blanket, touching, back to back, adjacent sleeping places allocated to spouses 15 2 = Same room but no close proximity: e.g., different beds, different hammocks, different sections of room 45 3 = Same room, proximity unknown 7 4 = Different rooms 751. (Low) Privacy in Sleeping for Husbands and Wives (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (Only if Husband and Wife sleep in Same Room) 96 . = Missing data 6 1 = Husband and wife sleep together alone or with infants 13 2 = Husband and wife sleep with prepubescent children 6 3 = Unmarried members of nuclear family sleep with husband and wife, but either sons or daughters sleep elsewhere after early childhood 22 4 = All members of nuclear family below marriageable age sleep with husband and wife 11 5 = Other adults occasionally sleep with husband and and wife; e.g., other adult dependents who are temporary members of the newlyweds household 32 6 = Other adults permanently sleep with husband and wife 752. (No) Husband-Wife Eating Arrangements (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 76 . = Missing data 71 1 = Husband and wife usually eat together 11 2 = Husband and wife are together during meals; wife does not eat with husband, but serves him and/or converses 28 3 = Husband and wife often, usually, or always eat apart 753. (No) Husband-Wife Leisure Time Activities (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 88 . = Missing data 4 1 = Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together and at home, alone or with nuclear or extended family members 21 2 = Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together at home, and sometimes together in a group (e.g., they go over or have visitors); same-sex activities may be present, but they are not salient 21 3 = Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together, but group activities are emphasized: e.g., couple go to dances together, spend their time habitually in camp with others 28 4 = Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together as a couple or in a group, but sex- segregated activities are also salient: e.g., couple goes to dances, market together, but then join same-sex group 24 5 = Husband and wife generally spend leisure time apart: same-sex activities prgdominate 754. Wife-Beating 116 . = Missing data 14 1 = Absent 56 2 = Present 755. (No) Husband Attends Birth (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 118 . = Missing data 11 1 = Husbands expected or allowed to attend the births of their children and usually do 4 2 = No taboo against presence of husband at births but husbands often (?) or usually are absent 4 3 = Husbands attend births only in emergencies 8 4 = Husbands not allowed to attend births, but have specific tasks or roles associated with labor or delivery 41 5 = Husbands not allowed to attend births and are explicitly barred from playing any role in labor or delivery notes on these codes
POLITICAL DECISION MAKING AND CONFLICT Marc Ross, 1983. Political Decision Making and Conflict: Additional Cross-Cultural Codes and Scales. Ethnology 22: 169-192. STDS30.DAT 756. (Low) Political Role Differentiation: Full Time Specialists and their Differentiation from Others in the Society (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 96 . = Missing data 18 1 = Highly differentiated by wealth, special titles or life style 10 2 = Moderately differentiated 11 3 = Somewhat wealthier but share much of life style by age, gender 7 4 = Same life style, may be older and have somewhat more prestige 18 5 = Few exist but leadership roles present, wealthier than others 15 6 = Few exist but leadership roles present, same life style (as #4) 11 7 = None exist, no permanent leadership roles 757. Political and Religious Differentiation 103 . = Missing data 23 1 = Consider overlap between political and religious leaders 30 2 = Some overlap 30 3 = Distinct 758. Local Community Leadership Selection: Basis 96 . = Missing data 21 1 = Kinship; highly constrained 25 2 = Kinship; broad choice within group 31 3 = Non-hereditary, personal characteristics involved 13 4 = Informal, shifts across situations 759. Perceptions of Political Leaders' Power as seen by Society 96 . = Missing data 24 1 = Very powerful 29 2 = Somewhat powerful, often variable across leaders, situations 37 3 = Limited 760. Perceptions of Political Leaders' Benevolence as seen by Society 120 . = Missing data 16 1 = Capricious and arbitrary, power used to further own interests 13 2 = Neither particularly malevolent nor benevolent in use of power 37 3 = Basically benevolent, working in interest of entire community 761. Checks on Leaders' Power 100 . = Missing data 5 1 = Few, or those which exist not invoked very often 24 2 = Checks exist which seem to make leaders sensitive to populace 38 3 = Leaders carefully secure substantial support before taking action 19 4 = No leaders act independently lest their community backing lost 762. (No) Removal of Leaders who are incompetent or disliked (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 109 . = Missing data 11 1 = No way other than rebellion or popular uprisings 18 2 = Institutionalized means invoked occasionally, possibly by elites 30 3 = Not removed in formal manner but lose influence and are ignored 18 4 = No formal leadership, loss of power when support diminishes 763. (Low) Leaders' Exercise of Authority (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 99 . = Missing data 24 1 = Frequently act independently and make authoritative decisions 26 2 = Make relatively few decisions on own without consultation 37 3 = Use persuasion to help organized and structure group action 764. (Few) Decision Making Bodies: How most decisions are made (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 98 . = Missing data 23 1 = Individual(s), perhaps with advice of few advisors 16 2 = Individual(s), working with an elite council 14 3 = Individual(s), working with a broad based council 19 4 = Broad based community council 16 5 = Few explicit decisions, some made by community at large 765. (Low) Political Participation: Range of Community Decision Making, or extent to which community control is exercised over different areas of life through collective decision making, which may be of a formal or informal nature. (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 98 . = Missing data 26 1 = Collective decisions impinge on many aspects of people's lives 18 2 = Collective decisions impinge on a moderate number of areas 25 3 = Collective decisions impinge on few aspects of people's lives 19 4 = Minimal collective decisions which impinge on people's lives 766. (Low) Political Participation: Extensivity of Adult Participation in Areas where collective Decision Making present (VAR LABEL REVERSED) . 102 . = Missing data 13 1 = Widespread: decision making forums open to all adults and involvement is relatively great 31 2 = High or some: widespread for some groups, but exclusion of others on the basis of gender, age, or kinship status 24 3 = Moderate: some consultation present but low input from community 16 4 = Low or non-existent: Leaders make most decisions and involvement of average person highly limited or absent 767. (No) Conflict (Social or Political) in the Local Community (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 96 . = Missing data 4 1 = Endemic: a reality of daily existence (e.g., physical violence, feuding, bitter factionalism) 20 2 = High: Conflict present but not a pervasive aspect of daily life 46 3 = Moderate: Disagreements and differences do not result in high violence or severe disruption 20 4 = Mild or rare 768. (No) Conflict between Communities of the Same Society (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 97 . = Missing data 25 1 = Endemic: High physical violence, feuding, and/or raiding occur regularly 23 2 = Moderately High, often involving physical violence 21 3 = Moderate: Disputes may occur regularly but tendency to manage them in a more or less peaceful manner 20 4 = Mild or rare 769. Conflict Management in Local Community: Dominant Mode 98 . = Missing data 31 1 = Conflicting parties encouraged to find a solution on their own 27 2 = Conflicting parties easily draw new parties in but pressures for resolving disputes using informal mechanisms 30 3 = Authorities often get involved and work to achieve a settlement 770. (No) Resort to Physical Force by Disputants in settling disputes, Exclusive of Police or institutionalized force, (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 96 . = Missing data 34 1 = Often used 32 2 = Sometimes used 24 3 = Rarely or never used 771. (No) Mediation/Negotiation/Arbitration: Third parties in disputes, unable to impose a binding decision, but may facilitate settlement (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 98 . = Missing data 57 1 = Often used (to settle disputes) 19 2 = Sometimes used 12 3 = Rarely or never used 772. (No) Litigation: Use of third parties offering binding decisions, with or without formal court systems (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 97 . = Missing data 27 1 = Frequent involvement in litigation by society members 21 2 = Occasional involvement 41 3 = Rare or non-involvement 773. (No) Internal Warfare (Between communities of same society) (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 101 . = Missing data 31 1 = Frequent, occurring at least yearly 14 2 = Common, at least every five years 10 3 = Occasional, at least every generation 30 4 = Rare or never 774. (No) External Warfare (with other societies) (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 102 . = Missing data 45 1 = Frequent, occurring at least yearly 13 2 = Common, at least every five years 6 3 = Occasional, at least every generation 20 4 = Rare or never 775. (Low) Compliance of Individuals with Community Norms and Decisions (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 100 . = Missing data 43 1 = High 31 2 = Moderate 12 3 = Highly Variable 776. (Few) Formal Sanctions and Enforcement for Community Decisions (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 96 . = Missing data 23 1 = Great sanctioning power available 32 2 = Some 35 3 = Little or none 777. (No) Enforcement Specialists (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (e.g., Police, Tax Collectors) 97 . = Missing data 29 1 = Present 21 2 = Not specialized but done by leaders who do other things as well 39 3 = Absent, or carried out by social pressure of wider community 778. (Low) Loyalty to the Local Community (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 103 . = Missing data 30 1 = Especially high 33 2 = High 14 3 = Moderate 6 4 = Low 779. (Low) Loyalty to the Wider Society (in some cases indistinguishable from the local community) (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 102 . = Missing data 11 1 = Especially high -- uniformly high across groups 16 2 = High for the most part across groups in the society 33 3 = Moderate -- some noticeable variation across groups in society 24 4 = Low -- not terribly salient or rarely important as a concern 780. (Low) Hostility toward other Societies (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 112 . = Missing data 28 1 = Extensive: bitter feelings toward almost all outsiders 18 2 = High: bitter feelings toward outsiders, but not always 17 3 = Moderate: sometimes bitter feelings, but much differentiation 11 4 = Low: little hostility toward outsiders 781. (Un)Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the local Community (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 100 . = Missing data 1 = Valued 7 2 = Acceptable 18 3 = Tolerated 61 4 = Disapproved 782. (Un)Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the Same Society, but outside the Local Community (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 109 . = Missing data 12 1 = Valued 28 2 = Acceptable 10 3 = Tolerated 27 4 = Disapproved 783. (Un)Acceptability of Violence toward people in Other Societies (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 122 . = Missing data 39 1 = Valued 16 2 = Acceptable 3 3 = Tolerated 6 4 = Disapproved 784. (No) Taxation Paid to Community (e.g., in agricultural produce, labor, finished goods) (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 101 . = Missing data 31 1 = Regular and non-negligible taxes to community 20 2 = Only in special situations or Modest level 34 3 = None 785. (No) Local Political Fission of Dissatisfied Persons (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 122 . = Missing data 30 1 = Often move to another community following disputes 20 2 = Sometimes move to another community following disputes 14 3 = Rarely or never move to another community following disputes 786. Adult Mobility 107 . = Missing data 18 1 = Adults generally attached to particular communities throughout their lives, especially after marriage 22 2 = Individuals occasionally move to new communities as adults 39 3 = Movement between communities is quite common for adults 787. (Low) Contact with Other Societies (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 99 . = Missing data 45 1 = Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. 28 2 = Occasional but not often 14 3 = Rare or never 788. Cross-Cutting Ties: extent to which individuals living in different communities of the same society linked together in politically relevant ways 97 . = Missing data 34 1 = No politically relevant links, formal organizations, or strong informal obligations which extend beyond the local community 30 2 = Some politically relevant ties, but wider society divided into some discrete groups not linked through cross-cutting ties 25 3 = Cross-cutting ties link individuals throughout the society, cutting across territorial groups in one or more ways 789. Type of Cross-Cutting ties: Age Organizations (Grades, Sets) Cutting across Communities 97 . = Missing data 78 1 = Absent 5 2 = Present but not politically important 6 3 = Present and political important 790. Type of Cross-Cutting ties: Kinship Organizations cutting across Communities 96 . = Missing data 23 1 = Absent 27 2 = Present but not politically important 40 3 = Present and political important 791. Type of Cross-Cutting Ties: Moieties cutting across Communities 97 . = Missing data 76 1 = Absent 8 2 = Present but not politically important 5 3 = Present and political important 792. Types of Cross-Cutting Ties: Ritual Organizations (Religious, Cult Groups) cutting across Communities 97 . = Missing data 42 1 = Absent 27 2 = Present but not politically important 20 3 = Present and political important 793. (Low) Female Participation in Public Political Arenas, Relative to Males (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 106 . = Missing data 8 1 = High: in some situations equal to or greater than that of men 27 2 = Significant but not as high as male involvement 19 3 = Not great but clearly some role for women in public aspects of political life 26 4 = Women generally excluded from public aspects of politics 794. (Low) Female Participation in Private Political Arenas, Relative to Males (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 120 . = Missing data 35 1 = High: in some situations equal to or greater than that of men 15 2 = Significant but not as high as male involvement 12 3 = Not great but clearly some role for women in private aspects of political life 4 4 = Women do not seem to get involved in political life in private arenas 795. (Low) Gender differences in Political or Quasi-Political Positions of Authority (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 102 . = Missing data 8 1 = Women and men eligible for some of the same positions and women commonly do so 18 2 = Women and men eligible for some of the same positions and women occasionally do so 7 3 = Women rarely, if ever, hold some of the same positions regardless of rules of eligibility 51 4 = The same political positions are not open to both women and men 796. (No) Separate Female Organizations and Positions (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 117 . = Missing data 22 1 = Some associations or organizations under exclusive control of women 15 2 = No associations but some positions of authority for which only women are eligible 32 3 = No associations or positions exclusively controlled by women 797. (Low) Coder Assessment of Data Quality (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 96 . = Missing data 14 1 = Especially high -- judgments not difficult to make 31 2 = Good -- some missing data, those available seemed good 34 3 = Moderate but acceptable -- a good deal of inference sometimes required 11 4 = Weak for certain variables with much missing data and only the most general descriptions for some domains notes on these codes
DATA QUALITY CONTROL VARIABLES FOR CHILD TRAINING Ronald P. Rohner, D. Scott Berg, and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1982. Data Quality Control in the Standard Sample: Cross-Cultural Codes. Ethnology 21: 359-372. STDS31.DAT The references used for coding the sample were derived from Barry and Paxson's (1971) research on infancy and childhood. 798. Date of Publication 1 78 = 1780-89 1 82 = 1820-29 3 85 = 1850-59 86 = 1860-69 1 87 = 1870-79 5 88 = 1880-89 2 89 = 1890-99 4 90 = 1900-09 8 91 = 1910-19 14 92 = 1920-29 34 93 = 1930-39 24 94 = 1940-49 48 95 = 1950-59 39 96 = 1960-69 2 97 = 1970-79 799. Number of Pages in the Book 38 0 = 0-99 28 1 = 100-199 38 2 = 200-299 32 3 = 300-399 21 4 = 400-499 10 5 = 500-599 11 6 = 600-699 3 7 = 700-799 8 = 800-899 9 = 900-999 1 10 = 1000-1099 11 = 1100-1199 12 = 1200-1299 1 13 = 1300-1399 2 14 = 1400-1499 800. Number of Pages Related to Child Training Practices 130 0 = 0-9 29 1 = 10-19 8 2 = 20-29 3 3 = 30-39 3 4 = 40-49 2 5 = 50-59 4 6 = 60-69 2 7 = 70-79 3 8 = 80-89 9 = 90-99 10 = 100-109 11 = 110-119 1 12 = 120-129 1 27 = 270-279 801. Proportion of Book Devoted to Child Training 0 - 99% 802. Year Fieldwork Began 113 . = missing data 1 86 = 1860-69 87 = 1870-79 2 88 = 1880-89 1 89 = 1890-99 3 90 = 1900-09 5 91 = 1910-19 10 92 = 1920-29 18 93 = 1930-39 13 94 = 1940-49 17 95 = 1950-59 3 96 = 1960-69 97 = 1970-79 803. Total Months of Fieldwork 103 . = missing data 7 2 = 3 3 = 3 4 = 3 5 = 4 6 = 3 7 = 2 8 = 5 9 = 6 10 = 1 11 = 7 12 = 1 13 = 2 14 = 2 15 = 1 16 = 17 = 4 18 = 31 19 = nineteen and over (up to 99) 804. Age of Informants 106 . = missing data 66 1 = Adults 14 2 = Children and Adults 805. Sex of Informants 106 . = missing data 39 1 = Males 6 2 = Females 35 3 = Both 806. Number of Informants 105 . = missing data 14 1 = 1 31 2 = 2 or 3 20 3 = 4 through 7 2 4 = 8 through 10 14 5 = 11 or more 807. Repeated Observation of Different Families' Socialization Practices 122 . = missing data 1 1 = No (but not distinguished from missing data) 63 2 = Yes [Note: in this and the next three codes, missing data entries could not be clearly distinguished from cases where the verification efforts identified by the codes were not used.] 808. Use of Multiple Informants to collect data on Child Rearing 118 . = missing data 1 1 = No (but not distinguished from missing data) 67 2 = Yes 809. Use of Tests (e.g., Rorschach, TAT, sentence completion, I.Q.) 166 . = missing data 1 1 = No (but not distinguished from missing data) 19 2 = Yes 810. Other Verification Efforts 178 . = missing data 1 1 = No (but not distinguished from missing data) 7 2 = Yes 811. Number of Verification Efforts 90 . = missing data 5 0 = none 41 1 36 2 3 3 5 4 6 5 = 5 or more 812. Language Familiarity **(e.g., by ethnographers) 97 . = missing data 31 1 = Little or none 35 2 = Some 23 3 = Fluent 813. Community Involvement **(e.g., by ethnographers) 95 . = missing data 17 1 = Limited 38 2 = Intermediate 36 3 = Extensive notes on these codes
SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR REVISITED Herbert Barry III and Alice Schlegel. 1982. Cross-Cultural Codes on Contributions by Women to Subsistence. Ethnology 21: 165-188. STDS32.DAT Variables 814-826 Percent Importance in Contribution to Subsistence and Trade Computed indirectly from variables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 1. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85+ == == == == == == == == == == == == == == == == == == 814. Imptnc Agriculture 38 17 2 3 7 2 18 10 12 26 23 13 4 7 2 1 815. Imptnc Domes. Anim 50 66 3 4 9 35 3 4 8 1 1 1 1 816. Imptnc Fishing 30 78 2 5 8 39 1 5 3 2 3 1 3 4 2 817. Imptnc Hunting 25 85 2 3 11 36 2 2 7 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 818. Imptnc Gathering 20116 1 1 10 22 2 2 3 5 1 1 2 819. Imptnc Trade 65 80 2 1 7 29 1 1 814 815 816 817 818 819 0 = % 38 50 30 25 20 65 5 = % 17 66 78 85 116 80 10 = % 3 2 2 1 2 15 = % 2 4 5 3 11 11 20 = % 3 9 8 11 10 7 25 = % 7 35 39 36 22 29 30 = % 2 2 2 35 = % 18 13 1 2 2 40 = % 10 5 7 3 45 = % 12 3 4 5 50 = % 2 2 1 55 = % 26 4 3 1 1 60 = % 23 8 1 1 65 = % 13 1 3 1 1 1 70 = % 4 1 4 1 75 = % 7 2 2 80 = % 2 1 1 85 = % 1 90 = % 1 820. Principal Subsistence Category 10 1 = G Gathering 16 2 = H Hunting 23 3 = F Fishing 18 4 = I Incipient Agriculture 16 5 = D Domestic Animals 46 6 = E Extensive Agriculture 55 7 = N Intensive Agriculture 2 8 = T Trade Percent Female Contribution to Subsistence Tasks Computed indirectly from the variables 108-112 (agriculture), 113-115 (domestic animals), 101, 104, 107 (Fishing), 103, 105, 106 (Hunting), and 99, 100, 102 (Gathering) 821. Percent Female Contribution to Agriculture 822. Percent Female Contribution to Domestic Animals 823. Percent Female Contribution to Fishing 824. Percent Female Contribution to Hunting 825. Percent Female Contribution to Gathering . = Missing Data 0 = 0% 1 = 10% 2 = 20% 3 = 30% 4 = 40% 5 = 50% 6 = 60% 7 = 70% 8 = 80% 9 = 90% 10 =100% . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = 100% == == == == == == == == == == == == Agriculture 44 16 15 18 19 23 17 17 8 7 1 1 Domestic Animals 72 29 7 12 8 1 18 7 10 4 18 Fishing 46 65 12 28 10 9 5 3 5 2 1 Hunting 28 138 8 2 2 * Gathering 49 14 2 8 10 6 23 9 24 3 38 Note: raw percentages for hunting as follows 138 0 = % dependence 4 5 = % 4 8 = % 2 10 = % 1 13 = % 4 15 = % 1 17 = % 1 20 = % 1 25 = % 2 33 = % 826. Average Female Contribution to Subsistence * Percentages, computed from weighted sum of variables: * 814x821 + 815x822 + 816x823 + 817x824 + 818x825 * ----------------------------------------------- * 100 - 819 This differs from Barry's calculations by at most 1%. Two additional societies are coded with 50% or more trade dependence. notes on these codes
ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Herbert Barry, III, and Alice Schlegel. 1984. Measurements of Adolescent Sexual Behavior in the Standard Sample of Societies. Ethnology 23: 315-332. STDS33.DAT Variables 827-832 827. Sexual Expression in Adolescent Boys and Girls: 828. Sexual Expression in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Encouragement of sexual behavior, taking into account its frequency, emotional intensity, importance, and variety (including range of partners) in adolescence. Heterosexual intercourse is the principal criterion, but heterosexual foreplay, masturbation, homosexuality, sexual jokes, and exposing the genitals were also considered. Heterosexual intercourse and other forms of sexual expression are: Boys Girls . = missing data 32 28 0 0 1 1 9 23 2 = Not approved or admired by parents or authorities 27 37 Mild forms (e.g. sexual jokes) sometimes approved. 3 5 3 4 12 10 5 = Normally and generally approved [by parents, etc.] 33 31 Moderate frequency, intensity, importance, variety 6 15 9 7 7 7 8 = Strongly approved and valued [by parents, etc.] 44 34 High frequency, variety of sexual behavior admired. 9 2 3 10 0 0 829. Sexual Nonrestraint in Adolescent Boys and Girls: 830. Sexual Nonrestraint in Adolescent Boys and Girls: The absence of sexual restraints such as taboos or restrictions on heterosexual intercourse and other erotic behavior, including heterosexual play, masturbation, and homosexuality. A high degree of modesty, such as the requirement to keep the genitals constantly covered in public, indicates moderate restraint. Incest taboos, if highly emphasized or widely extended, are considered as indicators of restraint. Heterosexual intercourse and others forms of sexual expression are: Boys Girls . 31 27 0 0 1 1 4 7 2 = Strictly and effectively prohibited 21 36 3 7 10 4 10 9 5 = Disapproved and punished mildly and inconsistent 30 32 6 13 9 7 5 3 8 = Condoned and not generally punished 45 37 9 20 15 10 0 0 Note: SN = SE + 1 more or less. The authors indicate the advisability of using the sum of the two scores as a "Sexual Freedom" index. "Sexual Nonrestraint" variables for boys and girls in early and late childhood are formed by the following recodings of variables 326-329: 0 = 11 on variables 326-329 1 = 10 2 = 9 3 = 8 Note: Var. 326 = Early, boys 4 = 7 327 = Early, girls 5 = 6 6 = 5 7 = 4 Var. 328 = Late, boys 8 = 3 329 = Late, girls 9 = 2 10 = 1 831. Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Boys, Girls: 832. Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Boys, Girls: These variables were recoded on a three point scale, collapsed from a 0- 10 rating. No cases of 0-1 or 9-10 ratings were reported. Differentiation of adolescent from preadolescent activities, status, and all other attributes of behavior and self-concept: (codesheet definition) Boys Girls . 20 22 1 = (2)Low, mostly the same, no formal transition 48 62 Frequent companionship between the two stages (3) (4) 2 = (5)Substantial, but inconsistent, not formalized, 57 59 or companionship only for some activities (6) (7) 3 = (8)High, with formal transition 61 43 Infrequent companionship with younger children. notes on these codes
STANDARD CROSS-CULTURAL SAMPLE George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White. 1969. Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Ethnology 8: 329-369. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980 0. STDS34.DAT Variables 833-850 0. Latitude in degrees - = Southern + = Northern 0. Longitude in degrees + = Eastern - = Western 833. Subsistence Economy: Dominant Mode . = Missing data 8 = Hunting 7 = Gathering 6 = Fishing 5 = Exchange 4 = Domestic Animals 3 = Simple or Shifting Cultivation 2 = Horticulture 1 = Advanced Agriculture 834. Subsistence Economy: Subsidiary Mode . = Missing data 8 = Hunting 7 = Gathering 6 = Fishing 5 = Exchange 4 = Domestic Animals 3 = Simple or Shifting Cultivation 2 = Horticulture 1 = Advanced Agriculture 835. Political Integration . = Missing data 1 = Independent local communities 2 = Single level of political integration 3 = Two levels of supra-community integration 4 = Three or more levels of supra-community integration 836. Rule of Descent: Primary . = Missing data 1 = Matrilineal, with non-avunculocal residence 2 = Matrilineal, with predominantly avunculocal residence 9 = Matrilineal, predominantly avunculocal residence, with Patrilineal secondary 3 = Nonlineal or bilateral, i.e., without lineages though often with personal kindreds 4 = Ambilineal, e.g., with nonunilineal ramages 5 = Quasi-Patrilineal, incipient or decadent patrilineages 6 = Patrilineal 8 = Patrilineal, with Matrilineal secondary 1 = Matrilineal, with non-avunculocal residence 2 = Matrilineal, with predominantly avunculocal residence 9 = Matrilineal, predominantly avunculocal residence, with Patrilineal secondary 3 = Nonlineal or bilateral, i.e., without lineages though often with personal kindreds 6 = Ambilineal, e.g., with nonunilineal ramages 7 = Quasi-Patrilineal, incipient or decadent patrilineages 8 = Patrilineal, with Matrilineal secondary 4 = Patrilineal [Note: 8 and 9 have secondary principle] 837. Adequacy of HRAF File . = No File 1 = Inadequate 2 = Useful 3 = Satisfactory 3 = Inadequate 2 = Useful 1 = Satisfactory 838. Pinpointing Date by Year: Two dates should be negative BCE, 44_Hebrews -621, 45_Babylonians -1750 839.GONE Pinpointing Date 840. Outline of World Cultures Region Code (Murdock 1975) A 1 = Asia E 2 = Europe F 3 = Africa M 4 = Middle East N 5 = North America O 6 = Oceania R 7 = Russia S 8 = South America 841. Outline of World Cultures Country Code (Murdock 1975) A-Z Subdivisions of the Above coded as numbers 1-26 842. Outline of World Cultures Ethnic Group Code (Murdock 1975) 1-99 Subdivisions of the Above 843. Ethnographic Atlas Region Code (Murdock 1962) A 1 = Asia C 2 = Circum-Mediterranean E 3 = East Eurasia I 4 = Insular Pacific N 5 = North America S 6 = South America 844. Ethnographic Atlas Sub-Region Code (Murdock 1962) a-z Subdivisions of the Above coded as numbers 1-26 845.GONE Ethnographic Atlas Societal Code (Murdock 1962) 1-99 Subdivisions of the Above 846.GONE Ethnographic Atlas Sequence Number (Murdock 1962) part 1 847.GONE Ethnographic Atlas Sequence Number (Murdock 1962) part 2 848.GONE Atlas of World Cultures Region Code (Murdock 1981) Same as 844 849.GONE Atlas of World Cultures Sub-Region Code (Murdock 1981) 01-25 Subdivisions of the Above 850.GONE Atlas of World Cultures Societal Code (Murdock 1981) a-z Subdivisions of the Above coded as numbers 1-26 notes on these codes
LANGUAGE PHYLUM AND FAMILY MEMBERSHIP Michael L. Burton, Douglas R. White, John W. M. Whiting John Sodergren, Cecil Brown. New Codes, revised from the Ethnographic Atlas. STDS35.DAT Variables 851-853 851.GONE Language Continent ----------------------------------+ 0 = African - Mideastern 1 = East Asian 2 = North Eurasian 3 = North American 4 = South American 852.GONE Language Phylum ----------------------+ | 853.GONE Language Family | | | | | v v | FAMILY PHYLUM | REGION ATLAS | v | CODE v 0 Africa-Arabia v 01 Khoisan 011 SOUTHERN KH 012 NORTHERN KH 02 Niger-Kordofanian 021 ATLANTIC NCA 022 BANTOID NCB 023 EASTERN NCE 024 GUR OR VOLTAIC NCG 025 IJO (IJAW) NCI 026 KWA NCK 027 MANDE NCM 028 KORDOFANIAN KO 03 Nilo-Saharan 031 CENTRAL CNC 032 EASTERN CNE 033 KUNAMAN CNK 034 NUBIAN CNN 035 SONGHAI XX 036 FUR XX 037 SAHARAN KA 038 KOMAM KM 04 Afro-Asiatic 041 BERBER AAB 042 CUSHITIC AAC 043 CHADIC AAD 044 EGYPTIAN AAE 045 SEMITIC AAS 051 ZERMA XX 05 Zerma 1 SE Asia, Oceanea 11 Sino-Tibetan 111 TIBETO-BURMAN TB- 112 SINITIC SI- 12 Dravidian 121 NORTH DR- 122 CENTRAL DR- 123 SOUTH DR- 13 Mon-Khmer 131 KHMER MKC 132 NICOBARESE MKK 133 MUNDA MKM ?134 SEMANG-SAKAI MKS ?135 ANNAMESE AM 14 Indo-Pacific 141 XY 142 WEST PAPUAN MP- 143 CENTRAL PAPUAN PA- 144 BOUGAINVILLE MP- ?145 TASMANIAN AU- 16 Australian 161 AUSTRALIAN AU 17 Austronesian 171 INDONESIAN AUSTRONESIAN MP- 172 NORTHWEST AUSTRONESIAN MP- 173 OCEANIC MP- 174 FORMOSAN MP- 176 MOLUCCAN MP- 18 Thai-Kadai 181 THAI TK- 182 TK- 1. Isolated Families 1.. ANDAMANESE 2 Europe, N. Asia 22 Indo-European 221 ALBANIAN IEA 222 BALTIC IEB 223 CELTIC IEC 224 GERMANIC IEG 225 HELLENIC IEH 226 ARMENIAN IEM 227 INDO-IRANIAN IEP,I 228 ROMANCE IER SLAVIC IES ??? 23 Caucasian 231 NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN AK 232 NORTH CENTRAL CAUCASIAN CL 233 NORTHEAST CAUCASIAN GR 24 Uralic 241 FINNO-UGRIC UR 242 SAMOYED UR 25 Altaic 251 TUNGUSIC ALG 252 MONGOLIAN ALM 253 TURKIC ALT 244 JAPANESEOREAN JR 245 KOREAN XX ? RYUKUAN 27 Siberian Isolates 271 GILYAK XX 272 CHUCKCHEE-KAMCHATKA LU 273 YUKAGHIR XX 274 YENISEAN XX 28 Miao-Yao 281 MIAO MY 2. Isolated Families 2.. BASQUE XX 2.. AINU XX 2.. BURUSHO XX 3 N. America 31 Eskimo-Aleutian 311 ESKIMOAN ES 312 ALEUTIAN XX 32 NaDene 321 N. ATHABASCAN ATN 322 S. ATHABASCAN ATS 323 PACIFIC " ATP 324 EYAK XX 325 TLINGIT ATT 33 Wakashan 331 WAKASHAN WA 34 Penutian 341 PENUTIAN PE COSTANOAN PEC MAIDU PEM MIWOK PEN WINTUN PEW YOKUTS PEY 342 OREGON PENUTIAN OP CHINOOKAN OPC KALAPOONIAN OPK TAKELMAN OPT 343 SAHAPTIN SH LUTUAMIAN SHL SAHAPTIAN SHS WAILLARPUAN SHW 344 TSIMSIAN-YAKONAN YA 345 GULF PENUTIAN NATCHEZ-MUSKOGAN NM TUNICAN TN YUKIAN YU 35 Salishan 344 SALISHAN SA 36 Macro-Algonkian 361 ALGONKIAN AG 362 RITWAN RI ? CHEMAKUAN CM 38 Macro-Siouan 381 SIOUAN SX 382 CADDOAN CD 383 IROQUOIS IR ?38. YUCHI XX ?38. KERESAN KR 39 Macro-Hokan ? HOKAN HO CHIMARIKAN HOC ESSELENIAN HOE KAROK HOK 394 POMO HOP SHASTAN HOS 399 YUMAN HPY YANAN HOZ ? OTHER SUBFAMILIES COAHUILTECAN CHUMASH JICAQUE KARANKAWA SALINA SERI SUPANEC TEQUISTLALEC TONKAWA WASHO 30 Uto-Aztecan 301 AZTECAN NA ?302 SONORAN PI,TC ? TARACAHITIAN TC 303 SHOSHONEAN SS 3? Kiowa-Tanoan ?3?1 KIOWAN XY ?3?2 TANOAN TA 3. Isolated Families 3.. ZUNI XX 4 C. & S. America 40 Mayan 401 MAYAN MA ?402 MIZOCUAVEAN MZ 41 Mesoamerican 411 OTO-MANGUEAN OM 412 MIXE-ZOQUE MI ? ZAPOTECAN ZA 42 Macro-Carib 421 CARIBAN CA ?422 PEBAN PB ? CHOCO ?423 WITOTAN WI 43 Macro-Chibchan 431 CHIBCHAN CH 432 MISUMALPAN MS 433 PAEZAN XX 434 YANOMAMAN XX 435 WARRAUAN XX ? YUNGA-PURUHAN 44 Ge-Panoan 441 GE GE BORORAN BO CAINGANG CG 442 GUAYCURAN GU MATACO-MAGUAY MM CHIQUITOAN CQ 443 MASCOIAN MN 444 PANOAN PN 445 BOTOCUDO XX ? ZAMUCOAN ZM ? KATUKINIAN KK ? CAHUAPANIAN CP 45 Equitorial 451 TUPI-GUARANI TG 452 JIVAROAN XX 453 TUCANOAN BE 454 ARAWAKAN AR TACANA TUCUNA TU 455 TIMOTE ? ZAPAROAN ZP ? PUINAVEAN PU 46 Andean 471 ARAUCANIAN AC 472 YAHGAN 473 TEHUELCHEAN TH 474 QUECHUAN KE - related to Hokan? see Steward 6:197 notes on these codes
CLIMATE AND SUBSISTENCE Douglas R. White, John W. M. Whiting, and Michael L. Burton. 1986. New Codes. STDS36.DAT Variables 854-859 854. Niche Temperature (Approximate) Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas 129 1 = Very hot Af Am Aw Caf Caw BSh BWh 9 2 = Hot Caw Hh<> BWn Bw 13 3 = Warm Cs b Cbw Hk BWk 14 4 = Mild Cb f Cc BSk 3 5 = Cool Daf Daw 4 6 = Cold Dbf 11 7 = Very cold Dcf Dcw 3 8 = Polar ET < > coded as category but fall in this range 855. Niche Rainfall (Approximate) Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas (see categories above) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 49 1 = Tropical rainforest 36 2 = Very wet 24 3 = Wet 20 4 = Moderately wet 35 5 = Dry 3 6 = Very dry 19 7 = Desert 856. Niches Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas # Temperature (1 = Hot) Goode Atlas # Rainfall (1 = Wet) Code Total 11 Tropical Rain Forest Af Am 49 4 1 Congo 1 2 Gold Coast 3 Madagascar 1 4 India 5 Ceylon 1 6 Burma, Siam, Malaysia 7 Cambodia 8 Vietnam 9 Hainan 31 10 Insular Pacific 11 Australian Cairns Area (N.E.) 1 12 Brazilian S.E. Coast 5 13 Amazon Basin 4 14 Ecuadorian & Colombian W. Coast, C. American E. Coast 1 15 Dominican Republic & Antilles 12 Tropical Savannah Aw 36 10 1 C. Africa 5 2 Sudan 3 Madagascar 2 4 India 5 Ceylon 5 6 S.E. Asia (Thailand, Cambodia) 2 7 Bali & Lesser Sundas 1 8 Australia 7 9 Brazil 2 10 Venezuela 1 11 S. W. Mexico and Veracruz 12 Yucatan 1 13 Caribbean 13 Continental Forest Caf 9 1 Durban 2 North Italy 3 Hungary 1 4 Yangtzi 1 5 Taiwan 1 6 S. Korea 1 7 S. Japan 8 Taiwan 9 S.E. Australian Coast 3 10 Argentina 2 11 S.E. U.S. 14 Benares Type (Summer Rain Winter Drought) Caw 4 4 1 North India - Burma 2 N.E. Coast of Australia 15 Tropical Steppe BSh 13 1 Barotseland 8 2 Sudan 1 3 Moroccan 1 4 S. W. Arabia 1 5 Iran - Afghanistan - Pakistan 6 India 7 Australia 8 Brazil - Recife area 1 9 Venezuela - Caracas area 1 10 Central & Northern Mexican and Southern U.S. Plains 17 Tropical Desert BWh 18 2 1 Kalahari 1 2 Somali - Kenya 8 3 Sahara 4 Arabia 5 Dashte Kavir (Iran) 1 6 Baluchistan - Indus 1 7 C. Australia 4 8 Southwest U.S. 1 9 Great Basin 25 Equitorial Highlands Hh 8 1 1 E. Africa 4 2 Ethiopia 3 Borneo 4 New Guinea 5 N. Andes 1 6 C. America 2 7 Meso-America 26 Coastal Desert BWn 1 S.W. Africa 2 S. American W. Coast 127 a Patagonian Desert BW 1 33 Mediterranean Cs, Cs 7 1 Capetown 3 2 Mediterranean 3 S. Australia 1 4 Chile N. Coast 3 5 California 34 a Transvaal Cbw 35 Temperate Highlands Hh 6 2 1 Mongolia 2 Alps 1 3 Caucasus 2 4 S. Andes 1 5 Rockies 36 Mid Latitude Desert BWk 1 Gobi Desert 2 Aral Sea Deserts 43 Moderate Marine Forest Cb 8 1 S. Africa - Port Elizabeth Cbf 2 2 N.W. Europe (incl. England & Ireland) 3 S.E. Australia 4 Tasmania 1 5 New Zealand 6 S. Chile 1 7 Parana (Sao Paolo) 4 8 N.W. Coast 1 44 Tierra del Fuego Cc 1 45 Middle Latitude Steppe BSk 5 2 1 Anatolia 2 2 Central Asian 3 Andean 1 4 Williston 54 Humid Warm Continental Daf 3 1 Romania 2 N. Japan 3 N. China (Huan River) 3 4 U.S. Midlands 55 Humid - Warm Summer Continental Daw 1 N. China (Liao River) 64 Humid Cool Continental Dbf 4 1 1 Russia 1 2 Hokkaido 2 3 Great Lakes 74 Subarctic Taiga (humid all year) Dcf 8 1 1 Scandinavia - N. Russia 2 Kamchatka 7 3 Canada 75 Subarctic (humid summer) Dcw 3 3 1 Siberia Ddw 86 Tundra ET 3 2 1 Old World Circumpolar 1 2 New World Circumpolar 857. Climate Type - Ordered in terms of Open Access to Rich Ecological Resources D. White and M. Burton l986 6 1 = Polar 38 2 = Desert or cold steppe 50 3 = Tropical rainforest 39 4 = Moist temperate 45 5 = Tropical savanna 8 6 = Tropical highlands 858. Subsistence Type - Ecological Classification D. White, 1984, after Karen and Jeffrey Paige (l981) FORAGERS: 80% or more dependence on food collection 9 1 = Gathering 9 2 = Hunting and/or Marine Animals 12 3 = Fishing 8 4 = Anadromous Fishing (spawning fish such as Salmon) DOMESTICATED ANIMALS: Pastoralism >33% or Mounted Hunting 5 5 = Mounted Hunting 18 6 = Pastoralism SHIFTING CULTIVATION: new field cleared annually, cultivated for a year or two, then allowed to revert to forest 33 7 = Shifting Cultivation, with digging sticks or wooden hoes 19 8 = Shifting Cultivation, with metal hoes HORTICULTURE: semi-intensive agriculture limited mainly to vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees rather than field crops 18 9 = Horticultural Gardens or Tree Fruits 0 10 = Advanced Horticulture, with metal hoes INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE: permanent fields or short fallow and long period of use of fields, with fertilization by compost, animal manure, crop rotation, or other 23 11 = Intensive Agriculture, with no plow 32 12 = Intensive Agriculture, with plow 859. Resource Base - Reclassification of above, as per Paige and Paige . = Missing data LOW RESOURCES 9 1 = (2) Hunting and/or Marine Animals 9 2 = (1) Gathering 12 3 = (3) Fishing UNSTABLE RESOURCES 5 4 = (5) Mounted Hunting 33 5 = (7) Shifting Cultivation, with digging sticks or wooden hoes 8 6 = (4) Anadromous Fishing 18 7 = (9) Horticultural Gardens or Tree Fruits 23 8 = (11) Intensive Agriculture, with no plow HIGH RESOURCES 0 9 = (10) Advanced Horticulture, with metal hoes 19 10 = (8) Shifting Cultivation, with metal hoes 18 11 = (6) Pastoralism 32 12 = (12) Intensive Agriculture, with plow notes on these codes
POLYGYNY: FORM AND FREQUENCY Douglas R. White. 1988. Rethinking Polygyny: Co-Wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems. CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 29:529-559. (project begun in collaboration with Michael L. Burton, and John W. M. Whiting). STDS37.DAT Variables 860-878 860. Cultural Basis of Polygyny 3 . = Missing data 27 1 = Monogamy prescribed 32 2 = Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny 45 3 = Polygyny preferred by individual men with leadership attributes (chiefs, medicine men, outstanding hunters) 33 4 = Polygyny preferred by men of a higher social class: men of wealth, rank, nobility, etc. 46 5 = Polygyny preferred by most men, and attained by most men of sufficient years or wealth to obtain wives. Thus: (a) older men usually have more wives; (b) polygyny is generally based on the accumulation of wealth; and (c) extra wives are an economic asset in terms of labor. 861. Standard Polygamy Code: Whyte, Murdock and Wilson, Murdock Atlas 10 . = Missing data 2 0 = Polyandry 27 1 = Monogamy prescribed 33 2 = Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny 54 3 = Limited polygyny < 20% of married males 60 4 = Full polygyny 20% or more of married males 862. Sororal Polygyny NOTE: There is sufficient information for an exclusively non-sororal category, see especially Murdock's Africa (1959). Probably also sufficient for sororal preferred but not predominant. 24 . = Missing data 25 1 = No polygyny (M) 93 2 = Non-sororal polygyny predominant (Atlas PQ) (sororal may or may not be permitted) 35 3 = Sororal or marriage to wife's kin predominant (Atlas RS) 9 4 = Sororal or secondary marriage to wife's kin only 863. Distance between Co-Wives 32 . = Missing data 1 0 = One wife, multiple husbands 25 1 = One wife (Atlas M) 59 2 = Co-residence for multiple wives (Atlas PR) 25 3 = One wife resides with husband, others in separate houses 12 4 = One wife resides with husband, others in separate communities 30 5 = Separate housing in compound for every wife (Atlas QS) 2 6 = Separate housing in village for every wife [as might occur, for example, with men's houses, e.g., Otoro - check] 864. Rooming Arrangement for Wives 6 . = Missing data 130 1 = Wife sleeps in same room with husband 50 2 = Wife sleeps in room apart from husband's room, including cases of men's dormitories or 30% or more polygynously married women if co-wives sleep apart (e.g., Trobriand chiefs' wives constitute circa 39% of the married women) 865. Rooming Arrangement for Husband 7 . = Missing data 141 1 = Husband has no room apart (dominant pattern, e.g., for Trobriand commoners) 38 2 = Husband has a room apart, even if rotates among wives 866. Higher rates of polygyny for men of wealth, rank, nobility, or higher social class. * = merge 1-3: incomplete coding for categories 1,2 33 . = Missing data 63 0 = No Stratified polygyny 10 1 = Hereditary upper social class (note: incompletely coded) 9 2 = Achieved rank connected with groups (note: incompletely coded) 71 3 = Achieved wealth - due to contributions of wives 867. Multiple wives for skilled hunters * = merge 1-3: incomplete coding for categories 2,3 25 . = Missing data 135 0 = No, or unimportant 22 1 = exceptional skill in hunting 2 2 = exceptional skill in cultivation 2 3 = exceptional skill in pastoralism (herding) 868. Multiple wives for Leaders, Headmen, Chiefs 26 . = Missing data 95 0 = No, or unimportant 65 1 = Yes, or Leaders have more wives than commoners 869. Multiple wives for Medicine Men or Shamans NOTE: sometimes coded 0 for General polygyny although magicians also polygynous - unclear whether higher polygyny level should be required in this instance for this code 26 . = Missing data 140 0 = No, or unimportant 20 1 = Yes 870. Additional wives or concubines from Slavery or Capture in Warfare NOTE: It is often difficult to distinguish secondary wives taken as slave concubines, or marriage to freed slaves, and wives taken from capture in warfare, as slavery areas often capture slaves 28 . = Missing data 92 0 = No female captives 8 1 = Women taken as captives but not married 58 2 = Captives in war or slaves taken as wives or concubines 871. Percentage of Married Men with More than One Wife 39 . = Missing data 147 = Percentage given 872. Percentage of Married Women Polygynously Married (share husband with one or more co-wives) 41 . = Missing data 145 = Percentage given 873. Reliability of Data for Percentage Polygynously Married 39 . = Missing data 87 1 = Direct percentages: good quantitative data 13 2 = Direct percentages for male polygyny, female polygyny estimated for minimum of two wives per man, where if P = % men married polygynously then Q = 2P / 100+P is the % women married polygynously 3 3 = percentage female polygyny estimated from ratios of men with different numbers of wives, provided by ethnographer 2 4 = lower of two or more censuses used, or estimates where there is some other reason to believe that true percentages are higher for both males and females 23 5 = estimates from 0 to 5% male polygyny inferred from statements about limited polygyny; these are doubled for female percentages (a minimal estimate) 19 6 = uncertain coding 874. Polygyny Data Source 46 . = Missing data 55 1 = Sample of over 100 married men 29 2 = Sample of less than 100 married men, but of an entire settlement 48 3 = Estimate from Ethnographer Statements 8 4 = Estimate by Inference from Ethnographer Statements 875. Date for Polygyny Code 62 . = Missing data 1 11 = 110 AD 1 29 = 1290-99 1 55 = 1550-59 1 63 = 1630-39 2 75 = 1675-79 1 82 = 1820-29 1 83 = 1830-39 2 84 = 1840-49 5 85 = 1850-59 4 86 = 1860-69 4 87 = 1870-79 3 88 = 1880-89 8 89 = 1890-99 4 90 = 1900-09 6 91 = 1910-19 14 92 = 1920-29 25 93 = 1930-39 20 94 = 1940-49 -- 95 = 1950-59 -- 96 = 1960-69 - 97 = 1970-79 876. Polygyny Distributions 129 . = Missing data 27 0 = True Binomial 30 1 = Negative Binomial 877. Polygyny Guttman Scale I: "Co-Wife Autonomy" constructed from 854-852 7 . = Missing data 70 0 = None of the following 50 1 = Stratified Polygyny (854) only 5 2 = Negative binomial (855), plus above 14 3 = Marriage of female captives (858), plus above 6 4 = General polygyny (849), plus above 8 5 = Rooming apart (853), plus above 26 6 = Polygynous compounds (852), plus above 878. Polygyny Guttman Scale II: "Charismatic" constructed from 851-855 3 . = Missing data 38 0 = None of the following 80 1 = Rooming together (853) only 27 2 = Co-Wives same dwelling (852), plus above 24 3 = Sororal (851), plus above 8 4 = Polygynous hunters (855), plus above 6 5 = Exclusive sororal polygyny (851), plus above notes on these codes
MAGICO-RELIGIOUS PRACTITIONERS Michael J. Winkelman and Douglas R. White. 1986. Cross Cultural Study of Magico-Religious Practitioners: Database. World Cultures 2(3). STDS38.DAT Variables 879-884 Samples every 4th society in the Standard Sample (1, 5, 9, ...), but societies 9 and 185 have insufficient data to code; 2 added 879. Shaman 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 34 0 = Absent 13 1 = Present 880. Shaman/Healer 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 36 0 = Absent 11 1 = Present 881. Healer 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 25 0 = Absent 17 1 = Present 5 2 = Present - with characteristics of the Healer, but not * included in the initial analyses used to determine the * practitioner types, and therefore classified as a * "Healer Complex" practitioner. 882. Medium 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 30 0 = Absent 17 1 = Present 883. Sorcerer/Witch 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 29 0 = Absent 17 1 = Present (Note: the Roman practitioner known as a * sorcerer, witch, necromancer, etc. was clustered * with the Shaman/Healers although the social role * was much the same as the Sorcerer/Witch here) 884. Priest 139 . = Not Coded or Insufficient Data 19 0 = Absent 28 1 = Present notes on these codes
FEMALE CONTRIBUTION TO SUBSISTENCE Douglas R. White. Scales constructed from existing codes. STDS39.DAT Variables 885-889 885. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Ethnographic Atlas 886. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Martin Whyte 887. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Barry and Schlegel 888. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Maximal Difference of Three Scores 889. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Average of Three Scores * = 0-99 % * Variable 885 Reliability = .723 * Variable 886 Reliability = .563 WARNING ! * Variable 887 Reliability = .458 WARNING ! * Variable 889 Reliability = .800 * Variable 890 Reliability = .795 890. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Average of Three Scores * Variable 890 Reliability = .800 0 = 0- 4% 1 = 5-14% 2 = 15-24% 3 = 25-34% 4 = 35-44% 5 = 45-54% 6 = 55-64% 7 = 65-74% 8 = 75-84% 9 = 85-99% notes on these codes
THE NATURE OF WARFARE Valerie Wheeler [Nammour], l974. Drums and Guns: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Nature of War. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. Datafile: STDS40.DAT Vars. 891-916. Warfare The author's comments on reliability and validity are cited after each code, where relevant. References cited: Naroll, Raoul. 1966. Does military deterrence deter? Trans-Action 3(2): 14-20. Otterbein, Keith F. 1970. The Evolution of War: A Cross-cultural study. HRAF Press. 891. FREQUENCY OF INTERNAL WAR (VAR LABEL REVERSED) Otterbein's (1970: 3, 84, 143) definition of internal war excludes feuding: warfare between political communities within the cultural unit, i.e., continguous political communities that are culturally similar. p. 3: "Warfare is defined as armed combat between political communities. Armed combat, which is fighting with weapons, is performed by military organizations. When political communities within the same cultural unit engage in warfare, this is considered to be internal war." p. 143: "If there is more than one military organization within a political community, and these ... engage in armed combat, this is considered feuding or civil war, depending on the scope of the conflict." 26 . = Missing Data 17 1 = Continual 54 2 = Frequent 89 3 = Infrequent 892. FREQUENCY OF EXTERNAL WAR - ATTACKING (VAR LABEL REVERSED) [Follows Otterbein 1970: 84, 143-144] 29 . = Missing Data 31 1 = Continual 61 2 = Frequent 65 3 = Infrequent 893. FREQUENCY OF EXTERNAL WAR - BEING ATTACKED (VAR LABEL REVERSED) [Follows Otterbein 1970: 84, 143-144] 33 . = Missing Data 26 1 = Continual 67 2 = Frequent 60 3 = Infrequent 894. FORM OF MILITARY MOBILIZATION (VAR LABEL REVERSED) [Adapted from Otterbein 1970: 144] 26 . = Missing Data 60 1 = Age-grades, military societies, standing armies 86 2 = None of above: but men organized as friends, family, lineage,clan 14 3 = Absence of military organization altogether 895. DECISION TO ENGAGE IN WAR [Follows Otterbein 1970: 28-29, 144] 49 . = Missing Data 102 1 = Taken by official or council of the political community 35 2 = Anyone 896. COMMENCEMENT OF WAR [Follows Otterbein 1970: 32, 144] 53 . = Missing Data 21 1 = By announcement 8 2 = By mutual agreement 104 3 = By surprise attack 897. CONCLUSION OF WAR [Follows Otterbein 1970: 35, 144] 53 . = Missing Data 61 1 = By negotiation 52 2 = By simply stopping 20 3 = War is not ended but is continual 898. PEACE CEREMONY (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 104 . = Missing Data 61 1 = Present 21 2 = Absent 899. MILITARY EXPECTATIONS I-PRE-STATE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) [Follows Naroll l966, with modifications by Otterbein 1970] 19 . = Missing Data 99 1 = High, with any one of the following present: Subjugation of territory or people (909) Collection of tribute (910) Land - fields, hunting/fishing territory, pastures (911) Trophies and honors (including captives for sacrifice) (913) 68 2 = Low, absence of any of the above 900. MILITARY EXPECTATIONS II-STATE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 20 . = Missing Data 76 1 = High, with any one of the following present: Subjugation of territory or people (909) Collection of tribute (910) Land - fields, hunting/fishing territory, pastures (911) 90 2 = Low, absence of any of the above 901. CASUALTY RATE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) Poor correlation with Ember 2005 Male Mortality in war [Follows Otterbein 1970: 81, 146] Ember 1=Lo 2=Hi v901 1 Hi 1 6 107 . = Missing Data 2 Lo 3 2 p=0.15 (n.s. but positive) 35 1 = High (1/3rd or more of combatants) 44 2 = Low "This has turned out to be a difficult variable to code; information does not exist in most cases." Wheeler l974:270 902. LEADERSHIP DURING BATTLE [Modified from Otterbein 1970: 23-28, 144] 44 . = Missing Data 62 1 = An official who could back up his decision by force 67 2 = An informal leader whom people obeyed because of respect, but who had no means to force warriors to obey 13 3 = Everyone is on his own "When I drew up this variable, I neglected to allow for those cases where a leader has an official position -- appointed war chief, hereditary war chief -- and is very aware of the honor and respect of this office but still has no means to force followers to obey. His formality may be hollow if people choose to disregard his direction." Wheeler l974:272 903. PRESTIGE ASSOCIATED WITH BEING A SOLDIER OR WARRIOR (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 35 . = Missing Data 61 1 = A great deal; important for every male 64 2 = some, not necessary to be a warrior to have influence in the community 26 3 = No special consideration, respect, or distinctions for a man who fights 904. COWARDICE: DEFINED AS 128 . = Missing Data 27 1 = Refusing to fight 29 2 = Leaving companions 2 3 = Running away "This variable is a failure, but for an interesting reason. With very few exceptions, even including professionally trained ethnographers, observers simply do not state what action brings down an accusation of cowardice. Cowardice is often mentioned, but not what it is seen to be." Wheeler 1974: 273. 905. REWARDS (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (Special gifts, praises, or ceremonies, not including ritual purification for a man who has killed an enemy in battle or otherwise shown skill in war) 77 . = Missing Data 68 1 = Yes, usually or always 16 2 = Sometimes 25 3 = Rarely or never "This variable augments variable [903]" Wheeler l974:273 906. DID MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY EXPECT VIOLENCE TO SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS? (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 57 . = Missing Data 71 1 = Yes 58 2 = No "My operationalization of this variable breaks all the methodological rules and consequently is vulnerable to attack... the coder has used his assessment of the material overall.... I think the variable is enormously important, and eventually I hope to build some rigor ... into it." Wheeler l974:274-5. 907. VALUE OF WAR: VIOLENCE/WAR AGAINST NON-MEMBERS OF THE GROUP (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 40 . = Missing Data 72 1 = Enjoyed and considered to have high value 51 2 = Considered to be a necessary evil 23 3 = Consistently avoided, denounced, not engaged in "This variable complements but does not duplicate, or resolve, variable [906].... Clumsy as this variable may seem, it was quite easy to code, largely due to clear observation by the ethnographer as to the value of war. The evidence may be comments by the observer, texts or poems and songs, or statements by the actors." Wheeler l974: 275 908. MILITARY SUCCESS (VAR LABEL REVERSED): IS POLITICAL COMMUNITY/CULTURAL UNIT WINNING OR LOSING IN THE LONG RUN [Modified from Otterbein 1970 to include population as well as territory] 14 . = Missing Data 42 1 = Yes -- its boundaries/population are expanding 63 2 = No change -- boundaries/population stationary (the population is able to replace those lost in war) 8 3 = Breaking even -- what it loses in territory it takes from others 59 4 = No -- its boundaries/population are shrinking 909. SUBJUGATION OF TERRITORY OR PEOPLE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 18 . = Missing Data 35 1 = Present 133 2 = Absent or not mentioned 910. COLLECTION OF TRIBUTE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 18 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Present 150 2 = Absent or not mentioned 911. ACQUISITION OF LAND (VAR LABEL REVERSED): FIELDS, HUNTING/FISHING TERRITORIES, PASTURES 18 . = Missing Data 50 1 = Present 118 2 = Absent or not mentioned 912. PLUNDER (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (INCLUDING CAPTIVES FOR SLAVES, HOSTAGES, ADOPTION) 18 . = Missing Data 104 1 = Present 64 2 = Absent or not mentioned 913. TROPHIES AND HONORS (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (INCLUDING CAPTIVES FOR SACRIFICE) 18 . = Missing Data 49 1 = Present 119 2 = Absent or not mentioned 914. REVENGE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 17 . = Missing Data 111 1 = Present 58 2 = Absent or not mentioned 915. DEFENSE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) 18 . = Missing Data 97 1 = Present 71 2 = Absent or not mentioned "The coding of defense was generally difficult because so few authors specifically mentioned it. Following the rule [of coding no mentions as absences], I marked it as absent, I simply do not know where it was truly absent and where the ethnographer assumed that any ninny would know that it [must] exist. Otterbein (1970) also had difficulty coding this attribute because of such an assumption. Therefore, I do not consider my quantitative results on defense to be reliable. Otterbein made one useful distinction that I could not implement satisfactorily. He coded the military expectations in order of importance -- first, second, third. There were too many cases where I could not make such a judgment, even if the data on expectations per se were good." Wheeler l974:270. 916. AGGRESSIVE DEFENSE (VAR LABEL REVERSED) (PRE-EMPTIVE ATTACK IF ENEMY THOUGHT ABOUT TO ATTACK) 19 . = Missing Data 13 1 = Present 154 2 = Absent or not mentioned notes on these codes
SLAVERY AND SOCIAL DEATH Orlando Patterson. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Datafile: STDS41.DAT Vars. 917-920. Slavery Definitions: Patterson defines slaveholding as "permanent dominant violation of natally alienated and generally dishonored persons." This excludes non-hereditary slavery, and thus does not include what Murdock (1967: 166) classifies as incipient slavery. His focus is on slaveholding societies, and excludes societies largely composed of former slaves. 917. Historical frame for pinpointing date where slaveholding present 1 . = Missing data 119 1 = No slaveholding 1 2 = 1750 BC 1 3 = 620 BC 1 4 = Early 100s 1 5 = 1292 1 6 = Early 1500s 1 7 = Mid 1500s 1 8 = 1600-1650 1 9 = Mid 1700s 1 10 = Late 1700s 1 11 = 1780-1820 2 12 = Early 1800s 1 13 = 1800-1910 1 12 = 1850-1950 2 15 = 1800s 4 16 = Mid 1800s 15 17 = Late 1800s 7 18 = Late 1800s - Early 1900s 1 19 = Late 1800s - 1910 2 20 = Late 1800s - 1930s 10 21 = Early 1900s 4 22 = 1900 - 1920s 5 23 = 1900 - 1930s 3 24 = 1900 - 1940s For the most part these are historical periods in which slaveholding is present by Patterson's definition, and they contain the standard sample pinpointing date. However, Patterson is careful about his dates and his selective use of discrepancies from the standard sample temporal pinpointing should be carefully noted. In the following cases, judging from those with large scale slaveholding, Patterson shifts to an earlier date when the slave system was operative or recently ceased. The focal period for the presence of slaveholding in these cases is usually fifty years (in one case 100 years, in another 200) prior to the standard sample focal date. Largescale STDS Patterson Slaveholding Foci Foci Era 20 Mende 1945 Early 1900s Late 19th C. 21 Wolof 1950 Late 1800s-early 1900s 1300-1900 25 Wodaabe Fulani 1951 Late 1800s-early 1900s 1750-1900 27 Massa 1910 Late 1800s 1600-1800s 30 Otoro Nuba 1930 Late 1800s-early 1900s None 40 Teda 1950 Early 1900's None 85 Iban 1950 Early 1900's None 112 Ifugao 1910 Early 1800's None 116 Koreans 1947 Late 1800s 660-1700s 159 Goajiro 1947 Early 1900's None However, in the following cases with large scale slaveholding at an earlier date the pinpointing focus was not shifted, apparently because the Standard Sample focal groups were not slaveholders but formed either part of the slave population, or were peripheral to the slaveholding system: Largescale STDS Patterson Slaveholding Foci Foci Era 17 Ibo 1935 1900-1935 18th & 19th C's 22 Bambara 1902 1800-1910 1464-1720 24 Songhai 1940 1464-1720 26 Hausa 1900 late 1800s-early 1900s 1600-1800 165 Saramacca 1928 1790-1862 The only other date discrepancy is for following: 38 Bogo 1855 Early 1900's No data Entries for slaveholding should be considered for the following: 37 Amhara 1953 "Traditional" Yes 918. Manumission of slaves 1 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Infrequent 10 2 = Not common 21 3 = Frequent 17 4 = No data on rates of manumission, but hereditary slaveholding is present by Patterson's definition 7 5 = Hereditary slaveholding not present by Patterson's definition, although present by Murdock's definition 5 6 = Hereditary slaveholding not present by Patterson's definition, although slavery present by Murdock's definition, unascertained as to whether hereditary 8 7 = Hereditary slaveholding not present by Patterson's definition, although nonhereditary slavery present (e.g., slaves captured in warfare but not inherited) by Murdock's definition. 97 8 = Slavery not present by either definition 2 9 = Slavery not present by either definition, although the societies are largely composed of former slaves. 919. Large scale slaveholding systems: recency - . = Missing Data 168 0 = Not present 6 1 = Present at or immediate prior to pinpointing date 6 2 = Present within past fifty years 3 3 = Present within past one hundred yesrs 2 4 = Present within past two hundred years 1 5 = Present within past three hundred years 920. Large scale slaveholding systems: proportion of slaves - . = Missing Data 168 0 = Not present 5 1 = 1/6 to 1/3 of society, sometimes more 6 2 = 1/3 or more 5 2 = more than 40 percent 1 2 = more than 50 percent 1 2 = more than 80 percent notes on these codes
AGRICULTURAL POTENTIALS Source: Frederic L. Pryor, 1986. The Adoption of Agriculture: Some Theoretical and Empirical Evidence. American Anthropologist 88:894-897. Datafile: STDS42.DAT Vars. 921-930. Agricultural Potentials The evaluations of data quality were made by the author, who notes that such judgements are highly subjective. 921. Agricultural Potential 1: Sum of Land Slope, Soils, Climate Scales [see below for definitions of components added] 1 4 = Poorest potential 5 = 5 1 6 = 6 7 = 7 5 8 = 8 1 9 = 9 2 10 = 10 7 11 = 11 8 12 = 12 5 13 = 13 14 14 = 14 10 15 = 15 16 16 = 16 24 17 = 17 25 18 = 18 29 19 = 19 24 20 = 20 7 21 = 21 5 22 = 22 4 23 = Richest potential 922. Land Slope. Food and Agricultural Organization/UNESCO. 1971-78. Soil Maps of the World. UNESCO. [adjusted in some cases by information drawn from the ethnographies] 29 4 = Steeply dissected 15 5 = 36 6 = Rolling to hilly (8% to 30% slope) 30 7 = 76 8 = Level to gently undulating (0 to 8% slope) 923. Data Quality: Inferences 169 0 = Good data 17 1 = Inferential 924. Suitability of Soils for Agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization/ UNESCO. 1971-78. Soil Maps of the World. UNESCO. [qualitative estimates from soil type discussions] 4 0 = Very Poor 30 2 = Poor 3 3 99 4 = Fair 11 5 30 6 = Good 1 7 8 8 = Very good 925. Data Quality: Inferences 180 0 = Good data 6 1 = Inferential 926. Climate. Papadakis, J. 1966. Climates of the World and their Agricultural Potential. Buenos Aires. [used to determine one of 73 climate types for each society] Papadakis, J. 1970. Agricultural Potentialities of World Climates. Buenos Aires. [used to classify potentiality of climate type for different types of crops. Crops were divided into five classes: winter cereals, mid-season crops (sugar, beets, potatoes), other summer crops (cotton, peanuts, cassava), tree crops (bananas, coconuts), and summer cereals. For each a numerical climate rating was taken; the ratings for the two most favorable crop classes were averaged. Since some of these climate ratings assumed the presence of irrigation the ratings were adjusted as follows: (a) if rain index is 2 or less, subtract 5; (b) if rain index 3 or 4, subtract 3; (c) if rain index is above 4 but both leading crops require irrigation, subtract 3; (d) if rain index above 4 but one leading crop requires irrigation, subtract 1 ] 13 0 Non applicable, too cold for agriculture 2 = Poor 14 3 = Poor-Fair 8 4 = Fair 21 5 = Fair-Good 4 6 = Good 47 7 = Good-Very Good 79 8 = Very good 927. Data Quality: Inferences 182 0 = Good data 4 1 = Inferential 928. Agricultural Potential 2: Lowest of Land Slope, Soils, Climate Scales [see above for definitions of components] 13 0 = Lowest 27 2 = Low 14 3 = Medium-Low 92 4 = Medium 16 5 = Medium-High 17 6 = High 3 7 = High-Very High 4 8 = Very High 929. Average Annual Rainfall. World Meteorological Organization. 1971. Climatological Norms (CLINO) for Climate and Climate Ship Stations for the period 1931-1960. Geneva. [corresponding to the weather station closed to the village or society] 15 . Missing data 4 0 = 0mm < rainfall < 20 mm 2 1 20mm < rainfall < 50 mm 14 2 = 50mm < rainfall < 100 mm 17 3 100mm < rainfall < 200 mm 1 4 = 200mm < rainfall < 400 mm 25 5 400mm < rainfall < 600 mm 6 = 600mm < rainfall < 800 mm 13 7 800mm < rainfall < 1000 mm 95 8 = 1000mm < rainfall 930. Data Quality: Inferences 184 0 = Good data 2 1 = Inferential notes on these codes
VARIETIES OF SEXUAL EXPERIENCE Suzanne G. Frayser. 1985. Varieties of Sexual Experience. HRAF Press. STDS43.DAT vars 931-950 STDS44.DAT vars 951-970 STDS45.DAT vars 971-985 Note: In this dataset, 0's for some information, but insufficient to code are not as yet distinguished from .'s for no information or not coded. For several of the codes [931, 932, 941, 951, 958, 969, 975, 978, 979] the original source should be consulted as these are originally rankings of multiple factors and only the highest ranked item is coded here I. Sexual Differentiation. This section deals with the pervasiveness of sexual differentiation in daily life as expressed by the person's physical appearance and the spatial organization of the living arrangements for males and females 931. Female physical appearance during the daily routine (not temporary occasions such as ceremonial gatherings). Ranked according to the severity of physical modification involved 125 . = Missing Data 14 1 = The amount, style, color, or material of the garment worn 5 2 = Paraphernalia, e.g., belts, footwear, headgear and other accessories to the main garment, exclusive of jewelry 18 3 = The amount, style, or placement of jewelry 7 4 = The style, length, or color of head hair 5 = The growth of facial hair, e.g., moustaches and beards 5 6 = The use of cosmetics, i.e., preparations applied to specific parts of the body to enhance their attractiveness, e.g., facial makeup, body scents, body oils, body paints, tooth blackeners 1 7 = The removal of body hair, exclusive of head hair coded under 4, e.g., the removal of facial, axillary, or pubic hair 10 8 = The deformation or mutilization of the body, exclusive of the genitals, i.e., a change in the form or the removal of a material part of the body, e.g., tattooing, cicatrization, cranial deformation, ear piercing 9 = The deformation or mutiliation of the genitals, e.g., clitoridectomy, circumcision, sewing the labia together [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 932. Male physical appearance during the daily routine (not temporary occasions such as ceremonial gatherings). Ranked according to the severity of physical modification involved 127 . = Missing Data 18 1 = The amount, style, color, or material of the garment worn 7 2 = Paraphernalia, e.g., belts, footwear, headgear and other accessories to the main garment, exclusive of jewelry 3 3 = The amount, style, or placement of jewelry 9 4 = The style, length, or color of head hair 8 5 = The growth of facial hair, e.g., moustaches and beards 3 6 = The use of cosmetics, i.e., preparations applied to specific parts of the body to enhance their attractiveness, e.g., facial makeup, body scents, body oils, body paints, tooth blackeners 3 7 = The removal of body hair, exclusive of head hair coded under 4, e.g., the removal of facial, axillary, or pubic hair 8 8 = The deformation or mutilization of the body, exclusive of the genitals, i.e., a change in the form or the removal of a material part of the body, e.g., tattooing, cicatrization, cranial deformation, ear piercing 1 9 = The deformation or mutiliation of the genitals, e.g., clitoridectomy, circumcision, sewing the labia together [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 933. Sleeping Arrangements of Adolescent females: where unmarried but sexually mature females sleep in relation to sexually mature males in the living quarters. Ranked according to the degree of segregation of female from male adolescents 129 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Girls marry before or very soon after puberty and live in the dwelling of their prospective husband 15 2 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents and sibs No special section reported for them 5 3 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents but in a particular section or partitioned area for them and/or their female siblings 2 4 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents but in a particular section for their mothers and female children Males sleep in a separate section 5 5 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents with no partition reported, but the adolescent males sleep in a separate section 12 6 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents with no partition reported, but the adolescent males sleep in a men's house or somewhere other than the natal dwelling 5 7 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents. There is a special or partitioned area for them. The adolescent males sleep elsewhere 4 8 = Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their mother, but adolescent and other mature males sleep elsewhere 7 9 = Girls sleep in their own hut or separate dwelling for adolescent girls. Adolescent boys sleep in a men's house or some dwelling other than the one in which their parents reside 934. Married women: where spouses sleep in the living quarters Ranked according to the degree of spatial separation between the spouses during sleep 126 . = Missing Data 17 1 = W (wife) sleeps with her H (husband) in their own dwelling No rooms or partitions between them are specified 11 2 = W sleeps with her H in a dwelling that contains more than one conjugal family. No partitioned area reported for them 13 3 = W sleeps with her H in a partitioned area in dwelling that contains more than one conjugal family 4 4 = W sleeps with her H in her dwelling, but he has a dwelling of his own or spends most of his time in the men's house or elsewhere, e.g., with another wife 5 5 = W sleeps with her H in her own room or section of the dwelling, separate from the section of her H 11 6 = W sleeps in her dwelling, and her H sleeps in his dwelling or in a men's house except for the times when intercourse is desired 935. Eating arrangements: the spatial arrangement of the sexes during the main meal of the day, exclusive of arrangements operative during ceremonies or when guests are present. Ranked according to the degree of segregation between males and females during the meal. 139 . = Missing Data 14 1 = Men and women eat together. No particular arrangement is specified for the sexes 4 2 = Men and women eat together. There is a strict positioning of them in the eating area, e.g., positioning according to kinship 12 3 = Men and women do not eat together in public but certain kin may eat together in private, e.g., husband and wife 11 4 = Men and women do not eat together and eat in different areas 5 5 = Men and women do not eat together; the separation is accomplished by their eating at different times II. The Reproductive Cycle. This section deals with the amount and type of social emphasis given to specific stages of a woman's reproductive cycle and to the importance of her having children 936. Individual ordeal involved at the onset of the menses. The categories are arranged according to the severity of the ordeal 139 . = Missing Data 14 1 = There is no ordeal reported although there may be a change in physical appearance, living arrangements, or name 14 2 = Three is a slight ordeal involved, e.g., a very short or relaxed period of seclusion, a few minor eating taboos, etc 7 3 = There is a moderate ordeal involved, e.g., a strict period of seclusion, restaints on movement, numerous eating taboos, etc 12 4 = There is a severe ordeal involved, e.g., a painful physical operation such as clitoridectomy, a lengthy seclusion with numerous taboos on movement, eating and social contacts, etc 937. Social celebration involved at the onset of the menses. Arranged according to the amount of celebration and the extent of participation in it. If there are differences according to class level, code according to the celebrations for the average individual 140 . = Missing Data 26 1 = There is no celebration of any kind 5 2 = There is a small celebration, e.g., the family group has a party 11 3 = There is a moderate celebration, e.g., family, friends, and/or small kin group have a feast, dance, give gifts 4 4 = There is an elaborate celebration, e.g., the community, a large kin group, or other large social grouping celebrate or a smaller group has a celebration for an extended period of time 938. The social signficance of change in a woman's position with the onset of menstruation. The categories are ranked according to the degree of emphasis placed on her ability to bear children 144 . = Missing Data 3 1 = It is not thought to be especially significant beyond a change in dress, name, etc 7 2 = Its main significance is that she is an adult who has more social responsibilities 6 3 = The main significance is that she is now capable of having intercourse, wehther or not she actually engages in it 4 4 = Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and can engage in intercourse 12 5 = Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage 4 6 = Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and is an adult 3 7 = Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and is capable of bearing children 3 8 = Its main significance is that she is capable of bearing children 939. Personal restrictions or regular menstruation. Ranked according to the degree to which the woman is socially isolated during her menses 147 . = Missing Data 2 1 = There is no restriction placed on her during this period, and she carries on her activities as usual 5 2 = There are restrictions placed on her personal activities but not on her social contacts, e.g., cooking taboos, eating taboos, taboos on what she may touch 4 3 = There are restrictions placed on her personal movements and social contacts, e.g., she must remain in her dwelling or in a certain area of the settlements, she should avoid certain people 10 4 = There are few restrictions placed on her personal activities and social contacts 10 5 = There are moderate restrictions placed on her movements and her personal activities, e.g., she is in a partitioned area of the dwelling, she may not cook, she may see only certain people, she cannot engage in her usual economic activities, relaxed seclusion 8 6 = There are severe restrictions imposed on her movements and personal activities, e.g., she is isolated in a menstrual hut, she may see few if any people, she may not cook, she may not feed herself 940. Social danger: which person(s) would be most harmed if the woman did not adhere to her menstrual restrictions. Ranked according to how large a group is thought to be endangered by the woman's actions. If more than one category is involved, code the most important danger first, the second most important one, second 156 . = Missing Data 4 1 = No one is thought to be endangered during this period 5 2 = Only the menstruating woman is endangered 3 = The woman endangers her husband 4 4 = The woman endangers men. If both 3 & 4, code as 4 1 5 = The woman endangers other women and/or children, e.g., the fertility of other women, newborn children 6 6 = The woman endangers anyone with whom she comes in contact 10 7 = The woman endangers her social group, e.g., the fertility of the crops, the response of the supernatural to them, harm to an important social functionary notes on these codes
STDS44.DAT 941. Personal restrictions on pregnancy. Ranked according to the degree of segregation from social contacts that is involved 134 . = Missing Data 7 0 = Some information, but insufficient to code 3 1 = No modification is reported 2 2 = She modifies the usual garments she wears and/or the usual care of her body, e.g., she wears more loosefitting garments, wears amulets to ward off evil spirits, pays special attention to cleanliness, etc 11 3 = She modifies the use of her sensory apparatus, e.g., she avoids hearing, seeing, or touching certain things 17 4 = She modifies her diet, e.g., she avoids eating certain foods 5 5 = She modifies her usual domestic or economic duties, e.g., she does not cook she has someone else care for the children 4 6 = She modifies her suaul mobility, e.g., she should not leave the settlement, she avoids certain places 2 7 = Her usual social relations and/or living arrangements are modifies, e.g., she may not sleep where she usually does, she cannot be near certain people, she must not behave in the usual manner 1 8 = She modifies her participation in social groups and activities, e.g., religious events [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted. This item was omitted from the punched-card version and added later.] 942. Purpose of pregnancy restrictions: Ranked according to the extensiveness of the social harm that may result from a woman not modifying her behavior along the expected lines. The code should indicate which person(s) the restrictions are most concerned with protecting 146 . = Missing Data 13 1 = They are to prevent harm to the baby 4 2 = They are to prevent harm to the mother, e.g, illness, difficult delivery 21 3 = They are to prevent harm to the baby and the mother, e.g., miscarriage, attacks from the spirits, etc 2 4 = They are to prevent harm to anyone with whom she comes in contact and/or the social group of which she is a part, e.g., to prevent failure of the crops, to prevent an epidemic 943. Special segregation at birth: Location of the woman when she gives birth: where the birth of the first child takes place. Ranked according to the degree of segregation in or from her ordinary dwelling when the woman gives birth 139 . = Missing Data 1 1 = No special place is prepared for the birth of the child; the woman gives birth wherever she happens to be 10 2 = The woman gives birth in the dwelling where she usually resides, but no special partitions are set up 11 3 = The woman gives birth in the dwelling where she usually resides but in a partitioned or otherwise demarcated area or room 2 4 = The woman gives birth in an area near the dwelling where she usually resides, e.g., under the dwelling, in a lean-to near the dwelling 4 5 = The woman does not give birth in a special dwelling but in a place outside of the area where most social activity occurs, e.g., on the fringes or outside of the dwelling area 11 6 = The woman gives birth in a structure explicitly constructed for the purpose, e.g., a birth hut 1 7 = The woman does not give birth in her usual residence but in the dwelling of an affinal relative 7 8 = The woman does not give birth in her usual residence but in the dwelling of a consanguineal relative 944. Residence of the new parents at the birth of their first child 130 . = Missing Data 15 1 = Temporary matrilocality 11 2 = Permanent matrilocality 2 3 = Ambilocality 4 4 = Neolocality 24 5 = Patrilocality 945. Purpose of personal birth restrictions. Each category indicates why the taboos and restrictions on a woman's personal behavior are imposed after she bears a child Ranked according to the degree that the restrictions affect other people 148 . = Missing Data 13 1 = Restrictions are imposed on her to promote the well-being of her child, e.g., she is cared for so that she can produce milk for the baby 4 2 = Restrictions are imposed on her to prevent harm to her and/or to promote her well-being, e.g., other people prepare and bring her food, she does not work, she is indulged 14 3 = Restrictions are imposed to prevent harm to her and her baby 7 4 = Restrictions are imposed on her to prevent harm to those with whom she comes in contact and/or to prevent harm to her social group 946. Duration of personal birth restrictions. Each category specifies a period of time after birth before the woman resumes her usual domestic and economic activities 132 . = Missing Data 5 0 = Some information, but insufficient to code 21 1 = 0-7 days 14 2 = 8-14 days 6 3 = 15-30 days 6 4 = 31-60 days 3 5 = more than two months [This item was omitted from the punched-card version and added later.] Celebration of birth: The degree of social concern with the birth of a child as indicated by the amount of celebration after the birth and the extent of social participation in it. The codes apply to the largest social class and exclude such particular occasions as the celebratino of multiple births or the birth of an heir to a king. Coded for the first born if there is a difference in treatment for different births. Coded for the desired sex if there is a difference for males and females 947. Type of birth celebration 132 . = Missing Data 4 1 = There is no celebratin for the mother or child after birth 5 2 = There is no celebration after birth, but people do come to visit, offer congratulations, etc 21 3 = There is a minor celebration after the birth, e.g, a small meal, a few drinks, etc 9 4 = There is a moderate amount of celebration after the birth, e.g., a feast, dancing 15 5 = There is an elaborate celebration after the birth, e.g., elaborate feasting, dancing, many rites performed 948. When the birth celebration occurs 139 . = Missing Data 4 0 = Some information, but insufficient to code 20 1 = Immediately or a few days after delivery 1 2 = After the mother comes out of confinement 14 3 = When the baby is named or baptized 5 4 = When the baby and mother come out of confinement 3 5 = Other [This item was omitted from the punched-card version and added later.] 949. Participants in the birth celebration. The code indicates the most extensive group which participates in the celebration of birth. Ranked according to the extensiveness of the group 150 . = Missing Data 5 1 = No one is involved in a celebration 1 2 = The husband's family 7 3 = Friends and neighbors 1 4 = The wife's kin unit 8 5 = Friends of the H and W and "relatives" 6 6 = The wife's and husband's kin units or relatives of a group more extensive than the family 8 7 = The community or large social, group to which the H and W belong Children. This section deals with the ways in which childbearing is socially encouraged or curtailed 950. Preferred sex and number of children 139 . = Missing Data 1 1 = They want very few children, regardless of sex 19 2 = They prefer to have males rather than females, regardless of sex 7 3 = They prefer to have females rather than males, regardless of number 7 4 = Either sex is acceptable, e.g., the father wants a boy, the mother wants a girl, or they don't care as long as the child is healthy 13 5 = They prefer a large number of children, regardless of their sex Barrenness. This part deals with the amount of social stigma that a woman bears if she is incapable of producing children 951. Explanation of barrenness. Ranked according to the degree to which the woman is blamed for her barrenness 156 . = Missing Data 1 = Barrenness is regarded as the fault of a sterile or impotent husband 6 2 = Barrenness is regarded as an unfortunate physical condition that has befallen a woman through no fault of her own 7 3 = Barrenness is regarded as the fault of others who bear malice towards the woman, e.g., witches 7 4 = Barrenness is regarded as the fault of others who break taboos that have ramifications for her fertility 7 5 = Barrenness is regarded as the fault of supernatural forces or supernatural beings who are generally malevolent 1 6 = Barrenness is regarded as the fault of the woman who is being punished for committing some offense which is not sexual in nature 2 7 = Barrenness is regarded as punishment to a woman who has committed some sexual offense, e.g., adultery, incest [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 952. Penalties for barrenness. Ranked according to the severity of the penalty the woman incurs if she is barren 134 . = Missing Data 1 1 = No penalties are reported 13 2 = Remedies are actively sought to correct the condition, e.g., amulets, potions, ceremonies 12 3 = Provision is made for a child by adoption for fosterage 7 4 = Provision is made for a child by the husband taking an additional wife to bear children or by the wife getting another woman to bear children for her husband 15 5 = The woman's husband can or does divorce her 4 6 = The woman is ostracized because she has no children, e.g., jokes are made about her. She is given a subsidiary role in domestic tasks [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 953. Contraception: knowledge and use of means to prevent the conception of children. Ranked according to the degree to which the responsibility for contraception devolves upon the woman 145 . = Missing Data 9 1 = No contraception is known about or used 3 2 = Contraception is present, but there is no information on the method 1 3 = There is a rudimentary form of contraception, e.g., abstention when the woman is thought most likely to conceive, coitus interruptus 12 4 = Contraception is present by implication, e.g., a long post-partum sex taboos or abstention while nursing 4 5 = There is a long post-partum sex taboos and rudimentary contraception 3 6 = There is a long post-partum sex taboos and the woman practices some intentional form of contraception 9 7 = The woman is primarily responsible for contraception, e.g., she has knowledge of rites she can perform to prevent offspring or she has knowledge of rites she can perform to prevent offspring or she swallows a drug 954. Social approval for Abortion: approval of and rationale for action taken to prevent the birth of a child by expelling the fetus before it is viable. Ranked according to the amount of social disapproval towards abortion 139 . = Missing Data 17 1 = Abortions occur, but there is no information on frequency 12 2 = Abortions are permitted and occur frequently 3 = Abortions are permitted and occur infrequently 9 4 = Abortions are disapproved of but do occur. If they are infrequent and there is no information on approval, code in this category 9 5 = Abortions are strongly disapproved of and occur rarely or never 955. Rationale for abortions: If there is more than one reason, indicate the most frequent reason first on the code sheet, second, etc. up to four important reasons. Ranked according to the degree to which social rather than personal considerations lead to the abortion 152 . = Missing Data 7 1 = No abortions 6 2 = Concern for the psychological or pgysical state of the mother, e.g., she does not want more children, she is concerned about her beauty, or she does not want to lose her husband 3 3 = Revenge, e.g., the woman is angry with her husband 3 4 = Concern for the child's welfare, e.g., the mother is nursing another which would leave no milk for another, or the couple cannot afford more children 9 5 = The child was conceived out of wedlock 4 6 = The child was conceived in an illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adulterous, incestuous, or with a man of the wrong social class or ethnic group 1 7 = Other Infanticide. This part deals with the approval of and rationale for killing an infant after he is born 956. Social approval. Ranked according to the amount of social disapproval incurred if infanticide occurs 146 . = Missing Data 19 1 = Infanticide occurs, but there is no information on frequency 3 2 = Infanticide is permitted and occurs frequently 4 3 = Infanticide is permitted and occurs infrequently 5 4 = Infanticide is disapproved of but does occur. If it occurs, and there is no information on approval, code here 10 5 = Infanticide is disapproved and does not occur 957. Rationale for infanticide. Each category indicates a reason for which an infant might be killed. Ranked according to the degree to which social rather than personal reasons lead to the infanticide 147 . = Missing Data 8 1 = No infanticide 4 2 = The mother's welfare, e.g., she does not want more children, she is afraid of losing her charms, etc 1 3 = Revenge, e.g., due to argument with husband 2 4 = Concern for the child's welfare, e.g., the couple cannot support more children or there is ni one to suckle the child 7 5 = The child was born in an unusual position, exhibited some unusual behavior or physical trait at birth, or was deformed, e.g., hair was already present on the child, or the child was born feet first 8 6 = The child was one of a multiple birth 2 7 = The child was a female 6 8 = The child was born of an illicit sexual relationship, i.e., premarital, adulterous, or incestuous 1 9 = Other III. Sexual Relations and their Social Context. This section deals with sexual relations from two perspectives. The first focuses on intercourse and the restrictions that are placed on it. The second focuses on marriage as the most common context within which intercourse and childbearing occur 958. Restrictions on the occasion of intercourse. Each category specifies an occasion when intercourse is proscribed or strongly preferred not to take place. Ranked according to the degree to which the occasion for intercourse is tied to a social rather than n individual state or activity 130 . = Missing Data 2 1 = It cannot occur during menstruation 16 2 = It cannot occur for some period after childbirth whether because of nursing or a postpartum sex taboo and/or during pregnancy 12 3 = It cannot occur during mensturation and after childbirth and/or during pregnancy 3 4 = It cannot occur before, during, or after life cycle events, e.g., after the death of a spouse or at initiation 5 = Other 6 = It cannot occur before, during, and/or after a military expedition 11 7 = It cannot occur before, during and/or after a major economic activity and/or a manufacturing operation 6 8 = It cannot occur before, during and/or after a ritual program of some sort, e.g., days of abstinence of power seeking 3 9 = It cannot occur before, during and/or after non-life cycle ceremonial events, e.g., harvest festivals [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 959. Extensions of the incest taboo. Each category specifies an extension of the incest taboo beyond the nuclear family. Ranked according to the degree to which the emphasis is on nonkinship considerations. The coding should indicate the focus of the strongest extension of the incest taboo 144 . = Missing Data 5 1 = No extension beyond the nuclear family is reported. Note in the comments if the strongest prohibition in the family is Br-Si, Mo-So, or Fa-Dau 2 2 = Bilateral extensions by cross or parallel cousins 17 3 = Bilateral extension by degree of cousinage from ego 1 4 = Other 5 = Matrilineal extensions, with or without other bilateral extensions 6 = Patrilineal extensions, with or without other bilateral extensions 1 7 = Extensions based on nonkinship considerations, e.g., ritual bonds, household composition, locality, or social class 960. Violation of the incest taboo. Ranked according to the extent of the consequences of violating the incest taboo 157 . = Missing Data 8 1 = None or mild punishment, e.g., ostracism or a fine 3 2 = Moderate punishment, e.g., offenders meet with misfortune such as sickness or bad luck 9 3 = Severe punishment, e.g., death, barrenness, or expulsion from the community 5 4 = Punishment to others than the offenders, e.g., their family or kin group 1 5 = Punishment to the total social group, e.g., an epidemic or crop failure in the community 3 6 = Punishment that affects the offenders as well as their social group, i.e., category `2` or `3` in combination with `5` category notes on these codes
STDS45.DAT 961. Restrictions on Premarital Sex. Ranked according to the degree of prohibition against premarital sex 125 . = Missing Data 17 1 = It is permitted for both sexes 1 2 = It is permitted for both but in limited contexts, e.g., with prostitutes or as part of a ceremony 9 3 = It is permitted and not punished unless pregnancy results 12 4 = It is permitted for males but no females 9 5 = Premarital relations are disapproved but no infrequent in fact 4 6 = Insistence on virginity for the woman. There is no information on restrictions on the male 9 7 = Premarital relations are strongly disapproved and rare 962. Violation of restrictions on premarital sex. Each category specifies the consequences a woman faces if she violates a premarital sex prohibition 135 . = Missing Data 19 1 = Neither she nor her partner face punishment 13 2 = Her partner is punished, but she is not 4 3 = Mild punishment for the women, e.g., temporary ostracism 8 4 = Moderate punishment for the woman, e.g., marriage is more difficult or physical punishment 2 5 = Severe punishment, e.g., banishment from her social group, or she is killed 5 6 = [Kenuzi, Gheg, Kurd, Manus, Mbau] - Severe or killed ? 963. Restrictions and Extramarital Sex. Ranked according to the strength of the prohibition against extramarital sex 128 . = Missing Data 3 1 = Permitted for both H and W 11 2 = Permitted for both but only in limited contexts, e.g., with particular relatives of the spouse, ceremonial license 1 3 = Permitted and not punished unless pregnancy results 15 4 = Permitted for the husband but not for the wife 15 5 = Weakly prohibited, e.g., frequent violations or weak punishment 13 6 = Strongly prohibited, e.g., occurs rarely or severe punishment 964. Punishment for extramarital sex. Ranked according to the severity of punishment that a woman receives if she commits adultery 132 . = Missing Data 5 1 = No punishment or mild punishment, e.g., a warning or a fine 3 2 = Generally mild punishment, but she can be killed for it 6 3 = Moderate punishment, e.g., a beating or incarceration 14 4 = Generally moderate punishment, but she can be killed or divorced for it 8 5 = The woman is divorced 5 6 = She is generally divorced, but she can be killed for it 8 7 = Severe punishment, e.g., permanent physical damage, but she can be killed or divorced for it 5 8 = The woman is killed or commits suicide 965. Violation: who is punished for adultery. Ranked according to the degree to which the woman is punished 138 . = Missing Data 1 = No one is punished 2 2 = Only the lover is punished 15 3 = Both the woman and her lover are punished, but the lover is punished more severely than the woman 19 4 = Both the woman and her lover are punished by almost equally severe punishment 6 5 = Both the woman and her lover are punished, but the woman is punished more severely than her lover 6 6 = Only the woman is punished 966. Violation: who punishes adultery. Ranked according to the degree to which responsibility for punishment of the woman resides with the social group 132 . = Missing Data 1 0 = Some information, but insufficient to code 2 1 = No punishment for the women 39 2 = The husband punishes his wife and/or her lover, if the wife is not punished 3 = A representative of the family or kin group of the husband punishes her 3 4 = A representative of the family or kin group of the wife punishes her 8 5 = The community as a whole or its representative punishes her 2 6 = Supernatural consequences fall upon the woman, e.g., mystical retribution or punishment by the ancestral gods [This item was omitted from the punched-card version and added later.] Marriage. This part focuses on the establishment, characteristics, and dissolution of marriage, the most prominent form of legitimate sexual relationship and context for the birth of children 967. Age of Woman at Establishment of marriage: first marriage 141 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Under 12 years 18 2 = 12-15 years (if the source says that boys or girls marry at puberty, code it here) 11 3 = 16-17 years 10 4 = 18-21 years 3 5 = 22-25 years 1 6 = 26 years and older 968. Age of Man at Establishment of marriage: first marriage 144 . = Missing Data 1 = Under 12 years 4 2 = 12-15 years (if the source says that boys or girls marry at puberty, code it here) 7 3 = 16-17 years 15 4 = 18-21 years 6 5 = 22-25 years 10 6 = 26 years and older 969. Choice of spouse: social restrictions which limit an individual's choice of whom he can marry. Ranked according to the degree that nonkinship considerations play an important role 127 . = Missing Data 18 1 = Bilateral considerations, including not marrying a "relative" 2 = Bilateral considerations, specifically cross and parallel cousins 10 3 = Kinship of a matrilineal or matrilateral nature 16 4 = Kinship of a patrilineal or patrilateral nature 2 5 = Locality where the potential spouse lives 1 6 = The tribe to which the potential spouse belongs 5 7 = The age or generation of the potential spouse 8 = The status of the potential spouse [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] Agreement to marry. This deals with the extent to which marriage is a transaction between social groups rather than the couple 970. Marriage proposal: Besides the groom, whose proposal is regarded as most necessary in initiating marriage. Ranked according to how extensive a group is involved in initiating marriage 128 . = Missing Data 6 1 = The bride's family or a relative of the bride 30 2 = The bride's and groom's families 2 3 = The groom's kin group and the bride's family 4 = The bride's kin group and the groom's family 20 5 = The kin groups of the bride and groom 971. Consent to marry: how necesary is the consent of the prospective wife for marriage arrangements to proceed 129 . = Missing Data 19 1 = Propective spouse's consent is necessary, i.e., the marriage cannot take place without it 22 2 = The prospective spouse is consulted 16 3 = The prospective spouse is not consulted 972. Consent to marry: how necesary is the consent of the prospective Husband for marriage arrangements to proceed 132 . = Missing Data 23 1 = Propective spouse's consent is necessary, i.e., the marriage cannot take place without it 22 2 = The prospective spouse is consulted 9 3 = The prospective spouse is not consulted 973. Degree of marriage celebration 129 . = Missing Data 4 1 = There is no celebration 16 2 = There is a small celebration, e.g., a minor acknowledgement or exchange of gifts 15 3 = There is a moderate celebration, e.g., a feast, dancing, dramatic performances, or extensive gift exchange 22 4 = There is an elaborate celebration, e.g., it lasts a long period of time, is characterized by lavish dress, has elaborate performances, etc 974. Type of participants in the wedding. Ranked according to how extensive the group is 136 . = Missing Data 2 1 = Friends of the couple 4 2 = The family of the bride or the groom 4 3 = The kin group of the bride or groom 9 4 = The families of the bride and groom 19 5 = The kin groups or "relatives" of the bride and groom 12 7 = The community 975. The rights transferred by women at marriage 136 . = Missing Data 9 1 = Rights concerning priority of sexual access 10 2 = Rights concerning offspring 6 3 = Rights concerning choice of residence 8 4 = Rights concerning domestic services 12 5 = Rights concerning economic labor 5 6 = Rights concerning choice of residence and economic labor [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 976. The rights transferred by men at marriage 149 . = Missing Data 1 1 = Rights concerning priority of sexual access 2 2 = Rights concerning offspring 1 3 = Rights concerning choice of residence 4 = Rights concerning domestic services 22 5 = Rights concerning economic labor 11 6 = Rights concerning choice of residence and economic labor 977. Finality: factors that are important for the firm establishment of a marriage. Ranked according to the degree to which its establishment depends on the groom. The code reflects the most important obligation that must be met before the marriage is considered final 141 . = Missing Data 18 1 = After children or children of the appropriate sex are born 2 2 = After cohabitation and the birth of children 4 3 = After cohabitation 6 4 = After children are born and after bride price is paid 5 5 = After a marriage ceremony 10 6 = After bride-price has been paid 978. Grounds for divorce: wife's reasons given for dissolving a marriage 138 . = Missing Data 5 1 = There is no divorce 3 2 = Reproductive problems, e.g., barrenness or impotence 5 3 = Illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adultery 7 4 = Physical violence, e.g., beatings 11 5 = Incompatibility 1 6 = Desertion or extreme neglect 2 7 = Incompatibility with affines 9 8 = Failure in economic or domestic duties, e.g., laziness, poor provider or nonpayment of marriage payments 5 9 = None or trivial grounds, e.g., another woman or man is more desirable or he or she does not like his or her current spouse [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 979. Grounds for divorce: husband's reasons given for dissolving a marriage 130 . = Missing Data 4 1 = There is no divorce 16 2 = Reproductive problems, e.g., barrenness or impotence 9 3 = Illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adultery 4 = Physical violence, e.g., beatings 12 5 = Incompatibility 3 6 = Desertion or extreme neglect 1 7 = Incompatibility with affines 8 8 = Failure in economic or domestic duties, e.g., laziness, poor provider or nonpayment of marriage payments 3 9 = None or trivial grounds, e.g., another woman or man is more desirable or he or she does not like his or her current spouse [Note: only the first of several items ranked are indicated in this code. Full appraisal would require all these items to be consulted.] 980. Restrictions on divorce. Ranked according to the difficulty a woman has in obtaining a divorce 141 . = Missing Data 17 1 = Divorce is allowed for both the H and W 7 2 = Divorce is more difficult for a man to obtain. There is a prohibition against his obtaining one or a low frequency of men who obtain a divorce 8 3 = Divorce is difficult and/or has a low frequency for both men and women 14 4 = Divorce is more difficult for the wife to obtain. There is a prohibition against her obtaining one or a low frequency of wives obtaining a divorce 981. Rights over offspring after divorce. Ranked according to the degree to which the husband retains custody over the children after a divorce 141 . = Missing Data 4 1 = No divorce 8 2 = The wife keeps all of the children 11 3 = Who has custody of the children depends on the age and/or wishes of the children, e.g., the mother may take the infants 5 4 = Each spouse has custody of some of the children, e.g., the wife keeps the girls and the husband the boys 7 5 = Custody of the children depends on the circumstances of the divorce 9 6 = The husband has custody of all of the children 982. Remarriage after divorce. Ranked according to how difficult it is to remarry after a divorce 145 . = Missing Data 29 1 = Both the H and W may remarry 7 2 = Both the H and W may remarry, but it is easier for the H 1 3 = It is difficult for both the H and W to remarry after divorce 4 4 = No divorce 983. Property exchanges after divorce. Ranked in order of the amount of financial loss incurred by the wife when a divorce occurs 143 . = Missing Data 4 1 = There is no divorce 8 2 = No financial transactions occur after a divorce, or there is an equal division of property 6 3 = The H or his kin pay compensation 16 4 = The transactions that occur depend on the circumstances of the divorce 5 = Other 9 6 = The wife and/or her kin group pay compensation, e.g., return brideprice 984. Remarriage of widows. The categories are ranked in order of the degree of restriction a woman faces to remarry after her husband's death 129 . = Missing Data 14 1 = She may marry anyone she chooses 7 2 = She may remarry but often chooses not to, e.g., she would suffer financial loss or her children can care for her 3 = She may remarry, but her choice is constrained by the wishes of her family and/or kin group 20 4 = She may remarry, but first priority is given to marrying a specific relative of her husband's or someone chosen by her husband's kin group, e.g., levirate 13 5 = She must marry a specific relative of the husband's or someone chosen by her husband's kin group or not remarry 3 6 = She may not remarry 985. Length of time before a widow remarries 152 . = Missing Data 5 0 = Some information, but insufficient to code 9 1 = 0-6 months 5 2 = 6 months to less than a year 10 3 = 1 year to less than 2 years 4 4 = More than two years 1 5 = No remarriage 1 6 = Undefined [coded for Mbau Fijians] [This item was omitted from the punched-card version and added later.] notes on these codes
ENCULTURATIVE CONTINUITY AND IMPORTANCE OF CARETAKERS Ronald P. Rohner and Evelyn C. Rohner, l982, BEHAVIOR SCIENCE RESEARCH STDS46.DAT This and subsequent contributions are provided by arrangement with editors of the journal BEHAVIOR SCIENCE RESEARCH 986. Importance of Mothers for boys 987. Importance of Mothers for girls 988. Importance of Mothers for both boys and girls, without regard to gender (Sum of 2 rater's ratings on 1-4 point scale) . = Missing data 86 2 = Rarely the major caretaker 4 = Sometimes the major caretaker 5 = Often ? 6 = Frequently the major caretaker 7 = Very Frequent ? 8 = Almost always the major caretaker 989. Importance of Fathers for boys 990. Importance of Fathers for girls 991. Importance of Fathers for both boys and girls, without regard to gender . = Missing data 86 2 = Rarely the major caretaker 3 = Occasional ? 4 = Sometimes the major caretaker 5 = Often ? 6 = Frequently the major caretaker 7 = Very Frequent ? 8 = Almost always the major caretaker 992. Importance of Others for boys . = Missing data 2 = Rarely the major caretaker 4 = Sometimes the major caretaker 6 = Frequently the major caretaker 8 = Almost always the major caretaker 993. Identification of Others for boys . = Missing data A 1 = Adults in household or community (other than parents) E 2 = Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls) G 3 = Grandparents, usually grandmother M 4 = Mother's brother or mother's sister P 5 = Peers, age-mates, older youths, but not siblings S 6 = Siblings (usually older sisters) 994. Importance of Others for girls . = Missing data 2 = Rarely the major caretaker 5 = Often ? 4 = Sometimes the major caretaker 6 = Frequently the major caretaker 8 = Almost always the major caretaker 995. Identification of others for girls 86 . = Missing data A 1 = Adults in household or community (other than parents) E 2 = Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls) G 3 = Grandparents, usually grandmother M 4 = Mother's brother or mother's sister P 5 = Peers, age-mates, older youths, but not siblings S 6 = Siblings (usually older sisters) 996. Importance of Siblings (usually older sisters) for both boys and girls 997. Importance of Grandparents for both boys and girls, without regard to gender 998. Importance of Others for both boys and girls, without regard to gender * 996-8 without regard to gender * 997 usually Grandmothers 86 . = Missing data 2 = Rarely the major caretaker 3 = Occasional ? 4 = Sometimes the major caretaker 5 = Often ? 6 = Frequently the major caretaker 7 = Very Frequent ? 8 = Almost always the major caretaker 999. Identification of Others for boys and girls, without regard to gender 86 . = Missing data A 1 = Adults in household or community (other than parents) E 2 = Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls) G 3 = Grandparents, usually grandmother M 4 = Mother's brother or mother's sister P 5 = Peers, age-mates, older youths, but not siblings S 6 = Siblings (usually older sisters) 1000. Enculturative Continuity for boys 86 . = Missing data 2 = Discontinuity, fundamental 4 = Discontinuity, significant 5 = both elements ? 6 = Significant continuity (Minor elements only of discontinuity) 7 = Very Significant ? 8 = Fundamental continuity 1001. Incomplete Continuity for boys: age 86 . = Missing data A 1 = around age five (or slightly younger) B 2 = around age six C 3 = around age seven D 4 = around age eight E 5 = around age nine F 6 = around age ten 1002. Enculturative Continuity for girls 86 . = Missing data 2 = Fundamental discontinuity 4 = Significant discontinuity 5 = both elements ? 6 = Significant continuity (Minor elements only of discontinuity) 7 = Very Significant ? 8 = Fundamental continuity 1003. Incomplete Continuity for girls: age 86 . = Missing data A 1 = around age five (or slightly younger) B 2 = around age six C 3 = around age seven D 4 = around age eight E 5 = around age nine F 6 = around age ten 1004. Enculturative Continuity for both boys and girls without regard for gender 86 . = Missing data 2 = Fundamental discontinuity 4 = Significant discontinuity 5 = both elements ? 6 = Significant continuity (Minor elements only of discontinuity) 7 = Very Significant ? 8 = Fundamental continuity 1005. Incomplete Continuity for both boys and girls without regard for gender: age 86 . = Missing data A 1 = around age five (or slightly younger) B 2 = around age six C 3 = around age seven D 4 = around age eight E 5 = around age nine F 6 = around age ten notes on these codes
STDS47.DAT Finished Variable Codebook Filename: SYSEC.COD Diskette: Worldsys from 3-16-87 1:36p DATASET: SYSEC Coding Problems:__________________ Society Name: _____________ Number: _______ Addl Research on Questions: _____ Date of Observation ______ 1006. Classification of World System Position Markets Labor Agricult. Commodities & Trade Coercion Wage Productn Tax Import/Export . = Missing data 1 = Core 1 Central - + Agribus. + / 2 = Core 2 Central - + Commerc. + / 2 3 = Semiperip 1 Mediators Slavery Spec.Cash + Weapons /Hier1 2 4 = Semiperip 2 Mediators - + Spec.Cash + Weapons /Hier2 2 5 = Periphery 1a Export - + Spec.Cash + Tools /Agri 4 6 = Periphery 1b Export + - Sharecrop + Tools /Agri 7 7 = Periphery 1c Export + - Mixed + Tools /Agri 5 8 = Periphery 1d Export - - Mixed - Weap /Agri 12 9 = Periphery 2a Traders + or + Incipient - Weap Food/Prized 5 10 = Periphery 2c Markets - kind Non-cash - Weap Food/Prized 8 11 = Periphery 2b Traders - kind Non-cash - Weap Food/Prized Anomalous: +/-Alcohol/ * (Mbuti) Symbiotic - kind Non-cash - Utilities/Prized 5 12 = Marginal 1 Partners - kind Non-cash - Utilities/None 1 13 = Marginal 2 Raiding P-- plunder Non-Cash - None /None 1007. Trade and Markets . = Missing data 1 1 = External to world economy 4 2 = External Trade "Partners" (missions, settlers, etc.) not traders 23 3 = No Marketplace, but incoming traders for bulk goods 21 4 = Marketplace, market effects for bulk goods 4 5 = Entrepreneurs & Creditors for other areas; Intermediaries 6 = Central trading 1008. Cropping . = Missing data 17 0 = No agriculture or unimportant 7 1 = Subsistence Agriculture only 4 2 = Sale of subsistence crop but unimportant 6 3 = Sale of subsistence crop important 5 4 = Specialized Cash Crops present but unimportant 9 5 = Specialized Cash Crops important ( ) monoculture 5 6 = Sharecropping 7 = Commercial farming 8 = Industrial Agriculture 1009. Labor 134 . = Missing data 13 1 = No wage or coerced labor 3 2 = Coerced labor - internal ([large scale] slavery, vassals, corvee) 2 3 = Coerced labor - external 10 4 = Labor hired - local service occupations 12 5 = Migrant wage labor (cash) - 9 6 = Local wage labor (cash/kind) - partial (incl. crafts, traps) 3 7 = Market for all types of labor 1010. Labor Recoding . = Missing data 13 0 = No wage labor, no coerced labor, or 8 1 = labor hired - in kind or local service occupations only 5 2 = Internal coerced labor only - ([modify to: large scale] slavery, vassals, corvee) 4 3 = External coerced labor - 9 4 = Sporadic wage labor (5,6,7 above) 2 5 = Divided or exempted wage labor (5,6,7 above) - see notes 12 6 = Important wage labor (5,6,7 above) - includes sale, craft 1011. Tool Categories Imported: (19 17 21 18 9) . = Missing data 14 0 = 26 1 = 9 2 = 2 3 = 2 4 = 1012. Foods/Animals Categories Imported: (13 5 3 4 2) . = Missing data 23 0 = 11 1 = 10 2 = 7 3 = 1 4 = 1 5 = 1013. Consumer Goods Categories Imported: (16 12 10) . = Missing data 6 0 = 33 1 = 12 2 = 2 3 = 1014. Weapons Categories Imported: (20 8) . = Missing data 21 0 = 22 1 = 9 2 = 1015. Hieratic Goods Categories Exported: (10, 1) . = Missing data 37 0 = 13 1 = 2 2 = 1016. Stimulants Categories Exported: (13, 12) . = Missing data 45 0 = 6 1 = 1 2 = 1017. Prized Raw Goods Categories Exported: (4, 6) . = Missing data 29 0 = 16 1 = 7 2 = 1018. Local Wares Categories Exported: (11, 2, 14) . = Missing data 30 0 = 18 1 = 3 2 = 1 3 = 1019. Consumable Categories Imported (4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 16) . = Missing data 3 0 = 6 1 = 13 2 = 12 3 = 7 4 = 6 5 = 4 6 = 1 7 = 1 8 = 1020. Durable Categories Imported (8 17 18 19 20 21) . = Missing data 4 0 = 17 1 = 17 2 = 13 3 = 1 4 = 5 = 1 6 = 1021. Consumable Categories Exported (4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 16) . = Missing data 3 0 = 21 1 = 12 2 = 9 3 = 4 4 = 3 5 = 1022. Durable Categories Exported (8 17 18 19 20 21) [and manufactured?] . = Missing data 49 0 = 3 1 = 1023. Throughputs: total number of categories both imported and exported . = Missing data 43 0 = 4 1 = 2 2 = 1 3 = 1 4 = 5 = 1 7 = 1024.GONE Imported Goods <- list if both -> Exported Goods . = Missing data . 1 = Slaves 1 PEOPLE 2 = Small animals 2 ANIMALS 3 = Large animals 3 4 = Meat/dairy, furs, skins 4 FOOD 5 = Cereal grains, cash crops --> 5 6 = Salt, spices 6 7 = Wood, fuel, construction mat. 7 MATERIALS 8 = Ores 8 9 = Agricultural Inputs 9 10 = Prestige goods (Ivory, Gold, etc) 10 11 = Craft goods 11 12 = Alcohol 12 INDUSTRIAL 13 = Stimulants (tobacco, tea, coffee) 13 GOODS 14 = Pots, beads, cooking utensils,etc 14 15 = Books, magazines, newspapers 15 16 = Clothing, cloth, blankets 16 17 = Bicycles, cars, power boats 17 18 = Radios, lamps, Electricity 18 19 = Metal tools, traps 19 CAPITAL 20 = Weapons, ammunition 20 INPUTS 21 = Tractors, pumps, machines 21 1025. Slaves 1026. Small animals 1027. Large animals 1028. Meat/dairy, furs, skins 1029. Cereal grains, cash crops --> 1030. Salt, spices 1031. Wood, fuel, construction mat. 1032. Ores 1033. Agricultural Inputs 1034. Prestige goods (Ivory, Gold, etc) 1035. Craft goods 1036. Alcohol 1037. Stimulants (tobacco, tea, coffee) 1038. Pots, beads, cooking utensils,etc 1039. Books, magazines, newspapers 1040. Clothing, cloth, blankets 1041.GONE Bicycles, cars, power boats 1042. Radios, lamps, Electricity 1043. Metal tools, traps 1044. Weapons, ammunition 1045. Tractors, pumps, machines * IMPORTED GOOD . = Missing Data 0 = Absent 1 = Present 1046. Slaves 1047. Small animals 1048. Large animals 1049. Meat/dairy, furs, skins 1050. Cereal grains, cash crops --> 1051. Salt, spices 1052. Wood, fuel, construction mat. 1053. Ores 1054. Agricultural Inputs 1055. Prestige goods (Ivory, Gold, etc) 1056. Craft goods 1057. Alcohol 1058. Stimulants (tobacco, tea, coffee) 1059. Pots, beads, cooking utensils,etc 1060. Books, magazines, newspapers 1061. Clothing, cloth, blankets 1062. Bicycles, cars, power boats 1063. Radios, lamps, Electricity 1064. Metal tools, traps 1065. Weapons, ammunition 1066. Tractors, pumps, machines * EXPORTED GOOD . = Missing Data 0 = Absent 1 = Present notes on these codes
STDS48.DAT Finished Variable Codebook Filename: RENTAX Diskette: Worldsys from 3-16-87 12:43p VERSION: ( )A1 ( )A2 ( )B ( )C other( )____ VERSIONS ARE LISTED A1/2 First Society Name: _____________ Number:_______ ** means A has, C doesn't C Second Needs Addl Research ( )Y ( )N on Questions: * means C has, A doesn't Coding Problems:____________________________ Date of Observation (Pinpointed) Cover _____ 1066. Changes in Land Tenure Affecting Entire Community SINCE time of first non-local contact [48] 3C/B 5F * . = Missing data 2 0 = No Land Ownership 27 1 = No Change 2 = Land Sold ( ) voluntarily to colonizers/settlers ( ) under duress to colonizers/settlers 9 3 = Land Confiscated with compensation ( ) partial compensation 8 4 = Land Confiscated without compensation 1 Mixed 1067.GONE Taxes or tribute paid per Unit (MULTIPLE RESPONSES !!!!) [53] 4B/A 6A 3 . = Missing data 24 1 = None 12 2 = Individual 6 3 = Household 4 = 2&3 1 5 = Kin Group 3 6 = Community 2 7 = Supra-Community (non-kin corp.) -- Mixed 1068.GONE Form of Tax Payment (Per Unit Taxes) [54] 4A 6A . = Missing data 23 1 z None 4 2 x Goods 8 3 y Currency 4 4 xzLabor or Corvee 2 5 yzGoods and currency 3 6 xyLabor and goods 1 7xyzLabor and currency 2 8 = Goods, labor, currency 1069.GONE Locus of Taxation (to whom paid): [55] 4AB/4 6A3 . = Missing data 24 0 = No Taxation even locally 7 1 = Local Taxation - e.g., local hamlet, irrig. society 12 2 = Outside Power - e.g., colonial govt., state 1070.GONE Gender of Tax Payee [56] (4B/*) ?? . = Missing data 23 0 = No taxes 11 1 = Males only 4 2 = Males and Females 1071.GONE Rents [57] */4A4 6A4 . = Missing data 38 1 = None 1a( ) Reciprocal patron/client exchange with outsiders 2 = Sharecropping in connection with land 4 3 = Currency - paid to landowner 4 = Currency - paid to church 3 5 = Currency - paid to Govt notes on these codes
CODES NOT YET DEVELOPED 1067. Changes in Land Tenure due to Land Registration [4-] 5F * . = Missing data 0 = No Land Ownership 1 = No Land Registration 2 = No Change: Registered prior to WS contact 3 = No Change: Registered after to WS contact 4 = Land registration: positive effects on retention 1 5 = Land registration: negative effect, leading to loss of land NOT CODED: 3ABD/* ** *;5G Loss of Indigenous forms of Subsistence - SEE SUBSISTENCE CODES 1068. Effects on Gender in Land Ownership [49] 3E/A ** . = Missing data 1 0 = No land Changes 2 a Effect to restrict women's ownership / usufruct (circle one) 3 b No effect of changes 1 4 c Effect to restrict men's ownership / usufruct (circle one) 1069. Presence of Landless People [50] */3C ** . = Missing data 1 1 = All or almost all have rights to land 2 = Fewer than half have no rights to land 3 = More than half have no rights to land 4 = Most of the population has no rights to land 1070. Taxes or tribute paid on Capital Goods [51] 4A ** . = Missing data 13 1 = None 2 = Land and/or farms 3 = Tools 4 = Animals 5 = 2&3 6 = 2&4 7 = 3&4 8 = 234 1071. Taxes or tribute paid on Transactions [52] ?/4A ** . = Missing data 12 1 = None 2 = Sales 1 3 = Tolls 4 = 2&3 5 = Parastatals 6 = 5&2 and/or 3 7 = Other: _________ Data from "A Cross-Cultural Historical Analysis of Subsistence Change" by Candice Bradley, Carmella C. Moore, Michael L. Burton, and Douglas R. White. 1990. American Anthropologist, 92:2:447-457 (June 1990). "Reproduced by permission of the American Anthropological Association from AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 92:2, June 1990. Not for furthervreproduction." This project was funded by NSF grant BNS-83-04782 to Michael Burton and Douglas White and by NSF grant BNS-85-07685 to Douglas White and Michael Burton. NSF requires data sharing. STDS49.DAT Variables 1072 - 1085 Description of study Reliability of study variables 1072. Date of Observation 99 . = Missing data 1073. Change in 100 years prior to observation 99 . = Missing data 14 0 = No change 73 1 = Change as result of world-system contact 0 2 = Change, but not result of world-system contact 1074. Extent of Change in Subsistence or Supportive System 99 . = Missing data 14 0 = No change 65 1 = Partial 6 2 = Total Change in subsistence system 2 3 = Total Change: anihilation 1075. Agricultural Intensification: Increase in inputs without increasing Land area of Food Production 100 . = Missing data 57 0 = No change/Not applicable 29 1 = Change in intensification 1076. Non-agricultural Intensification 101 . = Missing data 71 0 = No change/Not applicable 14 1 = Change in intensification 1077. New Crops 101 . = Missing data 62 0 = No 23 1 = Yes 1078. New Animals 101 . = Missing data 70 0 = No 15 1 = Yes 1079. Change in Settlement Patterns 101 . = Missing data 67 0 = No change/Not applicable 18 1 = Change in settlement patterns 1080. Expansion of Land utilized in Subsistence or Supportive Practices 105 . = Missing data 64 0 = No change/Not applicable 17 1 = Change in expansion 1081. Major Loss of Subsistence Mode 99 . = Missing data 60 0 = No change/Not applicable 27 1 = Major loss 1082. Wage Labor Introduced 101 . = Missing data 58 0 = No 27 1 = Yes 1083. Wage Labor Increased 100 . = Missing data 64 0 = No 22 1 = Yes 1084. Introduction to Trade 101 . = Missing data 63 0 = No 22 1 = Yes 1085. Trade Increased 100 . = Missing data 53 0 = No 33 1 = Yes notes on these codes
WORLD SYSTEM TURBULENT CHANGE STDS50.DAT 1086,-1112 White and Burton, NSF coding project, coders Candice Bradley, Carmella C. Moore, Douglas R. White Finished Variable Codebook Filename: TURB.COD Diskette: Worldsys from 3-21-87 7:50p VERSION: ( )A1 ( )A2 ( )B ( )C other( )____ VERSIONS ARE LISTED A1/2 First Society Name: _____________ Number: _______ ** means A has, C doesn't C Second Needs Addl Research ( )Y ( )N on Questions: * means C has, A doesn't Coding Problems:____________________________ 1086. Date of Observation (Pinpointed) [20] Cover _____ 1087. Political Entities Conquored, Colonized or Displaced in last 100 Years (earlier conquests in footnotes) [21] 1E/F 2A . = Missing data 40 0 = None 1 = Peaceful colonization or displacement (expansionist migration, assimilation or intermarriage) 9 2 = Warlike expansion and displacement without conquest or colonization 1 3 = Conquest but not colonization distance:______ 2 4 = Conquest and colonization distance:______ 1088. Frequency of successful expansions into another society in past 100 years [22] */1F 2A . = Missing data 41 0 = None 2 1 = Once 4 2 = Several times - no more than 4 = episodes 6 3 = Very frequent or continual 1089. Estimate of Distance to Furthest Society Conquored: [24] */1F 2A . = Missing data 42 0 = None 1 = Neighboring 1 2 = Less than two hundred miles (10-200) but not neighboring 2 3 = Over 200 miles, same continent 4 = Different Continents 1090. Society was Conquored, Colonized or Displaced by political entities in last 100 Years prior to observation (note earlier conquests) [25] download SCCS50.sav 2B * . = Missing data 11 0 = None 4 1 = Peaceful colonization or displacement (expansionist migration, assimilation, intermarriage or annexation with effective sovereignty and administration) 2 2 = Warlike expansion and displacement without conquest or colonization 7 3 = Conquest but not colonization distance: ________ 17 4 = Conquest and colonization distance: ________ 2 5 = Colonization but not conquest distance: ________ 1091. Frequency of successful expansions into this society in past 100 years 2B [26] * . = Missing data 15 0 = None 9 1 = Once 6 2 = Several times - no more than 4 = episodes 7 3 = Very frequent or continual 1092. Catastrophic Shifts Causing Depopulation (last 50 years): [35] 2L 5A . = Missing data 25 1 = None 1 2 = Animal Disease (* if non-domestic) 3 = Crop Disease 21 4 = Human ( ) Disease ( ) Starvation ( ) Warfare with State Level ( ) Intensification of Local (esp. Non-State) Warfare 1 5( ) 2&3 4 6( ) 2&4 7( ) 3&4 8( ) All three 1093. Number of Years prior to observation for beginning of problem(s) causing depopulation [36] 2L 5A . = Missing data 31 0 = None Population: ________ 24 _____ 1094. Number of Years prior to observation for ending of problem(s) [37] causing depopulation (i.e., before population stable or increasing) 2L 5A . = Missing data 17 0 = None Population: ________ 13 1 = Had not recovered 1 < = less than 10 years before observation 1 > = less than 10 years after observation 4 _____ 1095. Percentage of Population Lost (100% minus popul in 37 as % of that in 36)[38] 2L 5A . = Missing data 39 0 = None 17 _____ 1096. Percentage Recovery (popul at observation in 39a as % of that in 36) [39] * ** . = Missing data 11 0 = None 7 1 = Had not recovered ?? _____ 1097. Population at date of observation: [39a] 1098.GONE Population at date of observation: [39a] 1099.GONE Population at date of observation: [39a] . = Missing data _____ persons 1100. Societal Migration or Relocation in past 100 years [40] 2M 5B . = Missing data 27 1 = None 1a Movement restricted by pre-state groups 4 2 = Voluntary Migration, not the effect of world market 2a Forced migration by pre-state groups 6 3 = Voluntary migration as a world market response 3a Movement restricted by state-level groups 3b Voluntary migration a world system not world market response 14 4 = Forced Migration as a result of colonial power of state 1101. Other Societal Migration, Relocation or Settlement in past 500 years [41] 2M 5B . = Missing data 25 1 = None 1a Movement restricted by pre-state groups 4 2 = Voluntary Migration, not the effect of world market 2a Forced migration by pre-state groups (give reason in #44) 2 3 = Voluntary migration as a world market response 3a Movement restricted by state-level groups 3b Voluntary migration a world system not world market response 12 4 = Forced Migration as a result of colonial power of state 1102. Time in New location until date of observation [42] 2M 5B . = Missing data 29 0 = None problem: what if relatively 26 ______ years continuous over a period (e.g. Kikuyu)? 1103. Distance Migrated (miles) [43] 2M 5B . = Missing data 37 0 = None 16 ____ miles; Other: ______ 1104. Reason for Migration or Relocation [44] 2M 5B . = Missing data 28 0 = N.A. 1 = 4 2 = Expansion to new areas due to population pressure, * intensification 3 = Expansion to depopulated areas 1 4 = Expansive, in conflict with other groups, trade access 3 5 = Defensive, in peaceful competition with other groups 8 6 = Defensive, in violent conflict with other groups 5 7 = Gvmt resettlement for labor, pacification, colonizing, * agriculture 3 8 = Other: _______ 1105. Effects of Relocation on (a) trade or position in world system; 2N (b) gender roles; (c) Social Structure, Land tenure, etc. (REVISE) [45] 5C 5 . = Missing data 29 0 = N.A. 8 1 = Positive Effect (e.g., Trade Networks Expanded) 3 2 = Little or None 1 3 = Transformation of agriculture to private ownership 1 4 = Increased stratification, warfare (e.g., due to horse) 1 5 = Grouped into villages to resist attack 1 6 = Weakened 3 7 = Displaced trad'l groups, or fragmentation into smaller groups 3 8 = Disrupted lifestyle or subsistence base 1106. Reservation or Reserve Status at time of Observation [46] 2O/2P----v 5D . = Missing data 35 0 = No 10 1 b Granted Original lands, right to live there and move about 1b b Granted "current" lands, as above, but migrations restricted 1 2 c Original Lands; must carry pass or id when not there 3 d Original Lands; No right to live elsewhere permanently 4 4 abResettlement on Marginal Lands: right to live there and move about 5 acResettlement; must carry pass or id when not there 1 6 adResettlement; No right to live elsewhere permanently 1107. Society unintentionally caught up in state level warfare [47] 4C?/* 5E . = Missing data War:_________ 29 1 = No Dates:_______ 3 2 = Yes, minor Involvement:___________ 2 3 = Yes, moderate 4 4 = Yes, major 1 6 ? 1108. Years before (or after) observation when warfare first stopped [58] 1109.GONE Years before (or after) observation when warfare first stopped [58] 4C/B 6B . = Missing data 0 = No Warfare to Restrict OR 0 1 = Warfare not restricted 11 2 = Warfare informally restricted 1 _____ years ( ) before ( ) after observation (check one) 9 ( ) if gradual reduction beginning at this date 1110. Restrictions on Warfare in effect at time of observation (including restriction by sheer influx of colonists or settlers) [59] 4C/B 6B . = Missing data 11 0 = No Warfare to Restrict 14 1 = Warfare present and not restricted 2 = Warfare discouraged but not stopped 13 3 = Warfare restricted and reduced but not stopped 15 4 = Warfare restricted and stopped ( ) check here if defensive only ( ) if restricted by influx of colonists or settlers 1111. Effects of restriction above (either) on Men and Women [60] 4D/C 6C . = Missing data 11 0 = No Warfare to Restrict 11 1 = Warfare not restricted 4 2 = No or little Effect (e.g.,had been fairly peaceful, or battles prearranged) 1 3 = Women not enslaved, men not killed 1 4 = Men's trade up, women's contribution reduced 1 5 = More feasting among men 3 6 = Men's labor free for cash cropping, wage labor, or agriculture, animal husbandry 2 7 = New means of dispute settlement, including reliance on new govt. 1 8 = Broke up age grading 2 9 = Broke up stratification, slavery, or political stratification * = Other ______ 1112. Number or Type of Turbulent Changes . = Missing data 8 0 = None 5 1 = Migration 4 2 = Disease and Depopulation 3 3 = Conquest 5 4 = Conquest and Colonization (SHOULD COUNT AS TWO!) 2 5 = Resettlement on Reservation or Land Grant 8 6 = Two of the above 8 7 = Three of the above 9 8 = Four of the above 2 9 = Five of the above notes on these codes
WORLD SYSTEM FRONTIER CHARACTERISTICS STDS51.DAT 1113,-1114 White and Burton SEE CONTACT.COD from 3-22-87 12:36 1113.GONE Contact Characteristics, regardless of Advancing Frontier, 1114.GONE Advancing Frontier - movement of people or cultural shift - . = Missing data 1 = No - absent 2 = Miners, Rubber extractors, Labor recruiters 3 = Traders, irregardless of 2, and govt' officials 4 = Extensive labor recruitment 5 = Missions, irregardless of 3: Traders, Gov't officials 6 = New Settlers 7 = Symbiotic - no advancing frontier - settled by outsiders * long ago, focal group resides in marginal area where codes differ, 1st code is characteristics present, 2nd code those that have impacted as frontier notes on these codes
WORLD SYSTEM CONTACT STDS52.DAT 1115 White and Burton Finished Variable Codebook Filename: CONTACT Diskette: Worldsys made from 3-22-87 1:08p FRONTIER / CONTACT datasets VERSION: ( )A1 ( )A2 ( )B ( )C other( )____ VERSIONS ARE LISTED A1/2 First Society Name: _____________ Number: _______ ** means A has, C doesn't C Second Needs Addl Research ( )Y ( )N on Questions: * means C has, A doesn't ____________________________________________ Coding Problems:____________________________ Date of Observation (Pinpointed) Cover _____ . Type of Contact [34] 129 . = Missing data 4 ? 0 = 2A3 1 = Military expedition 3A 2 = Military-explorers 7 3 = Peaceful Explorers 1 4 = Administrators or Diplomats 4 5 = Missionaries 9 6 = Traders or trappers 7 = Slave Traders 1 8 = Scholars 3 Mixed - without missionaries [27, 34, 36] 4 Mixed - with missionaries [15, 25, 35] 1113.GONE Current Contact Characteristics, regardless of Advancing Frontier 133 . = Missing data 1 = None 10 2 = Traders, irregardless of 2, and govt' officials 1 3 = Extensive labor recruitment 3 4 = Miners, Rubber extractors, Labor recruiters 27 5 = Missions, irregardless of 3: Traders, Gov't officials 11 6 = New Settlers 1 7 = Symbiotic - no advancing frontier - settled by outsiders long ago, focal group reside in marginal area 1114.GONE Advancing Frontier - Contact charateristics -- movement of people or cultural shift - code 1 if absent. Where codes differ, 1st code is characteristics present, 2nd code those that have impacted as frontier 133 . = Missing data 10 1 = No 8 2 = Traders, irregardless of 2, and govt' officials 2 3 = Extensive labor recruitment 8 4 = Miners, Rubber extractors, Labor recruiters 14 5 = Missions, irregardless of 3: Traders, Gov't officials 7 6 = New Settlers 1 7 = Symbiotic - no advancing frontier - settled by outsiders long ago, focal group reside in marginal area 1115.GONE Non-indigenous peoples living in the Society [31] * . = Missing data 2E 0 = None Yes: ________________________, ______________________ . First Known Contact With Non-Local State-Level Entity (within home area) [32] 2A . = Missing data 3A Am America Ja Japan Au Australia Ma Mali (Islamic Kingdom) Br Britain No Norway Ch Chinese Nr Norsemen Eg Egypt Po Portugal Es Europeans from S or SW Africa Ru Russians Et Ethiopia Sn Sweden Fr French Sp Spain Gr Germany Sw Swahili __ Other: __________ . Number of Years prior to Observation [33] . = Missing data 2A4 ______ 3A Check: Date of Contact = Variable 27 notes on these codes
POPULATION CODES FOR THE STANDARD SAMPLE Douglas R. White STDS53.DAT These data are mostly from Standard Sample pinpointing sheets (White and Murdock, World Cultures 4#4); 14 cases are from coded the Ethnographic Atlas, as noted. 1122. log10 of Total Population 10 . = Missing data 2 1 = 10-99 20 2 = 100-999 45 3 = 1000-9999 32 4 = 10000-99999 35 5 = 100000-999999 17 6 = 1000000-9999999 8 7 = 10000000-99999999 1 8 = 100000000-999999999 notes on these codes
TYPE OF AGRICULTURE Frederic L. Pryor, 1985. The Invention of the Plow. Comparative Studies in Society and History 27: 740-744. Frederic L. Pryor, 1984. The Transition to Agriculture: Some Empirical Evidence. Ms. These data are reprinted with permission of the author and the publisher. (c) University of Cambridge Press. STDS54.DAT Variables 1123 - 1131 Description of study Reliability of study variables 1123. Major Agricultural Staple 2 . = Missing Data 38 0 = Agriculture not practiced or confined to non-food crops 1 10 = Buckwheat 14 11 = Wheat 4 12 = Barley 15 13 = Millet 30 14 = Sorghum 9 15 = Maize 10 16 = Dry Rice 9 17 = Wet Rice 1 18 = Rye 1 19 = Teff 9 21 = Yam 10 22 = Taro or Okuma 4 23 = White Potato 16 24 = Cassava (Manioc) 2 25 = Sweet Potato 12 26 = Tubers in general 4 31 = Bananas or Plantains 2 32 = Breadfruit 2 33 = Coconut 1 34 = Ensete 35 = Sago and other Palms 36 = Pandanus 1 40 = Industrial Crops, e.g., cotton 1124. Agricultural Staple Data Quality: Inferences 40 . = Missing Data 137 0 = Good data 9 1 = Inferential 1125. Second Agricultural Staple 2 . = Missing Data 38 0 = Agriculture not practiced or confined to non-food crops 117 1 = No secondary agricultural staple 10 = Buckwheat 11 = Wheat 2 12 = Barley 2 13 = Millet 5 14 = Sorghum 3 15 = Maize 2 16 = Dry Rice 3 17 = Wet Rice 18 = Rye 19 = Teff 21 = Yam 1 22 = Taro or Okuma 1 23 = White Potato 3 24 = Cassava (Manioc) 25 = Sweet Potato 26 = Tubers in general 3 31 = Bananas or Plantains 32 = Breadfruit 33 = Coconut 34 = Ensete 3 35 = Sago and other Palms 1 36 = Pandanus 40 = Industrial Crops, e.g., cotton 1126. Second Agricultural Staple Data Quality: Inferences 40 . = Missing Data 143 0 = Good data 3 1 = Inferential 1127. Crop Type Plow-Positive or -Negative 2 . = Missing Data 38 0 = Agriculture not practiced or confined to non-food crops 112 1 = Plow-negative (Millet, Sorghum, Maize, Dry Rice, * Root/Tree Crops) 34 2 = Plow-positive (Buckwheat, Wheat, Barley, Wet Rice, Rye, * Teff, Industrial Crops) 1128. Cropping Index (Rough indicator of Fallowing) for Major Crops Percentage of total land used for major crops used in any given year (Tree crops are considered to have no fallow) 24 . = Missing Data 38 0 = Agriculture not practiced or confined to non-food crops 22 1 = less than 10% of land used per year 26 2 = 10% - 29% of land used per year 15 3 = 30% - 49% of land used per year 32 4 = 50% - 99% of land used per year 29 5 = 100% or more of land used per year, (over 100% due to double cropping) 1129. Cropping Index Data Quality: Inferences 62 . = Missing Data 94 0 = Good data 30 1 = Inferential 1130. Population Density . = Missing Data 51 2 = less than 1 per square mile 28 3 = 1 - 4.9 per square mile 35 4 = 5 - 24.9 per square mile 37 5 = 25 - 99.9 per square mile 24 6 = 99 - 499.9 per square mile 11 7 = 500 or more per square mile 1131. Population Density Data Quality: Inferences . = Missing Data 146 0 = Good data 40 1 = Inferential notes on these codes
STATE ORGANIZATION George Peter Murdock, 1957. World Ethnographic Sample. American Anthropologist 59: 664-687. STDS55.DAT 1132. POLITICAL INTEGRATION (WES COL 15; EA VAR 89) 12 . = Missing data 48 0 = Insufficient information, or not coded 10 1 = Absence, even at local level 46 2 = Autonomous local communities (not > 1,500) 4 3 = Peace groups transcending local community 27 4 = Minimal States (1500-10,000) 9 5 = Little States (10,000-100,000) 22 6 = States (at least 100,000) 8 8 = Dependent societies notes on these codes
DESPOTISM AND HAREM SIZE Laura Betzig. 1986. Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History. New York: Aldine. Introductions and explanations of the variables by the author were published in World Cultures, 1988, Volume 4, Number 4. Reprinted with permission of the author and Aldine Publishing Company. (c) 1986 Aldine Publishing Company. STDS56.DAT Variables 1133 - 1135 Description of study Reliability of study variables 1133. Maximum Harem Size: Simultaneous conjugal relations with concubines and wives which the individual at the head of the social hierarchy (or, where there is no hierarchy, the most polygynous man), enjoys. 88 . = Missing data 40 1 = 3 conjugal relationships or less 37 2 = 4-10 conjugal relationships 13 3 = 11-100 conjugal relationships 8 4 = More than 100 conjugal relationships 1134. Despotic Bias in Conflict Resolution: Degree of Despotism, or the extent to which one individual, at the head of the social hierarchy, is able to exploit his position of strength when a conflict of interest arises, effecting a biased result in his favor. It does not include such asymmetry over slaves nor over members of the household. 82 . = Missing data 90 1 = Despotism absent: bias in the resolution of individual * conflicts is not extreme, usually being effected by * differences in strength, kinship connections, or wealth * between the individuals involved. 14 2 = Despotism present: Conflicts of interest among individuals * are resolved with extreme bias, one individual being * immune from sanction or even from accusation for major * offenses (such as murder), while the other may incur * severe punishment, even death, for trivial offenses (such * as insult), or for no reason at all. 1135. Jurisdictional Perquisites: A measure of the extent to which individuals in the jurisdictional hierarchy exploit their positions to accrue rewards in the form of fines, bribes, and confiscations, in connection with dispute resolution. 152 . = Missing data 25 1 = Perquisites are small, the reward in a single case being * roughly less than a bride price or a bride. 9 2 = Perquisites are substantial, reward in a single case is * roughly greater than or equal to a bride price or a bride. notes on these codes
DIVORCE Laura Betzig. 1989. Causes of Conjugal Dissolution: A Cross-Cultural Study. Current Anthropology 30: 654-676. Reprinted with permission of the author and the Editor of Current Anthropology. STDS57.DAT Variables 1136 - 1163 - deals with causes listed under Infidelity (III), Infertility (IV), Personality (V), and Economics (VI) Description of study Reliability of study variables STDS58.DAT deals with causes listed under Conflicts with In-Laws (VII), Ritual (VIII), Absence or Desertion (IX), Health (X), and Politics (XI) 1136. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Adultery a 1 1137. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Lack of Virginity v 25 1138. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Polygamy p 8 1139. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Cruelty or Maltreatment c 3 1140. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Disobedience or Disrespect d 14 1141. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Repressiveness r 37 1142. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Jealousy j 25 1143. Divorce Causes- Infidelity: Another lover l 6 1144. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Sterility s 2 1145. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Sexual Neglect n 13 1146. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Refusal to have Sex r 17 1147. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Death of Children d 14 1148. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Old Age o 21 1149. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Absence of Male Children m 31 1150. Divorce Causes- Infertility: Exchange wife has too few children e 37 1151. Divorce Causes- Personality: Mutual Consent m 5 1152. Divorce Causes- Personality: Displeasingness d 4 1153. Divorce Causes- Personality: Quarrelsomeness or Talkativeness q 17 1154. Divorce Causes- Personality: Bad Temper b 18 1155. Divorce Causes- Personality: Other Personality Problems o 37 1156. Divorce Causes- Economic: Laziness l 7 1157. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequate Support s 12 1158. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequate Housing h 31 1159. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequate Food f 25 1160. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequate Clothing c 31 1161. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequate Food Preparation p 25 1162. Divorce Causes- Economic: Inadequately serving Spouse v 22 1163. Divorce Causes- Economic: Other Economic Problems o 37 . = Missing Data 0 = Not mentioned as cause of divorce * = Cause of Divorce Attributed to: 1 = Husband 2 = Both 3 = Unspecified 4 = Wife notes on these codes
DIVORCE, Continued Laura Betzig. 1989. Causes of Conjugal Dissolution: A Cross-Cultural Study. Current Anthropology 30: 654-676. Reprinted with permission of the author and the Editor of Current Anthropology. STDS57.DAT deals with causes listed under Infidelity (III), Infertility (IV), Personality (V), and Economics VI) STDS58.DAT Variables 1164 - 1178 deals with causes listed under Conflicts with In-Laws (VII), Ritual (VIII), Absence or Desertion (IX), Health (X), and Politics (XI) Description of study Reliability of study variables 1164. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Conflicts with in-laws c 8 1165. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Inadequately serving in-laws s 22 1166. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Bridewealth or Dowry Disputes b 25 1167. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Disrespect for in-Laws d 34 1168. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Spouse Favors Kin k 22 1169. Divorce Causes- In-Law Conflicts: Other In-Law Problems o 37 1170. Divorce Causes- Ritual: Witchcraft or Sorcery w 16 1171. Divorce Causes- Ritual: Broken Taboo t 25 1172. Divorce Causes- Ritual: Bad Dream of Omen d 35 1173. Divorce Causes- Ritual: Other Ritual Problems o 37 1174. Divorce Causes- Absence or Desertion: a 10 1175. Divorce Causes- Health: h 11 1176. Divorce Causes- Politics: Theft t 18 1177. Divorce Causes- Politics: Confiction or Incarceration c 35 1178. Divorce Causes- Politics: Other Political Problems o 37 . = Missing Data 0 = Not mentioned as cause of divorce * = Cause of Divorce Attributed to: 1 = Husband 2 = Both 3 = Unspecified 4 = Wife notes on these codes
RAPE Patricia D. Roze-Koker. 1987. Cross-Cultural Codes on Seven Types of Rape Behavior Science Research 21: 101-117. STDS59.DAT Variables 1179-1187 use the following definitions, designed to clarify instances of rape that would be "hidden" by Western or male-oriented definitions of rape. By these definitions, all of the societies in the sample coded had one or more types of rape - Rape: Genital contact that is unchosen by the woman, as indicated by one or more of (a) statement that female is given no choice in the matter, (b) use or threat of force or coercion, (c) presence of multiple males with one (or few) females, (d) contact is described as physically painful, or would be thought to be so, or when the contact has consequences which would indicate painfulcontact, such as loss of consciousness or death, (e) when nonparticipation would result in some form of punishment or other negative outcomes . = Missing data or genital contact by uncertain as to whether the female lacked choice, or no description of one or more of the following: sex offenses, sexual deviance, sexuality, marital relations, and ceremonies 0 = Absent if lack of choice but no genital contact, or contact that is chosen or consented to by the female. Inferred if unchosen genital contact is not mentioned but there is a description of sex offenses, sexual deviance, sexuality, marital relations and ceremonies 1 = Present if (1) a female experiences genital contact (includes buttocks) from a male using penis, fingers, or objects, and (2) such contact involves a lack of choice on the part of the female 1179.GONE Non-Normative Rape: Unchosen Genital Contact, Socially Disapproved 160 . = Missing data, including cases where rape is present but it is uncertain whether there is any non-normative rape 4 0 = Absent: if rape is present, it is always normative (approved, not considered illegal, immoral or deviant, and offenders go unpunished) 22 1 = Present: some rapes are (a) publically disapproved, or (b) * the genital contact is considered illegal, immoral, or * deviant, or (c) offenders are punished 1180.GONE Normative Rape: Unchosen Genital Contact, Socially Approved 151 . = Missing data 1 0 = Absent: if rape is present, it is always non-normative (disapproved, considered illegal, immoral and deviant, and offenders are punished 34 1 = Present: some rapes are (a) publically approved, or (b) * the genital contact is considered legal, moral, or non- * deviant, or (a) offenders go unpunished 1181.GONE Marital (Normative) Rape 169 . = Missing data: no description of marriage rituals and subsequent sexual relations within marriage 3 0 = Absent: description of marriage rituals and subsequent sexual relations within marriage, but marital rape not mentioned 14 1 = Present: unchosen genital contact at consummation or * subsequently (excludes virginity tests) 1182.GONE Exchange (Normative) Rape 152 . = Missing data: no accounts of social practices 9 0 = Absent: accounts of social practices, but no exchange rape 25 1 = Present: males use genital contact [unchosen by female] as * a bargaining tool as in woman-exchange, woman-sharing, * woman-loaning, women as stakes in gaming, or trading * female genital contact for money, services of another * woman, or as a conciliatory gift 1183.GONE Punitive (Normative) Rape 153 . = Missing data: no accounts of social practices 10 0 = Absent: accounts of social practices, but no punitive rape 23 1 = Present: unchosen genital contact the vehicle by which a * woman is punished or disciplined for (a) going against * male authority, or (b) breaking social rules, or (c) * scorning or rejecting a male who has "rightful" access to * her, or for any other discernible discliplinary purpose. * Includes situations where a husband punishes his wife by * sending her to the men's house to be "common property" to * all males therein, either permanently or temporarily 1184.GONE Theft (Normative) Rape 158 . = Missing data: no accounts of social practices 12 0 = Absent: accounts of social practices, but no theft rape 16 1 = Present: either (a) women involuntarily abducted from * their places of residence to be used primarily or * secondarily as sexual (or reproductive) objects, as in * capture of women a slaves, prostitutes, or concubines, or * "spoils of war," wife-or woman stealing, marriage * commissions, adbudctions and raiding for wives, or (b) * unchosen genital contact accomplished by stealth, as in * sleepcrawling or nightcrawling. 1185.GONE Ceremonial (Normative) Rape 153 . = Missing data: no accounts of ceremonial practices 27 0 = Absent: accounts of ceremonial practices, but no * ceremonial rape 6 1 = Present: unchosen genital contact in ceremonies such as * (a) defloration rituals (includes virginity tests), (b) * manhood rituals require a male to gain sexual experience, * even if the female is unwilling, (c) sexual intercourse as * part of the ceremony where females are expected to * participate as a matter of course, willing or not 1186.GONE Status (Normative) Rape 151 . = Missing data: not applicable, since coded present or * absent from the "unclassifiable" category 24 0 = Absent: if not originally coded as "unclassifiable" 11 1 = Present: unchosen genital contact as a result of acknow- * ledged differences in status between the individuals in- * volved, such as a master and slave, chief and clanswoman, * nobleman and commoner, or priest and parishioner 1187.GONE Unclassifiable Normative Rape 151 . = Missing data: not applicable, since coded present or 28 0 = Absent: if all instances of normative rape classified 7 1 = Present: some instances of normative rape unclassified notes on these codes
EVIL EYE John M. Roberts, 1976. Belief in the Evil Eye in World Perspective. In Clarence Maloney, ed. The Evil Eye. Columbia University Press. pp. 223- 278. Copyright c.(1976) Columbia University Press, New York. Used by permission. STDS60.DAT Variables 1188 - 1189 Description of study Reliability of study variables No Definition of evil eye is given in this chapter, but see other chapters of the book. 1188. Evil Eye Scaled Rating: 1 1 = Absent, incontrovertibly 45 2 = Absent, almost certainly 46 3 = Absent, probably 27 4 = Absent, possibly 8 5 = Present, possibly 13 6 = Present, probably 16 7 = Present, almost certainly 30 8 = Present, incontrovertibly 1189. Evil Eye Belief 119 0 = Absent 67 1 = Present notes on these codes
KIN AVOIDANCE Douglas R. White. n.d. Kinship Avoidance. Codes compiled and recoded from unpublished kinship sheets by G. P. Murdock. STDS61.DAT Variables 1190 - 1225 Description of study Reliability of study variables Kin Avoidance defined as reciprocal communicative avoidance: neither on can talk to the other. 1190. Sororate 1191. Levirate . = Missing data 0 = Not Present in either optional or obligatory form 1 = Junior sibling only (WyZ, HyB) 2 = Half sibling only 3 = Full Sororate or Levirate 1192. Structurally Opposed Kin Groups . = Missing data 0 = Localized kin groups, not effectively exogamous 1 = Nonlocalized kin groups, not effectively exogamous 2 = Localized kin groups, effective kin exogamy 3 = Nonlocalized kin groups, effective kin exogamy 4 = Segmentary Organization 5 = Quasi-unilineal kin groups, effective kin exogamy 1193. Exogamous Nonlocalized Descent Groups . = Missing data 0 = Bilateral (with second degree exogamy) 1 = Nonexclusive ambilineal 2 = Exclusive ambilineal 3 = Exclusive unilineal 4 = Quasi-unilineal 1194. Indirect Exchange of Wives . = Missing data 0 = Direct exchange, i.e., duo- or patrilateral cross-cousin marriage, sister exchange, or symmetric exchange 1 = No first or second cross-cousin marriage 2 = Matrilateral second cross-cousin marriage tendency 3 = Matrilateral first cross-cousin marriage tendency 1195. Bridewealth . = Missing data 0 = Dowry (even as alternate, e.g., Bd) 1 = No exchange at marriage, and gift exchange or token bridewealth if descent not matrilineal 2 = Gift exchange or token bridewealth if descent matrilineal 3 = Brideprice or brideservice 4 = Not Applicable: sister exchange codes: Absent 0 1 Present 1196. Avoidance: m-WBW /*f-HZH 13: 7 Wife's Brother's Wife 1197. Avoidance: m-WM */ f-DH 35:25 Wife's Mother 1198. Avoidance: m-WF */ m-DH 28: 7 Wife's Father 1199. Avoidance: m-WB /*f-ZH 26: 0 Wife's Brother 1200. Avoidance: m-WBD /*f-FZH 4: 0 Wife's Brother's Daughter 1201. Avoidance: m-WeZ */ f-yZH 44: 4 Wife's elder Sister 1202. Avoidance: m-WyZ /*f-eZH 48: 1 Wife's younger Sister 1203. Avoidance: m-WZD / f-MZH 3: 0 Wife's Sister's Daughter 1204. Avoidance: f-HF */ m-SW 36:14 Husband's Father 1205. Avoidance: f-HM */ m-SW 29: 4 Husband's Mother 1206. Avoidance: f-HZ */ f-BW 24: 0 Husband's Sister 1207. Avoidance: f-HZS /*m-MBW 16: 1 Husband's Sister's Husband 1208. Avoidance: f-HeB */ m-yBW 45: 9 Husband's elder Brother 1209. Avoidance: f-HyB */ m-eBW 51: 2 Husband's younger Brother 1210. Avoidance: f-HBS /*m-FBW 6: 1 Husband's Brother's Son 1211. Avoidance: f-eB /*m-yZ 43: 9 Brother-elder Sister 1212. Avoidance: m-eZ */ f-YB 43: 9 Brother-younger Sister 1213. Avoidance: f-FS /*m-FD 9: 2 Paternal Brother/Sister 1214. Avoidance: f-MS /*m-MD 9: 2 Maternal Brother/Sister 1215. Avoidance: f-MeZS /*m-MyZD 21: 5 Matrilateral Cross-Sex Parallel Cousin MeZS/MyZD 1216. Avoidance: f-MyZS /*m-MeZD 21: 5 Matrilateral Cross-Sex Parallel Cousin MyZS/MeZD 1217. Avoidance: f-FeBS /*m-FyBD 23: 5 Patrilateral Cross-Sex Parallel Cousin FeBS/FyBD 1218. Avoidance: f-FyBS /*m-FeBD 23: 5 Patrilateral Cross-Sex Parallel Cousin FyBS/FeBD 1219. Avoidance: f-MBS /*m-FZD 34: 3 Patrilateral Cross-Sex Cross-Cousin 1220. Avoidance: f-FZS */ m-MBD 39: 3 Matrilateral Cross-Sex Cross-Cousin 1221. Avoidance: m-FZS */ m-MBS 13: 0 Same Sex Male Cross-Cousins 1222. Avoidance: f-FZD */ f-MBD 13: 0 Same Sex Female Cross-Cousins 1223. Avoidance: m-FZ */ f-BS 22: 2 Paternal Aunt-Nephew 1224. Avoidance: f-MB */ m-ZD 23: 1 Maternal Uncle-Neice 1225. Avoidance: f-HZD */ m-MBW 2: 0 Maternal Uncle's Wife blank = Missing data 0 = Absent 1 = Present KINSHIP BEHAVIORS George P. Murdock. 1971. Cross-Sex Kinship Behavior. Ethnology 10:359-368. Cross-Cultural Codes in Barry and Schlegel 1980. STDS62.DAT Vars. 1126-1237 cross-sex kin behaviors 1226. Sister and Brother 1227. Wife's Mother and Daughter's Husband 1228. Husband's Mother and Son's Wife 1229. Mother's Brother's Wife and Husband's Sister's Son 1230. Wife's Brother's Daughter and Father's Sister's Husband 1231. Mother's Brother's Son and Father's Sister's Son 1232. Father's Sister's Daughter and Mother's Brother's Son 1233. Elder Brother's Wife and Husband's younger Brother 1234. Younger Brother's Wife and Husband's elder Brother 1235. Wife's elder Sister and younger Sister's Husband 1236. Wife's younger Sister and elder Sister's Husband 1237. Wife's Brother's Wife and Husband's Sister's Husband . = Missing data 1 = Avoidance 2 = Respect 3 = Informality 4 = Forbidden sex relations 5 = Joking 6 = Sex privleged relationship notes on these codes
MARRIAGE TRANSACTIONS Alice Schlegel and Rohn Eloul. 1987 A New Coding of Marriage Transactions. Behavior Science Research 21: 118-140. STDS63B.COD STDS62.DAT 1238.GONE EA Marriage Transactions, Primary (Recoding Variable 208) Practice 1239.GONE EA Marriage Transactions, Secondary (Recoding Variable 209) Practice 1240.GONE Revised Marriage Transactions . = Missing data 0 = None (secondary only) 1 = Bride-Price 2 = Bride-Service 3 = Token Bride-Price 4 = Gift Exchange 5 = Woman Exchange 6 = Absence 7 = Dowry 8 = Indirect Dowry or Bride-Price plus Dowry (Variable 1228) * = category 8 conceptually modifies Murdock's variables 208-209 1242.GONE 1243.GONE 1244.GONE 1245.GONE 1246.GONE 1247.GONE notes on these codes
FEMALE BEAUTY AND ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY CODES Judith L. Anderson, Charles B. Crawford, Joanne Nadeau, and Tracy Lindberg. 1992 Was the Duchess of Windsor Right? A Cross-Cultural Review of the Socioecology of Ideals of Female Body Shape. ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY 13:197- 227. STDS63.DAT Vars. 1248-1252 sexuality Description of study Reliability of study variables 1248. FEMALE BODY TYPE CONSIDERED MOST ATTRACTIVE 128 . = Missing Data 20 1 = Plump or fat (original code 1) 6 2 = (original code 1.5) 20 3 = Moderate degree of fatness (original code 2) 12 4 = Slim or slender (original code 3) 1249. EXPOSURE OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS TO MALE SEXUAL ADVANCES 137 . = Missing Data 0 1 = Continuous formal chaperonage (original code 1) 5 2 = Protection by adult groups (original code 2) 2 3 = (original code 2.5) 17 4 = Protection by parents only (original code 3) 2 5 = Protection by peers (original code 4) 1 6 = (original code 4.5) 22 7 = No protection (original code 5) 1250. CONSEQUENCES FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS PREGNANT BEFORE MARRIAGE . comment:: in the original journal publication society 7 (Bemba) is listed with a score of 5 on this variable. The correct code of 4 was substituted in STDS63.DAT 136 . = Missing Data 7 1 = No bad consequences; mother supported by family, community, and or father of baby (original code 1) 12 2 = Illegitimacy disapproved. Parental disapproval, or hasty arrangement of marriage. No serious diminution of support (original code 2) 6 3 = (original code 2.5) 16 4 = Public disapproval, significant diminution of support (original code 3) 2 5 = (original code 3.5) 9 6 = Ostracism, permanent loss of status and support (original code 4) 1251. DEGREE OF PUBLIC AWARENESS OF MENARCHE 135 . = Missing Data 16 1 = Only mother and daughter know, no public announcement (original code 1) 7 2 = Family knowledge, recognition within family (original code 2) 1 3 = (original code 2.5) 5 4 = Quiet segregation and/or recognition among women outside family (original code 3) 1 5 = (original code 3.5) 21 6 = Public ceremony (original code 4) 1252.GONE AVERAGE NUMBER OF YEARS BETWEEN MENARCHE AND MARRIAGE. . comment: Where age of menarche not specificed, 14 years used as default 135 . = Missing data 10 1 = 0 6 2 = 0.5 years 8 3 = 1.0 years 2 4 = 1.25 years 1 5 = 1.5 years 1 6 = 1.75 years 2 7 = 2.0 years 2 8 = 2.5 years 3 9 = 3.0 years 1 10 = 3.25 years 1 11 = 3.5 years 4 12 = 4.0 years 1 13 = 4.25 years 2 14 = 5.0 years 3 15 = 5.5 years 4 16 = 6.0 years notes on these codes (none as yet)
PATHOGEN STRESS CROSS-CULTURALLY: CODES Bobbi S. Low. 1988. Pathogen Stress and Polygyny in Humans. In, HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR: A DARWINIAN PERSPECTIVE. (L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. Turke, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 115-127. The for the odd-numbered SCCS societies were originally in this article. The STDS64.DAT contains scores the full sample. STDS64.DAT Vars. 1253-1260 Disease Description of study Reliability of study variables 1253. LEISHMANIAS 117 1 = Absent or not recorded 35 2 = Present, no indication of severity 34 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1254. TRYPANOSOMES 134 1 = Absent or not recorded 38 2 = Present, no indication of severity 14 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1255. MALARIA 55 1 = Absent or not recorded 20 2 = Present, no indication of severity 111 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1256. SCHISTOSOMES 129 1 = Absent or not recorded 16 2 = Present, no indication of severity 41 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1257. FILARIAE 89 1 = Absent or not recorded 1 2 = Present, no indication of severity 96 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1258. SPIROCHETES 76 1 = Absent or not recorded 45 2 = Present, no indication of severity 65 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1259. LEPROSY 70 1 = Absent or not recorded 72 2 = Present, no indication of severity 44 3 = Present and serious, widespread, or endemic 1260. TOTAL PATHOGEN STRESS 30 7 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 7 9 8 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 8 9 9 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 9 4 10 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 10 20 11 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 11 20 12 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 12 13 13 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 13 20 14 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 14 16 15 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 15 16 16 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 16 9 17 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 17 9 18 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 18 6 19 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 19 3 20 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 20 2 21 = Sum of variables 1253-1259 is 21 notes on these codes (none as yet)
STARVATION AND FAMINE AMONG SCCS SOCIETIES: CODES Robert Dirks. 1993. Starvation and Famine: Cross-Cultural and Some Hypothesis Tests. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 27:28-69. Variables 1261 to 1269 were published in this article. STDS65.DAT contains some scores that were reported as missing in the article. The scale for recurrence of famine (Variable 1269) is revised and does not match the scale in the article. Variable 1270 was previously unpublished. STDS65.DAT Vars. 1261-1270 Hunger and Famine Description of study Reliability of study variables 1261. ORDINARY NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS AND ENDEMIC STARVATION 85 . = Missing data 38 1 = Very Low 35 2 = Low 23 3 = High 5 4 = Very High 1262. OCCURRENCE OF SHORT-TERM STARVATION 17 . = Missing Data 21 1 = Low 133 2 = Moderate 15 3 = High 1263. OCCURRENCE OF SEASONAL STARVATION 18 . = Missing Data 35 1 = Very Low 5 2 = Low 64 3 = Moderate 29 4 = High 35 5 = Very High 1264. TEMPORAL CONTROL CODES FOR SEASONAL STARVATION 123 . = Missing Data 5 0 = Post-dates ethnographic present. 4 1 = Remote: more than 20 years prior to the focus date. 54 2 = Proximate: no more than 20 years prior to the focus date. 1265. OCCURRENCE OF FAMINE 16 . = Missing Data 16 1 = Very Low 28 2 = Low 12 3 = High 114 4 = Very High 1266. TEMPORAL CONTROL CODES FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF FAMINE 62 . = Missing Data 6 0 = Post-dates ethnographic present. 6 1 = Very Remote: more than 200 years prior to the focus date. 4 2 = Remote: between 100 and 200 years prior to the focus date. 27 3 = Proximate: between 20 and 100 years prior to focus date. 81 4 = Very Proximate: within 20 years of focus date. 1267. SEVERITY OF FAMINE 76 . = Missing Data 16 1 = Very Low 7 2 = Low 33 3 = High 54 4 = Very High 1268. PERSISTENCE OF FAMINE 81 . = Missing Data 29 1 = Low 27 2 = Moderate 49 3 = High 1269. RECURRENCE OF FAMINE 57 . = Missing Data 28 1 = Low 87 2 = Intermediate 14 3 = High 1270. CONTINGENCY OF FAMINE 85 . = Missing Data 16 0 = Absent 13 1 = Low 45 2 = Intermediate 27 3 = High notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 1 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS66.DAT Vars. 1271-1305 Household division of work 1 1271. ADULT LAND CLEARANCE--PRIMARY CROP 115 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 29 1 = Men Only 13 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 3 4 = Women Predominant 2 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1272. ADULT SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 119 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 21 1 = Men Only 11 2 = Men Predominant 6 3 = Men and Women Equal 5 4 = Women Predominant 4 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1273. ADULT PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 115 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 10 1 = Men Only 9 2 = Men Predominant 10 3 = Men and Women Equal 10 4 = Women Predominant 10 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 1 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1274. ADULT CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 119 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 6 1 = Men Only 8 2 = Men Predominant 8 3 = Men and Women Equal 10 4 = Women Predominant 15 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1275. ADULT HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 115 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Men Only 11 2 = Men Predominant 13 3 = Men and Women Equal 12 4 = Women Predominant 10 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1276. ADULT AGRICULTURAL TASK UNSPECIFIED--PRIMARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Men Only 7 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 5 4 = Women Predominant 1 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1277. ADULT OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 166 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 0 3 = Men and Women Equal 0 4 = Women Predominant 0 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1278. CHILD LAND CLEARANCE--PRIMARY CROP 130 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 13 1 = Boys Only 3 2 = Boys Predominant 5 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 5 6 = Not a Child's Task 4 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1279. CHILD SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 133 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 13 1 = Boys Only 3 2 = Boys Predominant 5 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 4 5 = Girls Only 2 6 = Not a Child's Task 4 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1280. CHILD PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 129 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Boys Only 2 2 = Boys Predominant 9 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 1 4 = Girls Predominant 8 5 = Girls Only 6 6 = Not a Child's Task 4 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1281. CHILD CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 125 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Boys Only 5 2 = Boys Predominant 13 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 3 4 = Girls Predominant 5 5 = Girls Only 3 6 = Not a Child's Task 5 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1282. CHILD HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 126 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Boys Only 3 2 = Boys Predominant 10 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 4 4 = Girls Predominant 8 5 = Girls Only 1 6 = Not a Child's Task 6 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1283. CHILD AGRICULTURAL TASK UNSPECIFIED--PRIMARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Boys Only 2 2 = Boys Predominant 5 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 2 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1284. CHILD OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 164 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 0 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 1 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 0 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1285. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CLEAR LAND--PRIMARY CROP 143 . = Missing data 40 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1286. CHILDREN UNDER 6 SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 145 . = Missing data 39 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1287. CHILDREN UNDER 6 PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 144 . = Missing data 39 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1288. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 143 . = Missing data 37 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1289. CHILDREN UNDER 6 HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 145 . = Missing data 38 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1290. CHILDREN UNDER 6 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--PRIMARY CROP 157 . = Missing data 28 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1291. CHILDREN UNDER 6 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 164 . = Missing data 21 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1292. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CLEAR LAND--PRIMARY CROP 145 . = Missing data 32 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 5 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1293. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 28 0 = Children this age do not do task 3 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1294. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 144 . = Missing data 27 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 9 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1295. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 144 . = Missing data 24 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 14 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1296. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 146 . = Missing data 23 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 9 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1297. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--PRIMARY CROP 159 . = Missing data 20 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1298. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 165 . = Missing data 20 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1299. CHILDREN OVER 10 CLEAR LAND--PRIMARY CROP 142 . = Missing data 20 0 = Children this age do not do task 13 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1300. CHILDREN OVER 10 SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 144 . = Missing data 19 0 = Children this age do not do task 12 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1301. CHILDREN OVER 10 PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 143 . = Missing data 20 0 = Children this age do not do task 5 1 = Boys this age 5 2 = Girls this age 11 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1302. CHILDREN OVER 10 CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 142 . = Missing data 21 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 13 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1303. CHILDREN OVER 10 HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 145 . = Missing data 19 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 5 2 = Girls this age 12 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1304. CHILDREN OVER 10 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--PRIMARY CROP 158 . = Missing data 19 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1305. CHILDREN OVER 10 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 165 . = Missing data 20 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 2 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS67.DAT Vars. 1306-1341 Household division of work 2 1306. USES OF FRUITS OF LABOR--PRIMARY CROP 121 . = Missing data 19 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 36 2 = Product consumer is household or community 0 3 = Wage labor/product sold 9 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 1 5 = 1 & 2 above 0 6 = All of above 1307. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 137 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 27 2 = No, Children do not do this 1308. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 138 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 24 2 = No, Children do not do this 1309. CHILDREN PLANT ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 135 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Yes, Children do this 29 2 = No, Children do not do this 1310. CHILDREN TEND CROPS ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 135 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Yes, Children do this 29 2 = No, Children do not do this 1311. CHILDREN HARVEST ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 134 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 31 2 = No, Children do not do this 1312. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 148 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 18 2 = No, Children do not do this 1313. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES ALONE--PRIMARY CROP 161 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1314. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 136 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Yes, Children do this 23 2 = No, Children do not do this 1315. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 138 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 23 2 = No, Children do not do this 1316. CHILDREN PLANT WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 136 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Yes, Children do this 24 2 = No, Children do not do this 1317. CHILDREN TEND CROPS WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 134 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 12 1 = Yes, Children do this 21 2 = No, Children do not do this 1318. CHILDREN HARVEST WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 134 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 6 1 = Yes, Children do this 27 2 = No, Children do not do this 1319. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED CHORES WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP 150 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 12 2 = No, Children do not do this 1320. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES WITH OTHER KIDS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1321. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP 137 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 24 1 = Yes, Children do this (codes not ordered) 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1322. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 20 0 = Activity not present 23 1 = Yes , Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1323. CHILDREN PLANT WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 136 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 25 1 = Yes, Children do this 6 2 = No, Children do not do this 1324. CHILDREN TEND CROPS WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 135 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 23 1 = Yes, Children do this 9 2 = No, Children do not do this 1325. CHILDREN HARVEST WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 134 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 28 1 = Yes, Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1326. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 14 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1327. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES WITH ADULTS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 164 . = Missing data 19 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 1 2 = No, Children do not do this 1328. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CLEARING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 146 . = Missing data 21 0 = Boys do not do this task 3 1 = The most important task for boys 16 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1329. IMPORTANCE OF BOY PREPARING SOIL--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 22 0 = Boys do not do this task 4 1 = The most important task for boys 13 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1330. IMPORTANCE OF BOY PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 27 0 = Boys do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for boys 11 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1331. IMPORTANCE OF BOY TENDING CROPS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 23 0 = Boys do not do this task 4 1 = The most important task for boys 14 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1332. IMPORTANCE OF BOY HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 25 0 = Boys do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for boys 15 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1333. IMPORTANCE OF BOY UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 157 . = Missing data 20 0 = Boys do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for boys 7 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1334. IMPORTANCE OF BOY OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 165 . = Missing data 19 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 2 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1335. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CLEARING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 146 . = Missing data 29 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 11 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1336. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL PREPARING SOIL--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 149 . = Missing data 27 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 10 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1337. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 24 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 19 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1338. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL TENDING CROPS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 22 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 19 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1339. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 23 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 20 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1340. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 155 . = Missing data 20 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 9 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1341. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP (codes not ordered) 165 . = Missing data 19 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 2 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 3 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS68.DAT Vars. 1342-1366 Household division of work 3 1342. ADULT PREFERENCE IN LAND CLEARING--PRIMARY CROP 121 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 43 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1343. ADULT PREFERENCE IN SOIL PREPARATION--PRIMARY CROP 124 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 40 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1344. ADULT PREFERENCE IN PLANTING--PRIMARY CROP 121 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 42 1 = Common or important adult task 1 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1345. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CROP TENDING--PRIMARY CROP 123 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 37 1 = Common or important adult task 4 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1346. ADULT PREFERENCE IN HARVESTING--PRIMARY CROP 118 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 46 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1347. ADULT PREFERENCE IN UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--PRIMARY CROP 150 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 14 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1348. ADULT PREFERENCE IN OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--PRIMARY CROP 164 . = Missing data 21 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 1 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1349. PRIMARY CROP NAME 105 . = Missing data 21 0 = No agriculture 2 1 = Barley 10 2 = Maize 8 3 = Millet 3 4 = Dry rice 7 5 = Wet rice 0 6 = Sorghum 5 7 = Wheat 0 8 = Buckwheat 0 11 = Groundnut 0 12 = Beans 1 13 = Breadfruit 5 14 = Cassava 2 15 = Potato 1 16 = Sweet potato 0 17 = Squashes 4 18 = Taro 5 19 = Yams 0 20 = Bananas 2 21 = Plantains 1 22 = Dates 0 23 = Mango 0 24 = Other fruit trees 2 31 = Coconut 0 32 = Peanut 0 41 = Cocoa 0 42 = Cotton 0 43 = Sesame 0 44 = Sugarcane 0 45 = Cardamum 0 46 = Tobacco 0 47 = Rubber 2 51 = Animal fodder 1350. OTHER PRIMARY CROP NAME 114 . = Missing data 66 0 = No agriculture 2 1 = Barley 0 2 = Maize 0 3 = Millet 0 4 = Dry rice 1 5 = Wet rice 2 6 = Sorghum 0 7 = Wheat 0 8 = Buckwheat 0 11 = Groundnut 0 12 = Beans 1 13 = Breadfruit 0 14 = Cassava 0 15 = Potato 0 16 = Sweet potato 0 17 = Squashes 0 18 = Taro 0 19 = Yams 0 20 = Bananas 0 21 = Plantains 0 22 = Dates 0 23 = Mango 0 24 = Other fruit trees 0 31 = Coconut 0 32 = Peanut 0 41 = Cocoa 0 42 = Cotton 0 43 = Sesame 0 44 = Sugarcane 0 45 = Cardamum 0 46 = Tobacco 0 47 = Rubber 0 51 = Animal fodder 1351. IRRIGATION USED--PRIMARY CROP 113 . = Missing data/No agriculture 51 0 = None/Absent 22 1 = Yes/Present 1352. HAND PLOW USED--PRIMARY CROP 113 . = Missing data/No agriculture 70 0 = None/Absent 3 1 = Yes/Present 1353. ANIMAL PLOW USED--PRIMARY CROP 114 . = Missing data/No agriculture 56 0 = None/Absent 15 1 = Yes/Present 1354. TERRACES AND MOUNDS USED--PRIMARY CROP 120 . = Missing data/No agriculture 46 0 = None/Absent 20 1 = Yes/Present 1355. FENCES USED--PRIMARY CROP 127 . = Missing data/No agriculture 47 0 = None/Absent 12 1 = Yes/Present 1356. GREEN MANURE AND MULCH USED--PRIMARY CROP 128 . = Missing data/No agriculture 53 0 = None/Absent 5 1 = Yes/Present 1357. ANIMAL MANURE USED--PRIMARY CROP 129 . = Missing data/No agriculture 48 0 = None/Absent 9 1 = Yes/Present 1358. HUMAN MANURE USED--PRIMARY CROP 129 . = Missing data/No agriculture 54 0 = None/Absent 3 1 = Yes/Present 1359. PESTICIDES USED--PRIMARY CROP 122 . = Missing data/No agriculture 64 0 = None/Absent 0 1 = Yes/Present 1360. EXTENT OF WEEDING--PRIMARY CROP 126 . = Missing data/No agriculture 26 0 = None/No weeding/crops not weeded 1 1 = Crop weeded once 4 2 = Crop weeded twice 6 3 = Crop weeded three times 2 4 = Weeding, but not extensively, no data on # times 13 5 = Extensive weeding, no data on # times 8 6 = Weeding, no data on extent or # times 1361. CROP SUPERVISION--PRIMARY CROP 122 . = No data 22 0 = No agriculture 27 1 = Crops supervised from homestead 15 2 = Distant crops supervised, e.g. huts built in fields 1362. PLANTING TECHNIQUES--PRIMARY CROP 129 . = No data 21 0 = No agriculture 3 1 = Seeds broadcast 14 2 = Seeds planted by hand/manually 6 3 = Seedlings transplanted 9 4 = Cuttings planted 1 5 = 1 and 2 above 3 6 = 2 and 3 above 1363. SHORTEST LENGTH OF FALLOW--PRIMARY CROP 130 . = No data 21 0 = No agriculture 15 1 = 0 years (permanent cultivation) 4 2 = 2 years 2 3 = 3 years 2 4 = 4 years 3 5 = 5 years 3 6 = 6 years 1 7 = 7 years 2 10 = 10 years 2 15 = 15 years 1 20 = 20 years 1364. SOIL TREATMENTS/SANDS USED--PRIMARY CROP 128 . = Missing data/No agriculture 53 0 = None/Absent 5 1 = Yes/Present 1365. CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS USED--PRIMARY CROP 124 . = Missing data/No agriculture 59 0 = None/Absent 3 1 = Yes/Present 1366. STAKES AND TRELLISES USED--PRIMARY CROP 137 . = Missing data/No agriculture 45 0 = None/Absent 4 1 = Yes/Present notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 4 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS69.DAT Vars. 1367-1401 Household division of work 4 1367. ADULT LAND CLEARANCE--SECONDARY CROP 122 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 17 1 = Men Only 11 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 1 4 = Women Predominant 3 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1368. ADULT SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP 125 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 13 1 = Men Only 8 2 = Men Predominant 3 3 = Men and Women Equal 4 4 = Women Predominant 5 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1369. ADULT PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP 127 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Men Only 1 2 = Men Predominant 8 3 = Men and Women Equal 6 4 = Women Predominant 9 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 2 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1370. ADULT CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP 125 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 6 1 = Men Only 2 2 = Men Predominant 9 3 = Men and Women Equal 6 4 = Women Predominant 10 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1371. ADULT HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP 125 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Men Only 5 2 = Men Predominant 8 3 = Men and Women Equal 9 4 = Women Predominant 7 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 1 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1372. ADULT AGRICULTURAL TASK UNSPECIFIED--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Men Only 3 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 2 4 = Women Predominant 2 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 1 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1373. ADULT OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 0 3 = Men and Women Equal 0 4 = Women Predominant 0 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1374. CHILD LAND CLEARANCE--SECONDARY CROP 135 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 9 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 3 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 3 6 = Not a Child's Task 1 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1375. CHILD SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP 136 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 3 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 5 5 = Girls Only 2 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1376. CHILD PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP 138 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 6 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 1 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 2 6 = Not a Child's Task 4 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1377. CHILD CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP 132 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 10 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 2 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 3 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1378. CHILD CROP HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP 134 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 6 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 2 4 = Girls Predominant 4 5 = Girls Only 1 6 = Not a Child's Task 6 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1379. CHILD AGRICULTURAL TASK UNSPECIFIED--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 4 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 1 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1380. CHILD OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 0 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 0 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 0 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1 10 = Slaves Only 1381. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CLEAR LAND--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 39 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1382. CHILDREN UNDER 6 SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 39 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1383. CHILDREN UNDER 6 PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP 148 . = Missing data 38 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1384. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP 145 . = Missing data 39 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 2 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1385. CHILDREN UNDER 6 HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP 149 . = Missing data 37 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1386. CHILDREN UNDER 6 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--SECONDARY CROP 155 . = Missing data 31 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1387. CHILDREN UNDER 6 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP 160 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1388. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CLEAR LAND--SECONDARY CROP 146 . = Missing data 35 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1389. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 31 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1390. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP 148 . = Missing data 31 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1391. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 30 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1392. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP 149 . = Missing data 30 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 2 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1393. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--SECONDARY CROP 155 . = Missing data 27 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1394. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1395. CHILDREN OVER 10 CLEAR LAND--SECONDARY CROP 146 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 8 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1396. CHILDREN OVER 10 SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP 147 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 6 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1397. CHILDREN OVER 10 PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP 148 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 3 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1398. CHILDREN OVER 10 CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP 146 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 3 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1399. CHILDREN OVER 10 HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP 150 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1400. CHILDREN OVER 10 AGRICULTURAL TASKS UNSPECIFIED--SECONDARY CROP 156 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1401. CHILDREN OVER 10 OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 5 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS70.DAT Vars. 1402-1437 Household division of work 5 1402. USES OF FRUITS OF LABOR--SECONDARY CROP 127 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 28 2 = Product consumer is household or community 2 3 = Wage labor/product sold 3 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 1 5 = 1 & 2 above 0 6 = All of above 1403. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 17 2 = No, Children do not do this 1404. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 16 2 = No, Children do not do this 1405. CHILDREN PLANT ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 18 2 = No, Children do not do this 1406. CHILDREN TEND CROPS ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 19 2 = No, Children do not do this 1407. CHILDREN HARVEST ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 19 2 = No, Children do not do this 1408. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 13 2 = No, Children do not do this 1409. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES ALONE--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 157 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1410. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 141 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 14 2 = No, Children do not do this 1411. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Yes, Children do this 14 2 = No, Children do not do this 1412. CHILDREN PLANT WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 14 2 = No, Children do not do this 1413. CHILDREN TEND CROPS WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 9 1 = Yes, Children do this 11 2 = No, Children do not do this 1414. CHILDREN HARVEST WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Yes, Children do this 14 2 = No, Children do not do this 1415. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED CHORES WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 149 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 8 2 = No, Children do not do this 1416. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES WITH OTHER KIDS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 2 2 = No, Children do not do this 1417. CHILDREN CLEAR LAND WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 14 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1418. CHILDREN PREPARE SOIL WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 14 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1419. CHILDREN PLANT WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 15 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1420. CHILDREN TEND CROPS WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 13 1 = Yes, Children do this 7 2 = No, Children do not do this 1421. CHILDREN HARVEST WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 16 1 = Yes, Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1422. CHILDREN DO UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1423. CHILDREN DO OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES WITH ADULTS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Yes, Children do this 1 2 = No, Children do not do this 1424. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CLEARING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 26 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 10 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1425. IMPORTANCE OF BOY PREPARING SOIL--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 28 0 = Boys do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for boys 7 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1426. IMPORTANCE OF BOY PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 27 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 9 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1427. IMPORTANCE OF BOY TENDING CROPS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 27 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 10 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1428. IMPORTANCE OF BOY HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 27 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 13 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1429. IMPORTANCE OF BOY UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 154 . = Missing data 26 0 = Boys do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for boys 5 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1430. IMPORTANCE OF BOY OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 1 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1431. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CLEARING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 30 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 8 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1432. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL PREPARING SOIL--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 27 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 9 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1433. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 27 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 11 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1434. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL TENDING CROPS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 27 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 11 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1435. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 28 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 13 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1436. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 151 . = Missing data 26 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 8 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls 1437. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 160 . = Missing data 25 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 1 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by girls notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 6 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS71.DAT Vars. 1438-1462 Household division of work 6 1438. ADULT PREFERENCE IN LAND CLEARING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 125 . = Missing data 29 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 31 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1439. ADULT PREFERENCE IN SOIL PREPARATION--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 126 . = Missing data 29 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 30 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1440. ADULT PREFERENCE IN PLANTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 128 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 29 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1441. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CROP TENDING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 128 . = Missing data 29 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 26 1 = Common or important adult task 2 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1442. ADULT PREFERENCE IN HARVESTING--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 127 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 30 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1443. ADULT PREFERENCE IN UNSPECIFIED AGRICULTURAL TASKS--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 146 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 12 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1444. ADULT PREFERENCE IN OTHER AGRICULTURAL CHORES--SECONDARY CROP (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 2 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1445. SECONDARY CROP NAME 107 . = Missing data 28 0 = No agriculture 3 1 = Barley 7 2 = Maize 4 3 = Millet 3 4 = Dry rice 0 5 = Wet rice 0 6 = Sorghum 1 7 = Wheat 1 8 = Buckwheat 2 11 = Groundnut 4 12 = Beans 0 13 = Breadfruit 3 14 = Cassava 3 15 = Potato 1 16 = Sweet potato 0 17 = Squashes 6 18 = Taro 3 19 = Yams 0 20 = Bananas 2 21 = Plantains 1 22 = Dates 0 23 = Mango 1 24 = Other fruit trees 0 31 = Coconut 0 32 = Peanut 1 41 = Cocoa 1 42 = Cotton 0 43 = Sesame 1 44 = Sugarcane 1 45 = Cardamum 1 46 = Tobacco 1 47 = Rubber 0 51 = Animal fodder 1446. OTHER SECONDARY CROP NAME 115 . = Missing data 57 0 = No agriculture 0 1 = Barley 0 2 = Maize 0 3 = Millet 0 4 = Dry rice 1 5 = Wet rice 3 6 = Sorghum 1 7 = Wheat 0 8 = Buckwheat 0 11 = Groundnut 0 12 = Beans 1 13 = Breadfruit 0 14 = Cassava 0 15 = Potato 0 16 = Sweet potato 4 17 = Squashes 1 18 = Taro 1 19 = Yams 0 20 = Bananas 1 21 = Plantains 0 22 = Dates 1 23 = Mango 0 24 = Other fruit trees 0 31 = Coconut 0 32 = Peanut 0 41 = Cocoa 0 42 = Cotton 0 43 = Sesame 0 44 = Sugarcane 0 45 = Cardamum 0 46 = Tobacco 0 47 = Rubber 0 51 = Animal fodder 1447. IRRIGATION USED--SECONDARY CROP 118 . = Missing data/No agriculture 53 0 = None/Absent 15 1 = Yes/Present 1448. HAND PLOW USED--SECONDARY CROP 116 . = Missing data/No agriculture 67 0 = None/Absent 3 1 = Yes/Present 1449. ANIMAL PLOW USED--SECONDARY CROP 117 . = Missing data/No agriculture 58 0 = None/Absent 11 1 = Yes/Present 1450. TERRACES AND MOUNDS USED--SECONDARY CROP 125 . = Missing data/No agriculture 47 0 = None/Absent 14 1 = Yes/Present 1451. FENCES USED--SECONDARY CROP 125 . = Missing data/No agriculture 48 0 = None/Absent 13 1 = Yes/Present 1452. GREEN MANURE AND MULCH USED--SECONDARY CROP 128 . = Missing data/No agriculture 53 0 = None/Absent 5 1 = Yes/Present 1453. ANIMAL MANURE USED--SECONDARY CROP 129 . = Missing data/No agriculture 48 0 = None/Absent 9 1 = Yes/Present 1454. HUMAN MANURE USED--SECONDARY CROP 129 . = Missing data/No agriculture 55 0 = None/Absent 2 1 = Yes/Present 1455. PESTICIDES USED--SECONDARY CROP 122 . = Missing data/No agriculture 64 0 = None/Absent 0 1 = Yes/Present 1456. EXTENT OF WEEDING--SECONDARY CROP 129 . = Missing data/No agriculture 32 0 = None/No weeding/crops not weeded 1 1 = Crop weeded once 2 2 = Crop weeded twice 4 3 = Crop weeded three times 3 4 = Weeding, but not extensively, no data on # times 8 5 = Extensive weeding, no data on # times 7 6 = Weeding, no data on extent or # times 1457. CROP SUPERVISION--SECONDARY CROP 124 . = No data 32 0 = No agriculture 20 1 = Crops supervised from homestead 10 2 = Distant crops supervised, e.g. huts built in fields 1458. PLANTING TECHNIQUES--SECONDARY CROP 130 . = No data 28 0 = No agriculture 2 1 = Seeds broadcast 12 2 = Seeds planted by hand/manually 2 3 = Seedlings transplanted 11 4 = Cuttings planted 1 5 = 2 and 3 above 0 6 = 3 and 4 above 0 7 = 2 and 4 above 1459. SHORTEST LENGTH OF FALLOW--SECONDARY CROP 137 . = No data 28 0 = No agriculture 12 1 = 0 years (permanent cultivation) 1 2 = 2 years 1 3 = 3 years 1 4 = 4 years 2 5 = 5 years 2 6 = 6 years 0 7 = 7 years 1 10 = 10 years 0 15 = 15 years 1 20 = 20 years 1460. SOIL TREATMENTS/SANDS USED--SECONDARY CROP 126 . = Missing data/No agriculture 56 0 = None/Absent 4 1 = Yes/Present 1461. CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS USED--SECONDARY CROP 122 . = Missing data/No agriculture 62 0 = None/Absent 2 1 = Yes/Present 1462. STAKES AND TRELLISES USED--SECONDARY CROP 134 . = Missing data/No agriculture 48 0 = None/Absent 4 1 = Yes/Present notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 7 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS72.DAT Vars. 1463-1490 Household division of work 7 1463. ADULTS HERD SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 27 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Men Only 3 2 = Men Predominant 0 3 = Men and Women Equal 0 4 = Women Predominant 5 5 = Women Only 1 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1 10 = Slaves Only 1464. ADULTS CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 130 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Men Only 3 2 = Men Predominant 5 3 = Men and Women Equal 6 4 = Women Predominant 12 5 = Women Only 1 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 0 10 = Slaves Only 1465. CHILDREN HERD SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 139 . = Missing data 27 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Boys Only 5 2 = Boys Predominant 2 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 3 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 1 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 0 10 = Slaves Only 1466. CHILDREN CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 26 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Boys Only 4 2 = Boys Predominant 2 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 3 4 = Girls Predominant 5 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 0 10 = Slaves Only 1467. CHILDREN UNDER 6 HERD SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 35 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1468. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 HERD SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 7 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 3 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1469. CHILDREN OVER 10 HERD SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 6 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 3 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1470. CHILDREN UNDER 10 CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 37 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1471. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 27 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 8 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1472. CHILDREN OVER 10 CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 26 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 5 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1473. PRODUCT USE OF SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 16 2 = Product consumer is household or community 0 3 = Wage labor/product sold 5 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 2 5 = 1 and 2 above 0 6 = All of above 1474. CHILDREN HERD SMALL ANIMALS ALONE (codes not ordered) 151 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 2 1 = Yes, children do this 8 2 = No, children do not do this 1475. CHILDREN HERD SMALL ANIMALS WITH CHILDREN 151 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) (codes not ordered) 9 1 = Yes, children do this 1 2 = No, children do not do this 1476. CHILDREN HERD SMALL ANIMALS WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 8 1 = Yes, children do this 3 2 = No, children do not do this 1477. CHILDREN CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS ALONE (codes not ordered) 152 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 1 1 = Yes, children do this 8 2 = No, children do not do this 1478. CHILDREN CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 152 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 5 1 = Yes, children do this 4 2 = No, children do not do this 1479. CHILDREN CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 151 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 9 1 = Yes, children do this 1 2 = No, children do not do this 1480. IMPORTANCE OF BOY HERDING SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 26 0 = Boys do not do this task 9 1 = The most important task for boys 4 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1481. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HERDING SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 149 . = Missing data 30 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 6 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1482. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 150 . = Missing data 28 0 = Boys do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for boys 6 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1483. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CARE FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 149 . = Missing data 26 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for girls 11 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1484. ADULT PREFERENCE IN HERDING SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 12 1 = Common or important adult task 6 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1485. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CARING FOR SMALL ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 139 . = Missing data 25 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 19 1 = Common or important adult task 3 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1486. GOATS PRESENT 108 . = Missing data 51 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 27 2 = Present, important 1487. SHEEP PRESENT 108 . = Missing data 52 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 26 2 = Present, important 1488. PIGS PRESENT 108 . = Missing data 50 0 = Absent 2 1 = Present, minor 26 2 = Present, important 1489. RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS PRESENT 108 . = Missing data 76 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 2 2 = Present, important 1490. SLED AND PACK DOGS PRESENT 108 . = Missing data 74 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 4 2 = Present, important notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 8 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS73.DAT Vars. 1491-1521 Household division of work 8 1491. ADULTS HERD LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 128 . = Missing data 29 0 = Activity not present 16 1 = Men Only 9 2 = Men Predominant 1 3 = Men and Women Equal 0 4 = Women Predominant 1 5 = Women Only 1 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 0 10 = Slaves Only 1492. ADULTS CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS 126 . = Missing data 28 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Men Only 11 2 = Men Predominant 6 3 = Men and Women Equal 5 4 = Women Predominant 1 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 1 9 = Women, No Data on Men 0 10 = Slaves Only 1493. CHILDREN HERD LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 125 . = Missing data 28 0 = Activity not present 17 1 = Boys Only 11 2 = Boys Predominant 1 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 0 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 0 10 = Slaves Only 1494. CHILDREN CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 127 . = Missing data 28 0 = Activity not present 10 1 = Boys Only 12 2 = Boys Predominant 1 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 2 4 = Girls Predominant 1 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 2 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 0 10 = Slaves Only 1495. CHILDREN UNDER 6 HERD LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 132 . = Missing data 52 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1496. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 HERD LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 132 . = Missing data 37 0 = Children this age do not do task 8 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 3 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1497. CHILDREN OVER 10 HERD LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 131 . = Missing data 29 0 = Children this age do not do task 17 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 3 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1498. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 133 . = Missing data 51 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1499. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 133 . = Missing data 34 0 = Children this age do not do task 7 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 10 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1500. CHILDREN OVER 10 CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 133 . = Missing data 28 0 = Children this age do not do task 13 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 9 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1501. PRODUCT USE OF LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 130 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 19 2 = Product consumer is household or community 0 3 = Wage labor/product sold 7 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 2 5 = 1 and 2 above 0 6 = All of above 1502. CHILDREN HERD LARGE ANIMALS ALONE (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 5 1 = Yes, children do this 15 2 = No, children do not do this 1503. CHILDREN HERD LARGE ANIMALS WITH CHILDREN 138 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) (codes not ordered) 17 1 = Yes, children do this 3 2 = No, children do not do this 1504. CHILDREN HERD LARGE ANIMALS WITH ADULTS 138 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 16 1 = Yes, children do this 4 2 = No, children do not do this 1505. CHILDREN CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS ALONE (codes not ordered) 141 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 3 1 = Yes, children do this 14 2 = No, children do not do this 1506. CHILDREN CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 141 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 14 1 = Yes, children do this 3 2 = No, children do not do this 1507. CHILDREN CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 141 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 15 1 = Yes, children do this 2 2 = No, children do not do this 1508. IMPORTANCE OF BOY HERDING LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 136 . = Missing data 28 0 = Boys do not do this task 16 1 = The most important task for boys 5 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1509. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HERDING LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 39 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for girls 5 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 3 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1510. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 29 0 = Boys do not do this task 6 1 = The most important task for boys 5 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1511. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CARE FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 33 0 = Girls do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for girls 5 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1512. ADULT PREFERENCE IN HERDING LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 132 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 19 1 = Common or important adult task 7 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1513. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CARING FOR LARGE ANIMALS (codes not ordered) 134 . = Missing data 28 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 22 1 = Common or important adult task 2 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1514. CATTLE PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 42 0 = Absent 3 1 = Present, minor 32 2 = Present, important 1515. HORSES PRESENT 110 . = Missing data 52 0 = Absent 2 1 = Present, minor 22 2 = Present, important 1516. DONKEYS/MULES PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 61 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 16 2 = Present, important 1517. CAMELS PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 72 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 5 2 = Present, important 1518. REINDEER PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 75 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 2 2 = Present, important 1519. YAKS PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 75 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 2 2 = Present, important 1520. BUFFALO PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 74 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 3 2 = Present, important 1521. LLAMA PRESENT 109 . = Missing data 76 0 = Absent 0 1 = Present, minor 1 2 = Present, important notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 9 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS74.DAT Vars. 1522-1557 Household division of work 9 1522. ADULTS DO WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 129 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 17 1 = Men Only 10 2 = Men Predominant 7 3 = Men and Women Equal 1 4 = Women Predominant 0 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 8 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1523. CHILDREN DO WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 10 1 = Boys Only 5 2 = Boys Predominant 1 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 0 5 = Girls Only 8 6 = Not a Child's Task 0 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1524. CHILDREN UNDER 6 DO WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1525. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 DO WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 169 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1526. CHILDREN OVER 10 DO WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 6 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 2 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1527. WHO CONTROLS THE EARNINGS OF WAGE LABOR? (codes not ordered) 161 . = Missing data 14 0 = None 7 1 = Child 2 2 = Parents 0 3 = Other 2 4 = Child and Parents 1528. CHILDREN DO WAGE LABOR ALONE (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 1 2 = No, Children do not do this 1529. CHILDREN DO WAGE LABOR WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Yes, Children do this 2 2 = No, Children do not do this 1530. CHILDREN DO WAGE LABOR WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 1 2 = No, Children do not do this 1531. IMPORTANCE OF BOY DOING WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 165 . = Missing data 14 0 = Boys do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for boys 4 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1532. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL DOING WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 14 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 1 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1533. ADULT PREFERENCE WAGE LABOR (codes not ordered) 151 . = Missing data 14 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 18 1 = Common or important adult task 2 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1534. ADULTS TRADE (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 8 1 = Men Only 5 2 = Men Predominant 22 3 = Men and Women Equal 5 4 = Women Predominant 2 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 4 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1535. CHILDREN TRADE (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 3 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 4 5 = Girls Only 14 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1536. CHILDREN UNDER 6 TRADE (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 3 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1537. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 TRADE (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 5 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 3 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1538. CHILDREN OVER 10 TRADE (codes not ordered) 170 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 4 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 3 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1539. WHO CONTROLS THE CASH FROM TRADE? (codes not ordered) 173 . = Missing data 3 0 = None 7 1 = Child 1 2 = Parents 0 3 = Other 2 4 = Child and Parents 1540. CHILDREN TRADE ALONE (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 3 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1541. CHILDREN TRADE ALONGSIDE OTHER CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 3 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Yes, Children do this 7 2 = No, Children do not do this 1542. CHILDREN TRADE ALONGSIDE ADULTS (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 3 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 2 2 = No, Children do not do this 1543. IMPORTANCE OF BOY TRADING (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 3 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 7 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1544. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL TRADING (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 3 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 7 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1545. ADULT PREFERENCE IN TRADE (codes not ordered) 131 . = Missing data 2 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 33 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1546. ADULTS GATHER (codes not ordered) 133 . = Missing data 11 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 9 4 = Women Predominant 26 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 1 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 1 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1547. CHILDREN GATHER (codes not ordered) 151 . = Missing data 11 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 4 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 5 4 = Girls Predominant 9 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1548. CHILDREN UNDER 6 GATHER (codes not ordered) 173 . = Missing data 11 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1549. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 GATHER (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 11 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 5 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1550. CHILDREN OVER 10 GATHER (codes not ordered) 159 . = Missing data 11 0 = Children this age do not do task 2 1 = Boys this age 7 2 = Girls this age 4 3 = Boys and Girls this age 1 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1551. WHO CONTROLS THE PRODUCTS OF GATHERING? (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 11 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 12 2 = Product consumer is household or community 0 3 = Wage labor/product sold 0 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 7 5 = 1 and 2 above 1552. CHILDREN GATHER ALONE (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 11 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Yes, Children do this 17 2 = No, Children do not do this 1553. CHILDREN GATHER WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 11 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 12 2 = No, Children do not do this 1554. CHILDREN GATHER WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 11 0 = Activity not present 15 1 = Yes, Children do this 2 2 = No, Children do not do this 1555. IMPORTANCE OF BOY GATHERING (codes not ordered) 164 . = Missing data 11 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 7 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 4 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1556. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL GATHERING (codes not ordered) 160 . = Missing data 11 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 14 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1557. ADULT PREFERENCE GATHERING (codes not ordered) 139 . = Missing data 11 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 36 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 10 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS75.DAT Vars. 1558-1591 Household division of work 10 1558.GONE ADULTS HUNT (codes not ordered) 117 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 41 1 = Men Only 12 2 = Men Predominant 2 3 = Men and Women Equal 0 4 = Women Predominant 0 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 0 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1559.GONE CHILDREN HUNT (codes not ordered) 129 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 31 1 = Boys Only 4 2 = Boys Predominant 3 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 0 4 = Girls Predominant 0 5 = Girls Only 2 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 0 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1560.GONE CHILDREN UNDER 6 HUNT (codes not ordered) 169 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1561.GONE CHILDREN 6 TO 10 HUNT (codes not ordered) 152 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 14 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1562.GONE CHILDREN OVER 10 HUNT (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 14 0 = Children this age do not do task 21 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 5 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1563.GONE WHO CONTROLS THE PRODUCTS OF HUNTING? (codes not ordered) 142 . = Missing data 14 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 3 1 = Product consumer is child only 10 2 = Product consumer is household or community 0 3 = Wage labor/product sold 3 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 12 5 = 1 and 2 above 2 6 = All 1564.GONE CHILDREN HUNT ALONE (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 7 1 = Yes, Children do this 21 2 = No, Children do not do this 1565.GONE CHILDREN HUNT WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 143 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 19 1 = Yes, Children do this 10 2 = No, Children do not do this 1566.GONE CHILDREN HUNT WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 14 0 = Activity not present 20 1 = Yes, Children do this 7 2 = No, Children do not do this 1567.GONE IMPORTANCE OF BOY HUNTING (codes not ordered) 146 . = Missing data = Activity not present ? 14 0 = Boys do not do this task 4 1 = The most important task for boys 18 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 4 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1568.GONE IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HUNTING 167 . = Missing data 14 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 5 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1569.GONE ADULT PREFERENCE HUNTING (codes not ordered) 129 . = Missing data 14 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 40 1 = Common or important adult task 3 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1570.GONE ADULTS DO CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 122 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 24 4 = Women Predominant 33 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 3 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1571.GONE CHILDREN DO CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 10 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 13 4 = Girls Predominant 13 5 = Girls Only 1 6 = Not a Child's Task 7 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 4 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1572.GONE CHILDREN UNDER 6 DO CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 181 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1573.GONE CHILDREN 6 TO 10 DO CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 9 2 = Girls this age 14 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 2 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 5 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1574.GONE CHILDREN OVER 10 DO CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 159 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 9 2 = Girls this age 10 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 7 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1575.GONE CHILDREN DO CHILD CARE ALONE (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 10 2 = No, Children do not do this 1576.GONE CHILDREN DO CHILD CARE ALONG WITH OTHER CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 173 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 8 1 = Yes, Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1577.GONE CHILDREN DO CHILD CARE WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 174 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 9 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1578.GONE IMPORTANCE OF BOY DOING CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 167 . = Missing data 0 0 = Boys do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for boys 11 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 6 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1579.GONE IMPORTANCE OF GIRL DOING CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 152 . = Missing data 0 0 = Girls do not do this task 3 1 = The most important task for Girls 30 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1580.GONE ADULT PREFERENCE IN CHILD CARE (codes not ordered) 129 . = Missing data 0 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 56 1 = Common or important adult task 1 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1581.GONE ADULTS DO HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 135 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 1 3 = Men and Women Equal 7 4 = Women Predominant 39 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 3 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1582.GONE CHILDREN DO HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 144 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 1 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 9 4 = Girls Predominant 27 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 2 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 2 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1583.GONE CHILDREN UNDER 6 DO HOUSEKEEPING 183 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 1 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1584.GONE CHILDREN 6 TO 10 DO HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 17 2 = Girls this age 5 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1585.GONE CHILDREN OVER 10 DO HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 161 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 17 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1586.GONE CHILDREN DO HOUSEKEEPING ALONE (codes not ordered) 165 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 16 2 = No, Children do not do this 1587.GONE CHILDREN DO HOUSEKEEPING WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 163 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 20 2 = No, Children do not do this 1588.GONE CHILDREN DO HOUSEKEEPING WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 163 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 22 1 = Yes, Children do this 0 2 = No, Children do not do this 1589.GONE IMPORTANCE OF BOY HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 178 . = Missing data 1 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 4 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 3 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1590.GONE IMPORTANCE OF GIRL HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 159 . = Missing data 1 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 26 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1591.GONE ADULT PREFERENCE HOUSEKEEPING (codes not ordered) 140 . = Missing data 1 0 = None (e.GONEg.GONE,Activity not present) 45 1 = Common or important adult task 0 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 11 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS76.DAT Vars. 1592-1614 Household division of work 11 1592. ADULTS COOK (codes not ordered) 110 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 1 2 = Men Predominant 1 3 = Men and Women Equal 25 4 = Women Predominant 44 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 1 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1593. CHILDREN COOK (codes not ordered) 136 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 2 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 12 4 = Girls Predominant 31 5 = Girls Only 2 6 = Not a Child's Task 1 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1594. CHILDREN UNDER 6 COOK (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 3 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1595. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 COOK (codes not ordered) 159 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 17 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1596. CHILDREN OVER 10 COOK (codes not ordered) 153 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 21 2 = Girls this age 8 3 = Boys and Girls this age 2 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1597. WHO CONTROLS THE PRODUCTS OF COOKING? (codes not ordered) 147 . = Missing data 0 0 = None (e.g., activity not present) 0 1 = Product consumer is child only 0 2 = Product consumer is household or community 1 3 = Wage labor/Product sold 0 4 = Household and wage labor or product sold 37 5 = 1 and 2 above 1 6 = All 1598. CHILDREN COOK ALONE (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 22 2 = No, Children do not do this 1599. CHILDREN COOK WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 19 2 = No, Children do not do this 1600. CHILDREN COOK WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 162 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 24 1 = Yes, Children do this 0 2 = No, Children do not do this 1601. IMPORTANCE OF BOY COOKING (codes not ordered) 176 . = Missing data 0 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 5 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 5 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1602. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL COOKING (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 0 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for Girls 37 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1603. ADULT PREFERENCE COOKING (codes not ordered) 119 . = Missing data 0 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 66 1 = Common or important adult task 1 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1604. ADULTS TEND FIRES (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 0 2 = Men Predominant 4 3 = Men and Women Equal 6 4 = Women Predominant 15 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 2 8 = Men, No Data on Women 3 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1605. CHILDREN TEND FIRES (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 1 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 3 4 = Girls Predominant 4 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 3 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 3 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1606. CHILDREN UNDER 6 TEND FIRES (codes not ordered) 186 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1607. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 TEND FIRES (codes not ordered) 179 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 2 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1608. CHILDREN OVER 10 TEND FIRES (codes not ordered) 178 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 2 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1609. CHILDREN TEND FIRES ALONE (codes not ordered) 182 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1610. CHILDREN TEND FIRES ALONG WITH OTHER CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 182 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1611. CHILDREN TEND FIRES WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 182 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 0 2 = No, Children do not do this 1612. IMPORTANCE OF BOY TENDING FIRES (codes not ordered) 181 . = Missing data 0 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 3 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 2 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1613. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL TENDING FIRES (codes not ordered) 178 . = Missing data 0 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 8 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1614. ADULT PREFERENCE IN TENDING FIRES 167 . = Missing data 0 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 18 1 = Common or important adult task 1 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent notes on these codes (none as yet)
HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF WORK 12 Candice Bradley. 1987. Women, Children and Work. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Irvine. UMI 8893611. STDS77.DAT Vars. 1615-1647 Household division of work 12 1615. ADULTS GATHER FUEL (codes not ordered) 135 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 5 2 = Men Predominant 2 3 = Men and Women Equal 13 4 = Women Predominant 27 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 1 8 = Men, No Data on Women 3 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1616. CHILDREN GATHER FUEL (codes not ordered) 138 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Boys Only 4 2 = Boys Predominant 5 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 6 4 = Girls Predominant 21 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 7 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 2 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1617. CHILDREN UNDER 6 GATHER FUEL (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 2 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1618. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 GATHER FUEL (codes not ordered) 164 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 9 2 = Girls this age 8 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 1 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 3 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1619. CHILDREN OVER 10 GATHER FUEL (codes not ordered) 164 . = Missing data 0 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 10 2 = Girls this age 7 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 3 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1620. CHILDREN GATHER FUEL ALONE (codes not ordered) 173 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 3 1 = Yes, Children do this 10 2 = No, Children do not do this 1621. CHILDREN GATHER FUEL WITH CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 4 1 = Yes, Children do this 10 2 = No, Children do not do this 1622. CHILDREN GATHER FUEL WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 173 . = Missing data 0 0 = Activity not present 13 1 = Yes, Children do this 0 2 = No, Children do not do this 1623. IMPORTANCE OF BOY GATHERING FUEL (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 0 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 10 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 4 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1624. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL GATHERING FUEL (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 0 0 = Girls do not do this task 1 1 = The most important task for Girls 26 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1625. ADULT PREFERENCE FUEL GATHERING (codes not ordered) 145 . = Missing data 0 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 36 1 = Common or important adult task 3 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 2 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1626. ADULTS CARRY BURDENS (codes not ordered) 135 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Men Only 5 2 = Men Predominant 9 3 = Men and Women Equal 15 4 = Women Predominant 7 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 2 8 = Men, No Data on Women 10 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1627. CHILDREN CARRY BURDENS (codes not ordered) 161 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Boys Only 1 2 = Boys Predominant 6 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 3 4 = Girls Predominant 5 5 = Girls Only 1 6 = Not a Child's Task 4 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 2 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1628. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CARRY BURDENS (codes not ordered) 182 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 1 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1629. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CARRY BURDENS (codes not ordered) 181 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 0 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1630. CHILDREN OVER 10 CARRY BURDENS (codes not ordered) 177 . = Missing data 1 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 2 2 = Girls this age 3 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 1 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1631. CHILDREN CARRY BURDENS ALONE (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 4 2 = No, Children do not do this 1632. CHILDREN CARRY BURDENS ALONG WITH OTHER CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 2 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1633. CHILDREN CARRY BURDENS WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 1 0 = Activity not present 5 1 = Yes, Children do this 0 2 = No, Children do not do this 1634. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CARRYING BURDENS (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 1 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 4 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 1 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1635. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CARRYING BURDENS (codes not ordered) 174 . = Missing data 1 0 = Girls do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for Girls 11 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1636. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CARRYING BURDENS (codes not ordered) 158 . = Missing data 1 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 26 1 = Common or important adult task 1 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 0 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent 1637. ADULTS CARRY WATER (codes not ordered) 135 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 0 1 = Men Only 1 2 = Men Predominant 2 3 = Men and Women Equal 5 4 = Women Predominant 39 5 = Women Only 0 6 = Not an Adult Task 0 7 = Adult Task, No Data on Sex 0 8 = Men, No Data on Women 2 9 = Women, No Data on Men 1638. CHILDREN CARRY WATER (codes not ordered) 137 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Boys Only 0 2 = Boys Predominant 3 3 = Boys and Girls Equal 10 4 = Girls Predominant 26 5 = Girls Only 0 6 = Not a Child's Task 5 7 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 8 = Boys, No Data on Girls 1 9 = Girls, No Data on Boys 1639. CHILDREN UNDER 6 CARRY WATER (codes not ordered) 180 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 4 2 = Girls this age 0 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 0 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 0 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1640. CHILDREN 6 TO 10 CARRY WATER (codes not ordered) 156 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 0 1 = Boys this age 16 2 = Girls this age 9 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1641. CHILDREN OVER 10 CARRY WATER 154 . = Missing data 2 0 = Children this age do not do task 1 1 = Boys this age 20 2 = Girls this age 6 3 = Boys and Girls this age 0 4 = Not a Child's Task 0 5 = Child Task, no Data on Sex 1 6 = Boys this age, No Data on Girls 2 7 = Girls this age, No Data on Boys 1642. CHILDREN CARRY WATER ALONE (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 1 1 = Yes, Children do this 11 2 = No, Children do not do this 1643. CHILDREN CARRY WATER ALONG WITH OTHER CHILDREN (codes not ordered) 171 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 8 1 = Yes, Children do this 5 2 = No, Children do not do this 1644. CHILDREN CARRY WATER WITH ADULTS (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 2 0 = Activity not present 9 1 = Yes, Children do this 3 2 = No, Children do not do this 1645. IMPORTANCE OF BOY CARRYING WATER (codes not ordered) 172 . = Missing data 2 0 = Boys do not do this task 0 1 = The most important task for boys 7 2 = Boys commonly do the task, but not their most important 5 3 = Boys rarely do, or usually done by girls 1646. IMPORTANCE OF GIRL CARRYING WATER (codes not ordered) 155 . = Missing data 2 0 = Girls do not do this task 2 1 = The most important task for Girls 27 2 = Girls commonly do the task, but not their most important 0 3 = Girls rarely do, or usually done by boys 1647. ADULT PREFERENCE IN CARRYING WATER (codes not ordered) 148 . = Missing data 2 0 = None (e.g.,Activity not present) 31 1 = Common or important adult task 4 2 = Not preferred by adults, considered child's task 1 3 = Usually adult task; kids do only if suitable adult absent notes on these codes (none as yet)
WARFARE, AGGRESSION, AND RESOURCE PROBLEMS CODES Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. 1992. Codebook for "Warfare, Aggression, and Resource Problems: Cross-Cultural Codes". Behavior Science Research; Vol 26: 169-186. STDS78.DAT Vars. 1648-1691 Warfare, Aggression, Resource Problems 1648. Overall frequency of warfare (resolved rating) (codes not ordered) 19 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 39 1 = Warfare seems to be absent or rare (original code 1) 2 2 = original code 1.25 5 3 = original code 1.5 1 4 = original code 1.625 2 5 = original code 1.75 9 6 = Warfare seems to occur once every 3 to 10 years * (original code 2) 3 7 = original code 2.25 6 8 = original code 2.5 4 9 = original code 2.75 4 10 = Warfare seems to occur at least once every 2 years * (original code 3) 4 11 = original code 3.25 9 12 = original code 3.5 5 13 = original code 3.75 5 14 = Warfare seems to occur every year, but usually only * during a particular season (original code 4) 1 15 = original code 4.25 12 16 = original code 4.5 5 17 = original code 4.75 44 18 = Warfare seems to occur almost constantly and at any * time of the year (original code 5) 7 88 = Don't know or unclear (original code 8) 1649. Frequency of internal warfare (resolved rating) (codes not ordered) 23 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 60 1 = Internal warfare seems to be absent or rare * (original code 1) 4 2 = original code 1.25 5 3 = original code 1.5 4 4 = original code 1.75 7 5 = Internal warfare seems to occur once every 3 to 10 * years (original code 2) 3 6 = original code 2.25 5 7 = original code 2.5 2 8 = original code 2.75 4 9 = Internal warfare seems to occur once every 2 years * (original code 3) 3 10 = original code 3.25 6 11 = original code 3.5 2 12 = original code 3.75 8 13 = Internal warfare seems to occur every year, but * usually only during a particular season (original code 4) 1 14 = original code 4.25 10 15 = original code 4.5 1 16 = original code 4.75 27 17 = Internal warfare seems to occur almost constantly and * at any time of the year (original code 5) 11 88 = Don't know or unclear (original code 8) 1650. Frequency of external warfare (resolved rating) The original code contained values 1 through 5 and was used in a number of published studies (Ember and Ember 1992b; Ember et al. 1992; Ember and Ember 1994). The code was subsequently revised to values between 1 and 17 by Carol Ember, Melvin Ember, and J. Patrick Gray (Carol Ember, personal communication to Anthon Eff). 26 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 52 1 = External warfare seems to be absent or rare (original code 1) 2 2 = original code 1.25 8 3 = original code 1.5 1 4 = original code 1.75 10 5 = External warfare seems to occur once every 3 to 10 * years (original code 2) 3 6 = original code 2.25 7 7 = original code 2.5 2 8 = original code 2.75 6 9 = External warfare seems to occur at least once every * two years (original code 3) 3 10 = original code 3.25 3 11 = original code 3.5 3 12 = original code 3.75 5 13 = External warfare seems to occur every year, but * usually only during a particular season (original code 4) 1 14 = original code 4.25 7 15 = original code 4.5 4 16 = original code 4.75 37 17 = External warfare seems to occur almost constantly and * at any time of the year (original code 5) 6 88 = Don't know or unclear (original code 8) 1651. Reliability of Overall Warfare Ratings (codes not ordered) 11 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 80 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 21 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart * on the original scale 24 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 1 4 = One of the first two coders says "don't know" and the * other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 11 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale, but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy on * frequency (greater than or equal to once every two years * vs. less often) that we have used in previous studies of * warfare 2 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the two others would * have received a reliability score of 5 if they had * been the only raters 31 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart and do not meet * the condition mentioned in reliability score 5 5 8 = One rater says "don't know" and does not meet the * conditions specified in reliability scores 4 or 6 1652. Reliability of Internal Warfare Ratings (codes not ordered) 12 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 84 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 11 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart * on the original scale 19 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 7 4 = One of the first two coders says "don't know" and the * other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 6 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale, but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy on * frequency (greater than or equal to once every two years * vs. less often) that we have used in previous studies of * warfare 2 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the two others would * have received a reliability score of 5 if they had * been the only raters 35 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart and do not meet * the condition mentioned in reliability score 5 10 8 = One rater says "don't know" and does not meet the * conditions specified in reliability scores 4 or 6 1653. Reliability of External Warfare Ratings (codes not ordered) 14 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 84 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 13 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart 20 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart 4 4 = One of the first two coders says " don't know" and the * other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 11 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart, but the * ratings do not cross the dichotomy on frequency * (greater than or equal to once every two years vs. * less often) that we have used in previous studies of * warfare 3 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the two others would * have received a reliability score of 5 if they had * been the only raters 23 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart and do not meet * the condition mentioned in reliability score 5 14 8 = One rater says "don't know" and does not meet the * conditions specified in reliability scores 4 or 6 1654. Pacification 73 1 = Not pacified for all or part of the twenty-five-year * time period (as reported by ethnographer) 41 2 = Inferred to be unpacified because warfare frequency is * greater than or equal to 3 9 3 = Not completely pacified: some indication that warfare * has decreased because of pacification attempts 28 4 = Pacified before the twenty-five-year ethnographic * present 3 6 = The culture is part of a state society; since the * culture is not independent, pacification cannot be * judged 19 7 = Ambiguous or contradictory information 13 9 = Not enough information to judge 1655. Outcomes regarding land in internal warfare (codes not ordered) 32 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 27 1 = The defeated are never driven from their territory * (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.25 2 3 = original code 1.5 4 4 = The defeated are sometimes driven from their * territory, and the victorious rarely use the land of * the defeated (original code 2) 3 5 = original code 2.5 16 6 = The defeated are sometimes driven from their * territory, and the victorious sometimes use the land * of the defeated (original code 3) 1 7 = original code 3.75 2 8 = The defeated are usually driven from their territory, * and the victorious sometimes use the land of the * defeated (original code 4) 1 9 = original code 4.5 1 10 = original code 4.75 10 11 = The defeated are usually driven from their territory, * and the victorious usually use the land of the * defeated (original code 5) 2 12 = Land is taken, but apparently not used (original code 7) 30 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 54 99 = Not applicable (there is no or rare warfare of this type) * (original code 9) 1656. Outcomes regarding land in external warfare (codes not ordered) 41 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 21 1 = The defeated are never driven from their territory * (original code 1) 2 2 = original code 1.5 6 3 = The defeated are sometimes driven from their * territory, and the victorious rarely use the land of * the defeated (original code 2) 3 4 = original code 2.5 10 5 = The defeated are sometimes driven from their * territory, and the victorious sometimes use the land * of the defeated (original code 3) 1 6 = original code 3.25 2 7 = original code 3.5 4 8 = The defeated are usually driven from their territory, * and the victorious sometimes use the land of the * defeated (original code 4) 5 9 = original code 4.5 17 10 = The defeated are usually driven from their territory, * and the victorious usually use the land of the * defeated (original code 5) 25 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 49 99 = Not applicable (there is no or rare warfare of this type) * (original code 9) 1657. Outcomes regarding land in war overall - combined scale scores (codes not ordered) from Vars 1655 and 1656 according to the rules following this section: 106 0 = No score (original code 0) 22 1 = Original score 1 2 2 = Original score 1.5 5 3 = Original score 2 2 4 = Original score 2.5 17 5 = Original score 3 1 6 = Original score 3.25 5 7 = Original score 4 5 8 = Original score 4.5 21 9 = Original score 5 If both internal and external warfare were present, and if the coders made a resolved rating for both types of outcomes, we used the higher scale score of Vars 1655 or 1656 for the rating of Var 1657. If there was only one resolved rating (between 1 and 5 on the original scale) and the other rating was 8 ("don't know"), we used the former, but only if that score was in the high categories (3-5); if the former scale was in the low categories (1-2), the case was listed as uncodable in Var 1657. If there was only 1 resolved rating between 1 and 5, and if the other rating was 9 ("not applicable"), we used the former for Var 1657. If the case could not be coded for the above rules, or if the scores for internal and external warfare were 8 or 9, the case was scored as 0. 1658. Outcomes regarding nonland resources in internal warfare (codes not ordered) 33 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 7 1 = Nonland resources are never taken from the defeated * (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.25 1 3 = original code 1.75 4 4 = Nonland resources are sometimes taken from the * defeated (original code 2) 2 5 = original code 2.25 4 6 = original code 2.5 1 7 = original code 2.75 3 8 = Nonland resources are usually taken from the defeated * (original code 3) 1 9 = original code 3.25 12 10 = original code 3.5 1 11 = original code 3.75 38 12 = Nonland resources are always taken from the defeated * (original code 4) 25 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 53 99 = Not applicable (there is no warfare of this type) * (original code 9) 1659. Outcomes regarding nonland resources in external warfare (codes not ordered) 34 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 2 1 = Nonland resources are never taken from the defeated * (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.5 1 3 = original code 1.75 1 4 = Nonland resources are sometimes taken from the * defeated (original code 2) 2 5 = original code 2.25 4 6 = original code 2.5 1 7 = original code 2.75 4 8 = Nonland resources are usually taken from the defeated * (original code 3) 13 9 = original code 3.5 5 10 = original code 3.75 49 11 = Nonland resources are always taken from the defeated * (original code 4) 20 12 = Don't know (original code 8) 49 88 = Not applicable (there is no or rare warfare of this type) * (original code 9) 1660. Outcomes regarding nonland resources in war overall - combined scale (codes not ordered) scores from Vars 1658 and 1659 according to the rules following this section: 89 0 = No score (original code 0) 3 1 = Original score 1 2 2 = Original score 1.75 1 3 = Original score 2 2 4 = Original score 2.25 3 5 = Original score 2.5 2 6 = Original score 2.75 3 7 = Original score 3 16 8 = Original score 3.5 4 9 = Original score 3.75 61 10 = Original score 4 If both internal and external warfare were present, and if the coders made a resolved rating for both types of outcomes, we used the higher scale score of Var 1658 or 1659 for the rating of Var 1660. If there was only one resolved rating (between 1 and 5 on the original scale) and the other rating was 8 ("don't know"), we used the former, but only if that score was in the high categories (3-4); if the former scale was in the low categories (1-2), the case was listed as uncodable in Var 1660. If there was only 1 resolved rating between 1 and 5, and if the other rating was 9 ("not applicable"), we used the former for Var 1660. If the case could not be coded for the above rules, or if the original scores for internal and external warfare were 8 or 9, the case was scored as 0. 1661. Reliability of Outcomes of Internal Warfare Ratings (Var. 1655) (codes not ordered) 17 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 89 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 2 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 5 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 11 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 5 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * (from 1-5), but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy * between scores 2 and 3 on Var. 1655 12 6 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable", and * the two others would have received a reliability score * of 5 if they had been the only raters. Also scored as * 6: one coder said "don't know" and the other said "not * applicable" 7 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * and their scores are not on one side of the dichotomy * mentioned in reliability score 5 38 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-5 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 or 6 1662. Reliability of Outcomes of External Warfare Ratings (Var. 1656) (codes not ordered) 18 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 65 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 1 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 6 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 10 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 7 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * (from 1-5), but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy * between scores 2 and 3 on Var. 1656 14 6 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable", and * the two others would have received a reliability score * of 5 if they had been the only raters. Also scored as * 6: one coder said "don't know" and the other said "not * applicable" 16 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * and their scores are not on one side of the dichotomy * mentioned in reliability score 5 49 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-5 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 or 6 1663. Reliability of Outcomes of Internal Warfare Ratings (Var. 1658) (codes not ordered) 18 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 83 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 3 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 15 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 17 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 4 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * (from 1-5), but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy * between scores 1 and 2 on Var. 1658 11 6 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable", and * the two others would have received a reliability score * of 5 if they had been the only raters. Also scored as * 6: one coder said "don't know" and the other said "not * applicable" 4 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * and their scores are not on one side of the dichotomy * mentioned in reliability score 5 31 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-5 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 or 6 1664. Reliability of Outcomes of External Warfare ratings (Var. 1659) (codes not ordered) 18 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 79 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 4 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 12 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 21 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 3 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * (from 1-5), but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy * between scores 1 and 2 on Var. 1659 13 6 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable", and * the two others would have received a reliability score * of 5 if they had been the only raters. Also scored as * 6: one coder said "don't know" and the other said "not * applicable" 0 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original scale * and their scores are not on one side of the dichotomy * mentioned in reliability score 5 36 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-5 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 or 6 1665. Individual Aggression - Homicide (codes not ordered) 31 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 45 1 = Low (original code 1) 8 2 = original code 1.25 10 3 = original code 1.5 2 4 = original code 1.75 25 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 6 6 = original code 2.25 7 7 = original code 2.5 5 8 = original code 2.75 13 9 = High (original code 3) 34 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 1666. Individual Aggression - Assault (codes not ordered) 31 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 29 1 = Low (original code 1) 7 2 = original code 1.25 13 3 = original code 1.5 2 4 = original code 1.75 20 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 4 6 = original code 2.25 7 7 = original code 2.5 6 8 = original code 2.75 25 9 = High (original code 3) 42 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 1667. Individual Aggression - Theft (codes not ordered) 32 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 37 1 = Low (original code 1) 4 2 = original code 1.25 14 3 = original code 1.5 2 4 = original code 1.75 21 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 1 6 = original code 2.25 8 7 = original code 2.5 2 8 = original code 2.75 23 9 = High (original code 3) 42 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 1668. Individual Aggression - Trespass (codes not ordered) 47 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 21 1 = Low (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.25 9 3 = original code 1.5 1 4 = original code 1.75 10 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 0 6 = original code 2.25 2 7 = original code 2.5 1 8 = original code 2.75 9 9 = High (original code 3) 76 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 9 99 = Not applicable (used only in the case of trespass) 1669. Individual Aggression - Suicide (resolved ratings) (codes not ordered) 27 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 46 1 = Low (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.25 5 3 = original code 1.5 3 4 = original code 1.75 19 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 0 6 = original code 2.25 7 7 = original code 2.5 0 8 = original code 2.75 6 9 = High (original code 3) 72 88 = Don't know (original code 8) 1670. Reliability of Individual Aggression Ratings-Homicide (Var. 1665) (codes not ordered) 14 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 81 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 12 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 15 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 14 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 11 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 39 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1671. Reliability of Individual Aggression Ratings-Assault (Var. 1666) (codes not ordered) 14 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 81 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 17 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 26 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 9 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 9 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 30 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1672. Reliability of Individual Aggression Ratings-Theft (Var. 1667) (codes not ordered) 14 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 93 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 6 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 21 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 7 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 17 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 28 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1673. Reliability of Individual Aggression Ratings-Trespass (Var. 1668) (codes not ordered) 35 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 80 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 1 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 7 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 8 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 4 6 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" 1 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 50 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 or 6 1674. Reliability of Individual Aggression Ratings-Suicide (Var. 1669) (codes not ordered) 15 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 111 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 3 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 17 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 6 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 3 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 31 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1675. Socially Organized Homicide (codes not ordered) 83 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 23 1 = Low (original code 1) 4 2 = original code 1.25 5 3 = original code 1.5 2 4 = original code 1.75 8 5 = Moderate (original code 2) 5 6 = original code 2.25 6 7 = original code 2.5 5 8 = original code 2.75 9 9 = High (original code 3) 36 88 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1676. Socially Organized Assault (codes not ordered) 80 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 13 1 = Low (original code 1) 3 2 = original code 1.5 5 3 = Moderate (original code 2) 2 4 = original code 2.25 9 5 = original code 2.5 3 6 = original code 2.75 11 7 = High (original code 3) 60 8 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1677. Socially Organized Theft (codes not ordered) 81 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 22 1 = Low (original code 1) 1 2 = original code 1.75 2 3 = Moderate (original code 2) 1 4 = original code 2.25 3 5 = original code 2.5 1 6 = original code 2.75 8 7 = High (original code 3) 67 8 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1678. Socially Organized Trespass (codes not ordered) 88 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 11 1 = Low (original code 1) 2 2 = original code 1.5 5 3 = High (original code 3) 71 8 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 9 9 = Not applicable (used only in the case of trespass) * (original code 9) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1679. Reliability of Socially Organized Homicide Ratings (Var. 1675) (codes not ordered) 70 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 43 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 8 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 7 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 12 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 7 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 39 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1680. Reliability of Socially Organized Assault Ratings (Var. 1676) (codes not ordered) 68 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 47 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 2 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 10 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 6 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 4 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 49 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1681. Reliability of Socially Organized Theft Ratings (Var. 1677) (codes not ordered) 68 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 53 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 2 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 1 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 9 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 3 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart 50 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability score 4 1682. Reliability of Socially Organized Trespass Ratings (Var. 1678) (codes not ordered) 73 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 54 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 0 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 apart * on the original scale 0 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart * on the original scale 7 4 = One coder says "don't know" or "not applicable" and * the other two coders would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 6 6 = One coder says "don't know," and the other said * "not applicable" 46 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know" or * "not applicable", and the second one (if only two * raters) assigned a score of 1-3 to the case; if there * are three raters, the other two do not meet the * reliability conditions of reliability scores 4 1683. Threat of Famine (resolved rating) (codes not ordered) 17 .0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 47 21 = Low threat of famine in the 25-year time period - food is * reported to be ample or adequate, with no report of famine; * or famine occurred only in the past; or occasional periods * of food shortage are reported, but the scare foods are * reported to be replaced by other available foods; or * there may be chronic hunger in the absence of the * conditions immediately below (original scores 2-4) * (original code 1) 1 32 = original code 1.5 39 43 = Moderate threat of famine - there is no reported * famine during the 25-year time period, but the * ethnographer states that there is an ever present * threat of famine (original code 2) 21 54 = Moderately high threat of famine - one famine occurred * during the 25-year time period (original code 3) 2 65 = original code 3.5 9 76 = High - more than one famine occurred during the * 25-year time period (original code 4) 50 88 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1684. Threat of weather or pest disasters (codes not ordered) 17 .0 = No resolved rating 29 21 = Low threat of severe natural disrupters of the food * supply 33 32 = Moderate threat of severe natural disrupters of food * supply 20 43 = Moderately high threat of severe natural disrupters of * food supply 32 54 = High 55 68 = Don't know THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1685. Chronic resource problems (resolved ratings) (codes not ordered) 16 0 = No resolved rating (original code 0) 73 1 = Low or rare (original code 1) 6 2 = original code 1.5 44 3 = There are some "hungry times" during the year when * people complain that they do not have enough food or * enough of a particular food (original code 2) 14 4 = Some members of the population usually do not have * enough to eat (original code 3) 7 5 = Most members of the population usually do not have * enough to eat - i.e., they are chronically * undernourished (original code 4) 26 8 = Don't know (original code 8) THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R 1686. Reliability of Threat of Famine Ratings (Var. 1683) (codes not ordered) R Spss 15 NA . = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 102 2 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 0 3 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart * on the original scale (except that the difference between * 1.0 and 1.5 is coded as 7 because 1.5 suggests some * problem, whereas 1.0 suggests no problem) 14 4 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart, * on the original scale and ratings do not cross the * boundary between 1.0 (no problem), and some problem * (1.5 and higher) on the original scale 12 5 4 = One of the first two coders says "don't know", and the * other two raters would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 3 6 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale, but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy between * 1.0 and more than 1.0 on the original scale 0 7 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the other two raters * would have received a reliability score of 5 if they * had been the only raters 9 8 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart and their scores * are not on one side of the dichotomy mentioned in * reliability score 5 31 9 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know", and * the second one (if there are only two raters) is * assigned a score of 1-5; if there are three raters, * the other two do not meet the reliability conditions * of reliability score 4 or 6 1687. Reliability of Threat of Natural and Pest Disaster Rating (Var 1684) (codes not ordered) R Spss 15 NA . = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 99 2 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 1 3 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart * on the original scale (except that the difference between * 1.0 and 1.5 is coded as 7 because 1.5 suggests some * problem, whereas 1.0 suggests no problem) 13 4 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart, * on the original scale and ratings do not cross the * boundary between 1.0 (no problem), and some problem * (1.5 and higher) on the original scale 7 5 4 = One of the first two coders says "don't know", and the * other two raters would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 9 6 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale, but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy between * 1.0 and more than 1.0 on the original scale 0 7 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the other two raters * would have received a reliability score of 5 if they * had been the only raters 11 8 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale and their scores are not on one side of the * dichotomy mentioned in reliability score 5 31 9 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know", and * the second one (if there are only two raters) is * assigned a score of 1-5; if there are three raters, * the other two do not meet the reliability conditions * of reliability score 4 1688. Reliability of Chronic Scarcity Ratings (Var. 1685) (codes not ordered) R Spss 12 NA 0 = No reliability score (see Variable 1651 in STDS78.REL * for reasons) 106 2 1 = The different coders agree perfectly (including the * situation when they both said "don't know") 4 3 2 = The different coders are not more than .5 point apart * on the original scale (except that the difference between * 1.0 and 1.5 is coded as 7 because 1.5 suggests some * problem, whereas 1.0 suggests no problem) 8 4 3 = The different coders are not more than 1 point apart, * on the original scale and ratings do not cross the * boundary between 1.0 (no problem), and some problem * (1.5 and higher) on the original scale 9 5 4 = One of the first two coders says "don't know", and the * other two raters would have received a reliability * score of 1, 2, or 3 if they had been the only raters 3 6 5 = The coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale, but the ratings do not cross the dichotomy between * 1.0 and more than 1.0 on the original scale 0 7 6 = One coder says "don't know" and the other two raters * would have received a reliability score of 5 if they * had been the only raters 24 8 7 = Two coders are more than 1 point apart on the original * scale and their scores are not on one side of the * dichotomy mentioned in reliability score 5 20 9 8 = One of the two or three raters says "don't know", and * the second one (if there are only two raters) is * assigned a score of 1-5; if there are three raters, * the other two do not meet the reliability conditions * of reliability score 4 1689. Sex Ratio (males/females *1000)--First two digits R: Values from 65.6 to 185.6 1690.GONE Sex Ratio (males/females *1000)--Second two digits R: empty * Can use variable v714 N=90 instead (tricotomized) N=59: can impose these cutpoints * Reliability high: Pearson R=-.595 as compared with N=59 v1689 cutpoints v1649: 1 < 95, 2 intermediate, 3 > 102.5 v714 crosstab Male excess normal Female excess 10 1 = Female excess 0 3 5 60 2 = Roughly equal 3 2 4 20 3 = Male excess 7 2 0 Pvalue = 0.000000000083 N=121 for a combination of both variables r= -.716 1691. Sex Ratio Unit (codes not ordered) R: empty 126 0 = No sex ratio calculated 30 1 = The whole society 3 2 = The "breeding population" 7 3 = The district, but not known whether or not the * breeding unit 9 4 = The local group or community 11 8 = Not sure what unit THIS SHOULD BE RECODED NA FOR R notes on these codes (none as yet)
SCARIFICATION, PATHOGEN LOAD AND BIOME CODES Lisa R. Ludvico. "Scarification, Pathogen Load and Biome: Cross-Cultural Codes" Unpublished codes discussed in "Symbolic or Not-So-Symbolic Wounds: The Behavioral Ecology of Human Scarification." by L. R. Ludvico and J. A. Kurland in Ethology and Sociobiology 16:155-172, 1995. STDS79.DAT Vars. 1692-1709 Scarification, Pathogen Load and Biome 1692. Scarification 1: Males 41 . = no data 50 1 = no scarification 83 2 = tattooing and cicatrization 5 3 = scarification includes removal of skin 1693. Scarification 1: Females 56 . = no data 57 1 = no scarification 72 2 = tattooing and cicatrization 1 3 = scarification includes removal of skin 1694. General Scarification: Males 13 . = no data 82 1 = no scarification 11 2 = ear, nose piercing 77 3 = tattooing and cicatrization 3 4 = scarification includes removal of skin 1695. General Scarification: Females 15 . = no data 73 1 = no scarification 13 2 = ear, nose piercing 81 3 = tattooing and cicatrization 4 4 = scarification includes removal of skin 1696. Biome 20 1 = tundra, taiga, boreal forest 19 2 = temperate deciduous, scrub, or temperate rain forest 55 3 = tropical or temperate grassland 69 4 = tropical rain forest 23 5 = desert 1697. Wound opportunistic typhus 33 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 98 1 = absent or not recorded 7 2 = present, no indication of severity 48 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1698. Wound opportunistic bejel 30 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 156 1 = absent or not recorded 0 2 = present, no indication of severity 0 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1699. Wound opportunistic pinta 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 147 1 = absent or not recorded 3 2 = present, no indication of severity 7 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 8 1700. Wound opportunistic yaws 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 99 1 = absent or not recorded 24 2 = present, no indication of severity 34 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1701. Wound opportunistic leprosy 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 71 1 = absent or not recorded 54 2 = present, no indication of severity 32 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1702. Wound opportunistic leishmania 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 121 1 = absent or not recorded 2 2 = present, no indication of severity 34 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1703. Wound opportunistic spirochetes 30 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 109 1 = absent or not recorded 21 2 = present, no indication of severity 26 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1704. Tick vector typus 32 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 103 1 = absent or not recorded 4 2 = present, no indication of severity 47 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1705. Tick vector spirochetes 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 117 1 = absent or not recorded 2 2 = present, no indication of severity 38 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1706. Trypanosomas 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 130 1 = absent or not recorded 3 2 = present, no indication of severity 24 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1707. Malaria 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 44 1 = absent or not recorded 2 2 = present, no indication of severity 111 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1708. Schistosomes 29 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 108 1 = absent or not recorded 9 2 = present, no indication of severity 40 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic 1709. Filariae 30 . = missing data or unreliable disease dates 78 1 = absent or not recorded 1 2 = present, no indication of severity 77 3 = present and serious, widespread or endemic notes on these codes (none as yet)
SLEEPING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS William Divale, Noelle Abrams, Jennifer Barzola, Estelle Harris, and Fred- Michael Henry. 1998. Sleeping Arrangements of Children and Adolescents: SCCS Sample Codes. World Cultures 9(2):3-12. STDS80.DAT Vars. 1710-1713 Sleeping Arrangements of Children 1710. Person(s) Infants and Children Sleep with 81 . = no data 28 1 = mother alone 0 2 = father alone 29 3 = mother and father 6 4 = grandparents 4 5 = other siblings 0 6 = other relatives 26 7 = entire family 12 8 = alone 1711. Where Adolescents Sleep 90 . = no data 56 1 = entire family together 11 2 = separate room in parent's house 5 3 = outside of parent's house, but near, e.g., porch 22 4 = separate dwelling 2 5 = other relatives 1712. Sex Segregation in Sleeping Areas of Children 98 . = no data 63 1 = boys & girls in same room or bed 23 2 = boys & girls in separate rooms or separate beds 2 3 = boys & girls in separate houses 1713. Sex Segregation in Sleeping Areas of Adolescents and Teens 95 . = no data 33 1 = boys & girls in same room or bed 31 2 = boys & girls in separate rooms or separate beds 27 3 = boys & girls in separate houses notes on these codes
CONAN Data-Base Lang, Hartmut. 1998. CONAN: An Electronic Code-Text Data-Base for Cross- Cultural Studies. World Cultures 9(2):13-56. STDS81.DAT Vars. 1714-1747 CONAN data base Part I 1714. First two digits of focus date R Spss 87 NA . = missing data (original code = 0) 1 1 12 = 12 1 2 15 = 15 1 3 16 = 16 2 4 17 = 17 46 5 18 = 18 48 6 19 = 19 1715. Second two digits of focus date 0 - 99 1716. Primary source of subsistence 85 . = missing data 26 1 = intensive agriculture 37 2 = extensive agriculture 9 3 = animal husbandry 11 4 = fishing 9 5 = hunting 8 6 = gathering 0 7 = trade 1 8 = wage labor 1717. Secondary source of subsistence 86 . = missing data 0 1 = intensive agriculture 9 2 = extensive agriculture 22 3 = animal husbandry 19 4 = fishing 25 5 = hunting 10 6 = gathering 13 7 = trade 2 8 = wage labor 1718. Sharing of food 97 . = missing data 7 1 = sharing of food among nuclear family 14 2 = sharing of food among kin residing in local community 9 3 = sharing of food among kin, not restricted to local community 4 4 = sharing of food among non-kin within local community 21 5 = sharing of food among all members of local community 24 6 = sharing of food among groups within unit of maximal political authority or ethnic group 10 7 = sharing of food among other than mentioned groups 1719. Periodical variation of food scarcity 95 . = missing data 26 1 = food supply constant, no scarcity (original code 10) 20 2 = periodical food scarcity (original code 20) 10 3 = aperiodical food scarcity (e.g. as caused by natural disasters), no further information on frequency of occurrence (original code 30) 7 4 = seldom (occurrence uncommon) (original code 31) 6 5 = often (occurrence common) (original code 32) 2 6 = periodical as well as aperiodical food scarcity (original code 40) 1 7 = chronic food scarcity (original code 50) 19 8 = food scarcity occurs, no further information on frequency (original code 60) 1720. Causes of land shortage 104 . = missing data 54 1 = no land shortage 19 2 = population pressure (caused by humans or animals) 8 3 = territorial invasions 1 4 = more than one of the above 1721. Number of rich people (wealthy) 88 . = missing data 27 1 = absence of rich (original code 10) 41 2 = presence of rich, no information on numbers (original code 20) 27 3 = few rich (original code 21) 3 4 = many rich (original code 22) 1722. Sources of wealth 91 . = missing data 27 0 = absence of rich, variable 1717 coded 1 (original code 88) 5 1 = presence of rich, no information on sources of wealth (original code 10) 4 2 = acquired wealth of land (through buying or skill) (original code 11) 8 3 = inheritance of land (original code 12) 6 4 = acquired wealth of cattle (through buying or skill) (original code 13) 1 5 = inheritance of cattle (original code 14) 7 6 = acquired wealth (means of production other than cattle or land) (original code 15) 1 7 = inherited wealth (means of production other than cattle or land) (original code 16) 36 8 = more than one of the above (original code 177) 1723. Number of poor 98 . = missing data 32 1 = absence of poor (original code 10) 41 2 = presence of poor, no information on percentage (original code 20) 8 3 = few poor (original code 21) 7 4 = many poor (original code 22) 1724. Number of dispossessed 98 . = missing data 57 1 = no dispossessed (original code 10) 15 2 = presence of dispossessed, no information on percentage (original code 20) 12 3 = few dispossessed (original code 21) 4 4 = many dispossessed (original code 22) 1725. Possibility for peaceful territorial expansion 101 . = missing data 42 0 = no need for expansion: variable 1716 coded as 1 (original code 88) 18 1 = peaceful territorial expansion impossible (original code 10) 17 2 = peaceful territorial expansion possible, no information on quality of land (original code 20) 7 3 = access to land of good quality (original code 21) 1 4 = access to land of restricted quality (original code 22) 1726. Communality of land 88 . = missing data 22 1 = land predominantly private property 24 2 = land partially communally used 52 3 = communal land use rights only 1727. Resource acquisition as motive for violent conflict management 96 . = missing data 7 0 = absence of violent conflict management (original code 88) 31 1 = resource acquisition no motive 52 2 = resource acquisition motive for violent conflict management 1728. Rich, poor, or dispossessed as one party in violent conflicts 128 . = missing data 26 0 = equal distribution of resources (original code 88) 27 1 = rare or never 3 2 = occasional 1 3 = often 1 4 = permanent 1729. Presence of an overarching political unit (codes not ordered) 85 . = missing data 13 1 = local community autonomous (original code 10) 2 2 = local community is part of a precolonial state (original code 20) 6 3 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs is politically dominant in the precolonial state (original code 21) 4 4 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs occupies a politically subordinate position in the precolonial state (original code 22) 33 5 = local community is part of a colonial state (original code 30) 3 6 = local community is part of a postcolonial state (original code 40) 7 7 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs is politically dominant in the postcolonial state (original code 41) 33 8 = ethnic group to which the local community belongs occupies a politically subordinate position in the postcolonial state (original code 42) 1730. Administrative integration of local community within overarching political unit (codes not ordered) 90 . = missing data 14 0 = local community not part of an overarching political unit (variable 1725 coded as 1) (original code 88) 28 1 = overarching political unit claims administrative hierarchy without actual execution (original code 10) 18 2 = administration representative absent or only sporadically present, administrative functions are executed from outside (original code 20) 3 3 = administration representative present (e.g. military, civilian administrators, school personnel) (original code 30) 24 4 = same as above 4, administration representative member of the same ethnic group as local community (original code 31) 9 5 = same as above 4, administration representative of different ethnic affiliation than local community (original code 32) 1731. Power participation of local elite within overarching political unit (codes not ordered) R Spss 95 NA . = missing data 46 1 0 = local community not part of an overarching political unit (variable 1725 coded as 1); ethnic group occupies a dominant position within overarching political unit (variable 1725 coded as 3 or 7); overarching political unit does not execute administrative functions (variable 1726 coded as 2) (original code 88) 8 2 1 = no elite present in ethnic group of which the local community is a part 17 3 2 = local elite does not participate in decisions of overarching political unit 20 4 3 = local elite occupies leading positions within overarching political unit, at the local or regional level 1732. Presence of wage labor 97 . = missing data 36 1 = no wage labor 22 2 = wage labor present, migratory labor unimportant 31 3 = wage labor, mainly in the form of migratory labor 1733. Market exchange within local community 90 . = missing data 23 1 = no market exchange (original code 10) 10 2 = market exchange within local community present, no further information (original code 20) 27 3 = market exchange within local community present, involving local and regional products (original code 21) 36 4 = market exchange within local community present, involving local, regional, and supra-regional products (original code 22) 1734. Market exchange outside of local community 87 . = missing data 10 1 = no market exchange outside of local community (original code 10) 5 2 = market exchange outside of local community (at trading posts, market places), no further information (original code 20) 26 3 = market exchange outside of local community, involving local and regional products (original code 21) 58 4 = market exchange outside of local community, involving local, regional, and supra-regional products (original code 22) 1735. Relationship between production for subsistence and production for market exchange 93 . = missing data 68 1 = production for consumption more important 25 2 = production for consumption and production for market exchange of equal importance 1736. Tribute, taxation, expropriation 108 . = missing data 27 1 = no tribute, taxation, or expropriation (original code 10) 3 2 = payment of tribute, taxation, or expropriation occur (original code 20) 3 3 = corvee labor (original code 21) 15 4 = money (original code 22) 6 5 = mobile goods (original code 23) 24 6 = more than one of the above (original code 24) 1737. Extent of burden caused by tribute payments or taxation R Spss 111 NA . = missing data 27 1 0 = no tribute or taxation (original code 88) 4 2 1 = sporadic taxation or request for tribute (original code 10) 3 3 2 = the exactions are reported not to be burdensome (original code 20) 2 4 3 = the exactions are reported to be burdensome (original code 21) 19 5 4 = regular taxation or request for tribute (original code 30) 7 6 5 = the exactions are reported not to be burdensome (original code 31) 13 7 6 = the exactions are reported to be burdensome (original code 32) 1738. Presence of formal education within local community 96 . = missing data 50 1 = no formal education (original code 10) 6 2 = formal education present (original code 20) 21 3 = small fraction of local community is formally educated (original code 21) 5 4 = large part of local community is formally educated (original code 22) 8 5 = members of local community have a higher education (original code 23) 1739. Types of violence against overarching political institution (codes not ordered) R Spss 105 NA . = missing data 24 1 0 = no overarching political unit (variable 1729 coded as 1) (original code 88) 27 2 1 = violent acts absent 12 3 2 = acts of violence, in reaction against attacks by overarching political unit 18 4 3 = active resistance, aiming at revolution 1740. Levels of political hierarchy 85 . = missing data 17 1 = no political office (original code 10) 1 2 = no political office at the head of local community, but segments of different local communities belong to supralocal non-territorially organized political unit (original code 20) 1 3 = highest political office one level above smallest supralocal non-territorially organized political unit (original code 21) 3 4 = highest political office two levels above smallest supralocal non-territorially organized political unit (original code 22) 0 5 = highest political office three levels above smallest supralocal non-territorially organized political unit (original code 23) 0 6 = highest political office four levels above smallest supralocal non-territorially organized political unit (original code 24) 33 7 = highest political office at the head of local community (=politically autonomous local community) (original code 30) 15 8 = highest political office one level above local community (original code 31) 13 9 = highest political office two levels above local community (original code 32) 10 10 = highest political office three levels above local community (original code 33) 8 11 = highest political office four or more levels above local community (original code 34) 1741. Overarching formal jurisdiction within unit of maximal political authority 91 . = missing data 31 1 = no formal jurisdiction present 6 2 = highest level of formal jurisdiction below the unit of maximal political authority 58 3 = highest level of formal jurisdiction at the level of maximal political authority 1742. Selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy (codes not ordered) R Spss 90 NA . = missing data 51 1 0 = no political office above the level of the local community (variable 1730 coded as 1,2, or 3 (original code 88) 25 2 1 = selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy independent of higher-ranking officials 11 3 2 = selection of officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy within local community, but it has to be reconfirmed by higher-ranking officials 9 4 3 = officials at the lowest level of political hierarchy are determined by higher-ranking officials 1743. Sanctions R Spss 88 NA . = missing data 17 1 0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1) (original code 88) 26 2 1 = no or few means of coercion 17 3 2 = restricted means of coercion, e.g. only for certain types of decisions 38 4 3 = coercive means to enforce all decisions 1744. Lower level participation in decision making of the unit of maximal political authority R Spss 91 NA . = missing data 17 1 0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1) (original code 88) 24 2 1 = decision making at the highest level of political authority independent of lower-ranking levels, groups, or individuals 21 3 2 = decisions at the highest level of political authority are made after consultation with representatives of lower-ranking levels, groups, or individuals 33 4 3 = lower-ranking individuals or group representatives fully participate in decision making at the highest level of political authority, they are members of the decision making body 1745. Religio-political overlap (codes not ordered) R Spss 96 NA . = missing data 17 1 0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1) (original code 88) 18 2 1 = religious specialists have no influence on decision making at the level of maximal political authority 19 3 2 = religious specialists participate in decision making at the level of maximal political authority 36 4 3 = officials at the level of maximal political authority are at the same time religious specialists 1746. Sources of legitimation of power (codes not ordered) R Spss 86 NA . = missing data 17 1 0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1) (original code 88) 0 2 1 = supernatural powers 0 3 2 = office holder has been installed by gods 8 4 3 = office holder belongs to privileged descent group 7 5 4 = office holder elected by the represented group 3 6 5 = office holder elected by subordinate authorities 0 7 6 = office holder is formal owner of the group's land 0 8 7 = wealth based on possession of mobile property 6 9 8 = office inherited 3 10 9 = seniority 1 11 10 = office holder installed by overarching administration, e.g. colonial power 1 12 11 = other sources of legitimation 54 13 12 = multiple sources of legitimation; more than one of the above (original code 77) 1747. Frequency of external warfare: unit of maximal political authority R Spss 95 NA . = missing data 17 1 0 = no formal political office present (variable 1740 coded as 1) (original code 88) 13 2 1 = rare or never 15 3 2 = occasional 27 4 3 = often 19 5 4 = permanent CONAN data base Part II STDS82.DAT Vars. 1748-1780 1748. Frequency of internal warfare; i.e. between local communities within unit of maximal political authority R Spss 96 NA . = missing data 51 1 0 = no political office above the level of the local community (variable 1740 coded as 1, 2, or 7) (original code 88) 15 2 1 = rare or never 11 3 2 = occasional 11 4 3 = often 2 5 4 = permanent 1749. Frequency of internal warfare involving non-territorially organized groups within unit of maximal political authority R Spss 96 . = missing data 51 0 = no political office above the level of the local community (variable 1740 coded as 1, 2, or 7) (original code 88) 20 1 = rare or never 9 2 = occasional 7 3 = often 3 4 = permanent 1750. Frequency of violent conflict between groups within local communities 114 . = missing data 51 1 = rare or never 12 2 = occasional 7 3 = often 2 4 = permanent 1751. Social stratification 90 . = missing data 17 1 = no differences in access to economic resources, political power, and/or status 45 2 = differences in access to economic resources, political power, and/or status, not resulting in class formation 17 3 = two classes 17 4 = complex stratification into more than two classes 1752. Groom's dependency on relatives for marriage transactions 90 . = missing data 10 1 = no marriage transactions 5 2 = marriage transactions, but not by the groom or his kin 26 3 = groom is able to procure the necessary goods for marriage transactions or else can provide alternatives as e.g., bride service 27 4 = groom depends on the help of father or another single relative of the father for marriage transaction 15 5 = groom depends on the help of father or a relative of the father and additional paternal relatives 13 6 = groom depends on help of non-paternal or not exclusively paternal relatives to provide for marriage transaction 1753. Depth of Unilineal descent (codes not ordered) 90 . = missing data 22 1 = patrilineal descent, no information on genealogical depth (original code 1000) 2 2 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 1002) 4 3 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 1003) 6 4 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 1004) 4 5 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 005 (original code 1005) 1 6 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 006 (original code 1006) 1 7 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 008 (original code 1008) 2 8 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 009 (original code 1009) 1 9 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 011 (original code 1011) 1 10 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 015 (original code 1015) 1 11 = patrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 030 (original code 1030) 14 12 = matrilineal descent, no information on genealogical depth (original code 2000) 1 13 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 2002) 1 14 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 2003) 1 15 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 2004) 2 16 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 006 (original code 2006) 1 17 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 007 (original code 2007) 1 18 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 009 (original code 2009) 1 19 = matrilineal descent, genealogical depth = 011 (original code 2011) 1 20 = double descent, genealogical depth = 002 (original code 3002) 2 21 = double descent, genealogical depth = 003 (original code 3003) 1 22 = double descent, genealogical depth = 004 (original code 3004) 1 23 = double descent, genealogical depth = 005 (original code 3005) 24 24 = no unilineal descent (original code 4000) 1754. Size of maximal effective kin group 93 . = missing data 34 1 = absent 59 2 = present 1755. Local distribution of maximal effective kin group (codes not ordered) R Spss 93 . = missing data 34 0 = does not apply, variable 1754 coded as 1 (original code 88) 18 1 = maximal effective kin group forms part of local community 12 2 = maximal effective kin group congruent with local community, no subgroups discernible 3 3 = maximal effective kin group congruent with local community, with spatially segregated subgroups (e.g. wards) 7 4 = maximal effective kin group covers a bounded territory including a number of local communities, which form segments of the maximal effective kin group 2 5 = maximal effective kin group is dispersed among several local communities, located in the same territory as local communities inhabited by other effective kin groups 17 6 = segments of maximal effective kin groups coreside with segments of other maximal effective kin groups in several local communities 1756. Size of local community 108 . = missing data 17 1 = between 10 and 50 18 2 = between 51 and 100 6 3 = between 101 and 150 12 4 = between 151 and 200 5 5 = between 201 and 250 3 6 = between 251 and 300 6 7 = between 301 and 500 4 8 = between 501 and 1000 7 9 = greater than 1001 1757. Frequency of violent conflict involving at least one maximal effective kin group (codes not ordered) R Spss 101 NA . = missing data 34 1 0 = does not apply, variable 1754 coded as 1 (original code 88) 12 2 1 = rare or never 16 3 2 = occasional 18 4 3 = often 5 5 4 = permanent 1758. Frequency of violent conflict involving at least one local community 97 . = missing data 25 1 = rare or never 21 2 = occasional 30 3 = often 13 4 = permanent 1759. Affection during early childhood 115 . = missing data 1 1 = children often experience emotional rejection; no further information about loving affection (original code 10) 6 2 = children receive noticeably more emotional rejection than loving affection (original code 11) 8 3 = children receive emotional rejection and loving affection to the same degree (original code 20) 45 4 = children often experience loving affection; no further information about emotional rejection (original code 30) 11 5 = children receive noticeably more loving affection than emotional rejection (original code 31) 1760. Frequency of interactions between boys (early childhood) and male adults 107 . = missing data 12 1 = boys have almost no contact with adult males 24 2 = even though boys have contact with adult males, they have more contact with adult females 26 3 = contact with male and female adults is about the same 17 4 = boys have noticeably more contact with male than female adults 1761. Inculcation of children's trust in other persons 161 . = missing data 8 1 = inculcation of mistrust and fear in children; the socializing agents scare the children by pretending to harm them, or by instilling of fear by reference to potentially harmful persons, groups, or supernatural beings. 10 2 = Children's mistrust is restricted to a certain group of persons. Instilling of fear by certain persons or warning of potential threat occurs rarely. 7 3 = inculcation of trust in children; the socializing agents never scare children or warn them of distant persons or groups. 1762. Positive reinforcement of children's willingness to share, give, and help (generosity) 155 . = missing data 3 1 = generosity is rarely fostered; the children rarely exhibit willingness to share, give, or help. This behavior rarely causes punishment. 10 2 = generosity is moderately fostered; the children show willingness to share, give, or help. A lack of this behavior causes punishment or admonishment. 18 3 = generosity is strongly fostered; other adults and children frequently request the children to share, give, and help. 1763. Emphasis on honesty 139 . = missing data 2 1 = honesty is not furthered. (Dishonesty is generally accepted.) 2 2 = honesty is rarely furthered. (Dishonest behavior is only accepted towards a specific group of persons.) 9 3 = honesty is furthered 34 4 = honesty is explicitly furthered. (Dishonest behavior of children is the cause for punishment and reprimands.) 1764. Reaction of socializing agents towards violent behavior of boys in late childhood 133 . = missing data 14 1 = violence of children is generally objected (original code 10) 4 2 = violence of children is tolerated (socializing agents only interfere when there is danger of serious injuries); no data on restriction of violence to specific group of persons(original code 20) 13 3 = violence of children is tolerated only towards specific group of persons (original code 21) 3 4 = violence of children is tolerated regardless of group of persons (original code 22) 16 5 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged; no data on restriction to specific group of persons (original code 30) 2 6 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged only towards specific group of persons (original code 31) 1 7 = violence of children is explicitly encouraged regardless of group of persons (original code 32) 1765. Emphasis on courage of boys in late childhood 147 . = missing data 5 1 = courage is not emphasized; children are protected from harm which may be caused by scary situations, cold, and physical injuries 11 2 = courage is mildly emphasized; children are not protected from potentially dangerous situations; the expression of fear and pain is tolerated 23 3 = courage is strongly emphasized; children are expected to tolerate pain and overcome fear in dangerous situations; the expression of fear and pain is not tolerated 1766. Corporal punishment of boys in late childhood 107 . = missing data 32 1 = children are not punished physically, corporal punishment as a means of education is rejected (original code 10) 10 2 = children are punished physically; no information on frequency of occurrence (original code 20) 27 3 = children are rarely punished physically for only certain types of misbehavior (original code 21) 10 4 = children are often punished physically for almost any type of misbehavior (original code 22) 1767. Ideology of male superiority 104 . = missing data 47 1 = no ideology of male superiority 8 2 = weakly articulated ideology of male superiority 27 3 = strongly articulated ideology of male superiority (it is the basic determinant of gender relations) 1768. Attitude towards physical violence against members of local community 118 . = missing data 51 1 = physical violence within local community is rejected 13 2 = physical violence within local community is tolerated or accepted 4 3 = physical violence within local community is appreciated 1769. Attitude towards physical violence against members of same ethnic group, not restricted to local community 124 . = missing data 31 1 = physical violence within ethnic group is rejected 21 2 = physical violence within ethnic group is tolerated or accepted 10 3 = physical violence within ethnic group is appreciated 1770. Attitude towards physical violence against members of other ethnic groups R Spss 145 NA . = missing data 1 1 0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88) 5 2 1 = physical violence outside of ethnic group is rejected (original code 10) 3 3 2 = physical violence outside of ethnic group is rejected because of military inferiority or cowardice (original code 11) 5 4 3 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted - specification of the enemies is absent (original code 20) 1 5 4 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted - but not against the majority of other ethnic groups (original code 21) 5 6 5 = physical violence is tolerated or accepted against the majority of other ethnic groups (original code 22) 14 7 6 = physical violence is appreciated - no further specification against whom (original code 30) 3 8 7 = physical violence is appreciated - but not against the majority of other ethnic groups (original code 31) 4 9 8 = physical violence is appreciated against the majority of other ethnic groups (original code 32) 1771. Loyalty within ethnic group 100 . = missing data 41 1 = low 18 2 = middle 27 3 = high 1772. Hostility towards other ethnic groups R Spss 113 NA . = missing data 1 1 0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88) 8 2 1 = no or negligible hostility (original code 10) 6 3 2 = weak degree of hostility (original code 20) 14 4 3 = moderate degree of hostility (original code 30) 9 5 4 = moderate degree of hostility, only directed against some other ethnic groups (original code 31) 8 6 5 = moderate degree of hostility; directed against almost all other ethnic groups (original code 32) 2 7 6 = high degree of hostility (original code 40) 9 8 7 = high degree of hostility; only directed against some other ethnic groups (original code 41) 16 9 8 = high degree of hostility; directed against almost all other ethnic groups (original code 42) 1773. Prestige of warriors R Spss 111 NA . = missing data 12 1 0 = no warriors (original code 88) 9 2 1 = low prestige, warriors receive no special recognition (original code 10) 13 3 2 = middle to high prestige; warriors have a good reputation, no data on other sources of reputation (original code 20) 12 4 3 = medium prestige of warriors, other sources of reputation are valued higher (original code 21) 15 5 4 = high prestige of warriors, other equally valued sources of reputation exist (original code 22) 14 6 5 = very high prestige, to gain prestige as a warrior is of special importance for every man (original code 24) 1774. Revenge related norms 106 . = missing data 15 1 = revenge taking is forbidden (original code 10) 17 2 = taking of revenge is neither forbidden nor prescribed (original code 20) 18 3 = taking of revenge is prescribed but compensation by payment equally valued (original code 21) 16 4 = taking of revenge is prescribed (original code 30) 14 5 = taking of revenge is prescribed, retaliation is allowed only against the culprit (original code 31) 1775. Reglementation of intraethnic violence R Spss 120 NA . = missing data 23 1 0 = no intraethnic violence (variable 1776 coded as 1) (original code 88) 10 2 1 = no reglementation 25 3 2 = moderate reglementation 8 4 3 = highly reglemented or ritualized 1776. Frequency of intraethnic violence 93 . = missing data 23 1 = rare or never 28 2 = occasional 29 3 = often 13 4 = permanent 1777. Intensity of intraethnic violence R Spss 116 NA . = missing data 22 1 0 = no intraethnic violence (variable 1776 coded as 1) (original code 88) 30 2 1 = low; when violence occurs, only occasional victims 12 3 2 = moderate; when violence occurs many victims, ca. one half of one of the parties in conflict is killed 6 4 3 = high; one of the parties in conflict is nearly extinguished 1778. Frequency of interethnic violence/attacking R Spss 97 NA . = missing data 4 1 0 = no contact with other ethnic groups (original code 88) 26 2 1 = rare or never 20 3 2 = occasional 24 4 3 = often 15 5 4 = permanent 1779. Weapons used in warfare 106 . = missing data 18 1 = projectiles 4 2 = shock weapons 58 3 = both 1780. Defensive (protective) weapons used in warfare 126 . = missing data 21 1 = no protective weapons 6 2 = body armor 26 3 = shields 7 4 = both notes on these codes (none as yet)
GOSSIP William Divale and Albert Seda. 1999. Codes on Gossip for Societies in the Standard Sample. World Cultures 10(1):7-22. STDS83.DAT Vars. 1781-1805 Codes on Gossip 1781. Gossip on adultery 51 . = no data 96 0 = absent 13 1 = present for males only 24 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1782. Gossip on boasting 51 . = no data 102 0 = absent 25 1 = present for males only 7 2 = present for both sexes 1 3 = present for females only 1783. Gossip on bride price 51 . = no data 115 0 = absent 9 1 = present for males only 11 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1784. Gossip on cattle/livestock 51 . = no data 116 0 = absent 11 1 = present for males only 8 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1785. Gossip on dowry payments 51 . = no data 131 0 = absent 2 1 = present for males only 0 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1786. Gossip on drinking 51 . = no data 107 0 = absent 17 1 = present for males only 8 2 = present for both sexes 3 3 = present for females only 1787. Gossip on family 51 . = no data 49 0 = absent 25 1 = present for males only 53 2 = present for both sexes 8 3 = present for females only 1788. Gossip on farming 51 . = no data 113 0 = absent 11 1 = present for males only 11 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1789. Gossip on government/colonial affairs 51 . = no data 85 0 = absent 27 1 = present for males only 21 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1790. Gossip on hunting 51 . = no data 100 0 = absent 29 1 = present for males only 5 2 = present for both sexes 1 3 = present for females only 1791. Gossip on inheritance 51 . = no data 122 0 = absent 7 1 = present for males only 6 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1792. Gossip on laziness 51 . = no data 106 0 = absent 12 1 = present for males only 13 2 = present for both sexes 4 3 = present for females only 1793. Gossip on men 51 . = no data 50 0 = absent 48 1 = present for males only 27 2 = present for both sexes 10 3 = present for females only 1794. Gossip on murder/assault 51 . = no data 87 0 = absent 27 1 = present for males only 20 2 = present for both sexes 1 3 = present for females only 1795. Gossip on neighbors 51 . = no data 86 0 = absent 12 1 = present for males only 35 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1796. Gossip on politics 51 . = no data 84 0 = absent 26 1 = present for males only 25 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1797. Gossip on scandal 51 . = no data 73 0 = absent 18 1 = present for males only 41 2 = present for both sexes 3 3 = present for females only 1798. Gossip on sex/sexual joking 51 . = no data 83 0 = absent 17 1 = present for males only 28 2 = present for both sexes 7 3 = present for females only 1799. Gossip on social control 51 . = no data 23 0 = absent 45 1 = present for males only 59 2 = present for both sexes 8 3 = present for females only 1800. Gossip on socializing/news 51 . = no data 40 0 = absent 26 1 = present for males only 59 2 = present for both sexes 10 3 = present for females only 1801. Gossip on wife beating 51 . = no data 117 0 = absent 6 1 = present for males only 10 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1802. Gossip on women 51 . = no data 61 0 = absent 18 1 = present for males only 31 2 = present for both sexes 25 3 = present for females only 1803. Gossip on marriage 51 . = no data 126 0 = absent 2 1 = present for males only 5 2 = present for both sexes 2 3 = present for females only 1804. Gossip on religion 51 . = no data 131 0 = absent 2 1 = present for males only 2 2 = present for both sexes 0 3 = present for females only 1805. Importance of Gossip 51 . = no data 6 0 = absent 9 1 = scale step 1: not important 17 2 = scale step 2 40 3 = scale step 3 46 4 = scale step 4 17 5 = scale step 5: very important notes on these codes (none as yet)
STDS98.DAT Vars. 1805.1-1805.6. (out of sequence in SPSS) GOSSIP FACTOR SCALES Gossip Factor Scales (See Divale and Seda paper with Gossip Codes for rational). Factor analysis of Gossip variables produced eight factors with gossip variables that had loadings of .50 or higher. Scales were then produced by summing those variables with loadings of .5 or higher on the factor. Thus FACT_1 is a News & General Gossip Scale, which is the sum of the following gossip topics: Gossip about Men, Neighbors, Socializing and News, and Women). 1805.1. FACT_1 News & General Gossip Scale (Sum of Men, Neighbors, Socializing & News, and Women Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 20 1 Item Present 1 21 2 Items Present 2 31 3 Items Present 3 32 4 Items Present 4 31 Missing . 51 1805.2. FACT_2 Political Gossip Scale (Sum of Family, Govt., Political Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 37 1 Item Present 1 39 2 Items Present 2 29 3 Items Present 3 30 Missing . 51 1805.3. FACT_3 Machismo Gossip Scale (Sum of Boasting, Hunting, Laziness, Wife Beating Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 67 1 Item Present 1 38 2 Items Present 2 17 3 Items Present 3 9 4 Items Present 4 4 Missing . 51 1805.4. FACT_4 Sex & Scandals Scale (Sum of Adultery and Scandal Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 64 1 Item Present 1 41 2 Items Present 2 30 Missing . 51 1805.5. FACT_5 Drinking & Murder Scale (Sum of Drinking, Murder and Assault Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 77 1 Item Present 1 40 2 Items Present 2 18 Missing . 51 1805.6. FACT_6 Marriage Payments Gossip Scale (Sum of Bride Price and Dowry Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 114 1 Item Present 1 18 2 Items Present 2 3 Missing . 51 1805.7. FACT_7 Farming & Religion Gossip Scale (Sum of Farming and Religious Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 111 1 Item Present 1 22 2 Items Present 2 2 Missing . 51 1805.8. FACT_8 Cattle & Marriage Gossip Scale (Sum of Cattle and Marriage Gossip) Value Label Value Frequency Absent 0 110 1 Item Present 1 22 2 Items Present 2 3 Missing . 51 notes on these codes (none as yet)
MODERNIZATION William Divale and Albert Seda. 2000. Cross-Cultural Codes of Modernization World Cultures 11(2):153-170. STDS84.DAT Vars. 1806-1849 Codes on Modernization 1806. Trade: 1.1. Changes in Trade and Trade Goods 51 . = no data 27 0 = no changes 87 1 = changes present 21 2 = 2 additional items present 1807. Trade: 1.2. Introduction of Wage Labor and Immigrant Workers 51 . = no data 67 0 = no changes 67 1 = changes present 1 2 = 2 additional items present 1808. Trade: 1.3. Introduction of Monetary System such as Money 51 . = no data 59 0 = no changes 76 1 = changes present 1809. Technology: 2.1. Introduction of Foreign Goods such as Weapons 51 . = no data 66 0 = no changes 69 1 = changes present 1810. Technology: 2.2. Minor Technological Developments 51 . = no data 47 0 = no changes 72 1 = changes present 11 2 = 2 additional items present 5 3 = 3 additional items present 1811. Technology: 2.3. Major Technological Changes 51 . = no data 96 0 = no changes 35 1 = changes present 4 2 = 2 additional items present 1812. Agriculture: 3.1. Agricultural Improvements, Improvement in Farming Mehods, Fertilization, Irrigation, Food Preservation 51 . = no data 59 0 = no changes 76 1 = changes present 1813. Agriculture: 3.2 Changes in Agriculture and Crops 51 . = no data 74 0 = no changes 56 1 = changes present 5 2 = 2 additional items present 1814. Agriculture: 3.3. Introduction of New Livestock 51 . = no data 85 0 = no changes 50 1 = changes present 1815. Transportation: 4.1. Mechanical Transport (Automobiles, Railroads, Buses) 51 . = no data 99 0 = no changes 36 1 = changes present 1816. Transportation: 4.2. Changes and Introduction of Water Transport 51 . = no data 109 0 = no changes 26 1 = changes present 1817. Transportation: 4.3. Introduction of Roads and Highways 51 . = no data 112 0 = no changes 22 1 = changes present 1818. Government, Political and Legal system: 5.1 New Positions such as Government Officials 51 . = no data 22 0 = no changes 113 1 = changes present 1819. Government, Political and Legal system: 5.2 Changes or Implementation of Foreign Judicial System 51 . = no data 43 0 = no changes 92 1 = changes present 1820. Government, Political and Legal system: 5.3 Political Changes, Uprising, Cargo Cults 51 . = no data 94 0 = no changes 35 1 = changes present 6 2 = 2 additional items present 1821. Government, Political and Legal system: 5.4 Large scale projects Introduced by outside agencies 52 . = no data 86 0 = no changes 48 1 = changes present 1822. Family/social Organization: 6.1 Changes in Family Structure 51 . = no data 58 0 = no changes 67 1 = changes present 0 2 = 2 additional items present 10 3 = 3 additional items present 1823. Family/social Organization: 6.2 Changes in marriage rituals, weddings 51 . = no data 60 0 = no changes 69 1 = changes present 6 2 = 2 additional items present 1824. Family/social Organization: 6.3 Changes in choice of spouse, mixed-marriages, etc. 51 . = no data 78 0 = no changes 57 1 = changes present 1825. Family/social Organization: 6.4 Changes in female role or status 51 . = no data 73 0 = no changes 62 1 = changes present 1826. Body toilet, Adornment and Dress: 7.1 Changes in Body Toilets such as Piercing, Jewelry 51 . = no data 71 0 = no changes 63 1 = changes present 1 2 = 2 additional items present 1827. Body toilet, Adornment and Dress: 7.2 Changes in Dress Customs 51 . = no data 25 0 = no changes 110 1 = changes present 1828. Behavior: 8.1 Introduction of Drugs such as Tobacco, Alcohol 51 . = no data 72 0 = no changes 55 1 = changes present 8 2 = 2 additional items present 1829. Behavior: 8.2 Changes in Food Processing such as Cooking Methods 51 . = no data 51 0 = no changes 84 1 = changes present 1830. Information and Education: 9.1. Changes in Communication and the Arts 51 . = no data 57 0 = no changes 70 1 = changes present 8 2 = 2 additional items present 1831. Information and Education: 9.2 Changes in Education 51 . = no data 48 0 = no changes 82 1 = changes present 5 2 = 2 additional items present 1832. Information and Education: 9.3 Introduction of Contact Languages, Foreign Words, Vocabulary Distortion, Pidgin Languages 51 . = no data 50 0 = no changes 75 1 = changes present 10 2 = 2 additional items present 1833. Health: 10.1 Introduction of Foreign Medical Practices, Hospitals 51 . = no data 68 0 = no changes 61 1 = changes present 6 2 = 2 additional items present 1834. Health: 10.2 Introduction of Foreign Diseases 51 . = no data 84 0 = no changes 51 1 = changes present 1835. Health: 10.3 Changes in Sanitation Methods 51 . = no data 104 0 = no changes 31 1 = changes present 1836. Religion: 11.1 Changes in Native Religion 51 . = no data 53 0 = no changes 82 1 = changes present 1837. Religion: 11.2 Introduction of Foreign Religion 51 . = no data 14 0 = no changes 121 1 = changes present 1838. Religion: 11.3 Changes in Burial Practices or Other Rituals 51 . = no data 51 0 = no changes 67 1 = changes present 17 2 = 2 additional items present 1839. Sum of Agricultural Changes 51 . = no data 31 0 = no changes 40 1 = 1 item 42 2 = 2 items 20 3 = 3 items 2 4 = 4 items 1840. Sum of Behavior Changes 51 . = no data 34 0 = no changes 54 1 = 1 item 40 2 = 2 items 7 3 = 3 items 1841. Sum of Educational Changes 51 . = no data 12 0 = no changes 29 1 = 1 item 52 2 = 2 items 32 3 = 3 items 7 4 = 4 items 2 5 = 5 items 1 6 = 6 items 1842. Sum of Family Changes 51 . = no data 19 0 = no changes 31 1 = 1 item 26 2 = 2 items 34 3 = 3 items 17 4 = 4 items 4 5 = 5 items 4 6 = 6 items 1843. Sum of Governmental Changes 51 . = no data 13 0 = no changes 23 1 = 1 item 41 2 = 2 items 39 3 = 3 items 17 4 = 4 items 2 5 = 5 items 1844. Sum of Religious Changes 51 . = no data 7 0 = no changes 27 1 = 1 item 41 2 = 2 items 45 3 = 3 items 15 4 = 4 items 1845. Sum of Technological Changes 51 . = no data 22 0 = no changes 43 1 = 1 item 42 2 = 2 items 21 3 = 3 items 5 4 = 4 items 1 5 = 5 items 1 6 = 6 items 1846. Sum of Toilet Changes 51 . = no data 15 0 = no changes 66 1 = 1 item 53 2 = 2 items 1 3 = 3 items 1847. Sum of Trade Changes 51 . = no data 10 0 = no changes 33 1 = 1 item 45 2 = 2 items 37 3 = 3 items 10 4 = 4 items 1848. Sum of Transportation Changes 51 . = no data 69 0 = no changes 51 1 = 1 item 12 2 = 2 items 3 3 = 3 items 1849. Sum of All Changes 51 . = no data 1 5 = 5 items 3 6 = 6 items 0 7 = 7 items 4 8 = 8 items 2 9 = 9 items 1 10 = 10 items 3 11 = 11 items 10 12 = 12 items 7 13 = 13 items 7 14 = 14 items 10 15 = 15 items 7 16 = 16 items 5 17 = 17 items 11 18 = 18 items 9 19 = 19 items 8 20 = 20 items 7 21 = 21 items 11 22 = 22 items 9 23 = 23 items 8 24 = 24 items 2 25 = 25 items 2 26 = 26 items 3 27 = 27 items 1 28 = 28 items 0 29 = 29 items 1 30 = 30 items 1 31 = 31 items 0 32 = 32 items 0 33 = 33 items 1 34 = 34 items 1 35 = 35 items notes on these codes (none as yet)
CROSS-CULTURAL CODES FOR SECONDARY DISPOSAL OF DEAD Sissel Schroeder. 2001. Secondary Disposal of the Dead: Cross-Cultural Codes. WORLD CULTURES 12(1). ST85.DAT Vars. 1850-1857 Codes on Secondary Disposal 1850. Secondary bone/body treatment: Original Scale 24 . = no data. 101 1 = secondary contact with the body or bones of the * deceased does not occur. 0 2 = secondary contact with the body or bones of the * deceased is accorded only to individuals who are * not members of the society. 5 3 = secondary contact with the body or bones of the * deceased is accorded only to individuals who are * members of the society, but are not resident with * their group of orientation at the time of death * (e.g., an adult member has married and resides with * his/her spouse at some distance from the group of * orientation; or death occurs while the individual * is on a trip away from the group of orientation). * The body must be returned to the group of orientation * for proper burial. Incidental to the returning process, * the body decomposes and secondary disposal results. 3 4 = secondary contact with the body or bones is practiced, * with circumstances of death (e.g., struck by lightening, * time of year) being the only determinant of whether or * not it is accorded to an individual. 13 5 = secondary contact with the body or bones is the preferred * means of disposal for a proportion of the population, * with status, age-grade, kin, or sodality associations * determining if it is accorded to an individual. 38 6 = secondary contact with the body or bones is the preferred * means of disposal for all or nearly all adult members of * the society. 2 7 = other form of secondary disposal. 1851. Disarticulation: Original Scale 24 . = no data. 92 1 = disarticulation does not occur or is not * recoverable archaeologically. 0 2 = disarticulation of human osseous remains * occurs prior to final disposal, but only in the case * of individuals who are not members of the society. 6 3 = disarticulation of human osseous remains occurs prior * to final disposal in the case of individuals who are * members of the society, but are not resident with their * group of orientation at the time of death. The body * must be returned to the group of orientation for proper * burial. Incidental to the returning process, the body * decomposes and the result is a mass of disarticulated * bones, which must be disposed of. 1 4 = disarticulation of human osseous remains occurs prior * to final disposal only in situations where circumstances * of death dictate that the body be curated until a time * that is propitious for final disposal. 17 5 = disarticulation of human osseous remains occurs prior * to final disposal in a proportion of instances, with * status, age-grade, kin, or sodality associations being * the determining factor. 33 6 = disarticulation of human osseous remains occurs prior * to final disposal in all or nearly all instances of * adult deaths. 13 7 = disarticulation results from scavenger activity. 1852. Secondary bone/body treatment: Scale Two 24 . = no data 101 1 = absent 23 2 = present in a minority of cases 38 3 = present in nearly all/all cases 1853. Disarticulation: Scale Two 24 . = no data 92 1 = absent 37 2 = present in a minority of cases 33 3 = present in nearly all/all cases 1854. Secondary bone/body treatment: Scale Three 24 . = no data 101 1 = absent 61 2 = present 1855. Disarticulation: Scale Three 24 . = no data 92 1 = absent 70 2 = present 1856. Secondary bone/body treatment: Scale Four 24 . = no data 124 1 = absent or in minority of cases only 38 2 = present in nearly all/all cases 1857. Disarticulation: Scale Four 24 . = no data 129 1 = absent or in minority of cases only 33 2 = present in nearly all/all cases notes on these codes (none as yet)
LANGUAGE AND REGION CODES Michael L. Burton. 1999. Language and Region Codes for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 33:63-83. ST86.DAT Vars. 1858-1861 Region and Language Codes 1858. Region 37 1 = Subsaharan Africa 32 2 = Middle Old World 25 3 = Southeast Asia and Insular Pacific 14 4 = Sahul 15 5 = North Eurasia and Circumpolar 6 6 = Northwest Coast of North America 13 7 = North and West of North America 28 8 = Eastern Americas 13 9 = Mesoamerica and Andes 3 10 = Far South America 1859. Language Family 3 1 = Khoisan 23 2 = Niger-Congo 7 3 = Nilo-Saharan 13 4 = Afro-Asiatic 12 5 = Indo-European 2 6 = Dravidian 1 7 = Caucasian 6 8 = Sino-Tibetan 6 9 = Austroasiatic 1 10 = Daic 25 11 = Austronesian 1 12 = Andaman 4 13 = Trans New Guinea 1 14 = West Papuan 1 15 = Sepik-Ramu 1 16 = East Papuan 2 17 = Australian 3 20 = Uralic-Yukaghir 4 21 = Altaic 1 22 = Ckukchi-Kamchatkan 2 30 = Eskimo-Aleut 6 31 = Na-Dene 5 32 = Algic 2 33 = Salish 2 34 = Siouan 1 35 = Iroquian 1 36 = Caddoan 2 37 = Hokan 2 38 = California and Plateau Penutian 2 39 = Natchez-Muskogean 5 40 = Uto-Aztecan 2 41 = Macro-Mayan 3 42 = Chibcha-Misumalpan 3 43 = Macro-Arawakan 2 44 = Macro-Paezan 2 45 = Macro-Panoan 5 46 = Tupi-Carib 1 47 = Tucanoan 1 48 = Jivaroan 2 49 = Quechumaran 1 50 = Nambiquaran 4 51 = Macro Ge 1 52 = Mascoian 1 53 = Guaykuruan 1 54 = Araucanian 1 55 = Tehuelche 9 99 = Isolate 1860. Language Subfamily 1 42 0 = Isolate or no subfamily 1 2 1 = Khoisan: Southern Khoisan 1 2 = Khoisan: Hadza 18 3 = Niger Congo: Central 2 4 = Niger Congo: Mande 2 5 = Niger Congo: West Atlantic 1 6 = Niger Congo: Kordofanian 1 7 = Nilo-Saharan: Songhai 3 8 = Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic 1 9 = Nilo-Saharan: Fur 1 10 = Nilo-Saharan: Saharan 1 11 = Nilo-Saharan: Komuz 2 12 = Afro-Asiatic: Berber 2 13 = Afro-Asiatic: Chadic 1 14 = Afro-Asiatic: Omotic 3 15 = Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic 5 16 = Afro-Asiatic: Semitic 1 20 = Indo-European: Armenian 5 21 = Indo-European: Indo-Iranian 1 22 = Indo-European: Albanian 1 23 = Indo-European: Italic 1 24 = Indo-European: Celtic 1 25 = Indo-European: Balto-Slavic 2 26 = Indo-European: African-IE Creole 1 28 = Dravidian: Central Dravidian 1 29 = Dravidian: South Dravidian 1 30 = Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic 5 31 = Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman 1 32 = Austroasiatic: Munda 5 33 = Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer 1 34 = Austronesian: Atalyic 24 35 = Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian 2 36 = Trans New Guinea: Main 1 37 = Trans New Guinea: Trans-Fly 1 38 = Trans New Guinea: Timor-Alor 1 40 = Uralic-Yukaghir: Yukaghir 2 41 = Uralic-Yukaghir: Uralic 2 42 = Altaic: Turkic 2 43 = Altaic: Mongolian-Tungus 1 44 = Eskimo-Aleut: Aleut 1 45 = Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo 1 50 = Na-Dene: Haida 5 51 = Na-Dene: Athabaskan-Eyak 1 52 = Algic: Ritwan 4 53 = Algic: Algonquian 2 54 = Uto-Aztecan: Northern 3 55 = Uto-Aztecan: Southern 1 56 = Macro-Mayan: Mixe-Zoquean 1 57 = Macro-Mayan: Mayan 1 58 = Chibcha-Misumalpan: Misumalpan 2 59 = Chibcha-Misumalpan: Chibcha 2 60 = Macro-Arawakan: Maipiran (Awawakan) 1 61 = Macro-Arawakan: Otomakoan 1 62 = Macro-Panoan: Panoan 1 63 = Tupi-Carib: Carib 4 64 = Tupi-Carib: Tupian 1 65 = Macro Ge: Botocudan 3 66 = Macro Ge: Ge 1861. Language Subfamily 2 106 0 = Isolate or no subfamily 2 2 1 = Niger Congo: Central: North Central 16 2 = Niger Congo: Central: South Central 2 3 = Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic 1 4 = Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nubian 1 5 = Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central 2 6 = Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern 4 7 = Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: Central 1 8 = Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: Southern 3 9 = Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic 2 10 = Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian 1 11 = Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic 1 12 = Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric 3 13 = Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic 2 14 = Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North 1 15 = Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East 2 16 = Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South 11 17 = Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western 13 18 = Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central and Eastern 1 19 = Na-Dene: Athabaskan-Eyak: Eyak 4 20 = Na-Dene: Athabaskan-Eyak: Athabaskan 1 21 = Uto-Aztecan: Southern: Pimic 2 22 = Uto-Aztecan: Southern: Corrachol-Aztecan 3 23 = Tupi-Carib: Tupian: Tupi-Guarani 1 24 = Tupi-Carib: Tupian: Munduruku notes on these codes (none as yet)
HIGHEST NUMBER COUNTED CODES William Divale. 1999. Climatic Instability, Food Storage, and the Development of Numerical Counting: A Cross-Cultural Study. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 33:341-368. Codes are in the article below. William Divale. 2001. Codes on the Highest Number Counted for the Standard Sample. World Cultures 12(1):99-104. ST87.DAT Vars. 1862-1863 Highest Number Counted Codes 1862. Highest Number Counted 93 . = Missing data or society not coded 1 1 9 2 = 3 3 3 = 4 2 4 = 5 1 5 = 6 1 6 = 7 1 7 = 8 15 8 = 10 1 9 = 12 1 10 = 16 8 11 = 20 2 12 = 30 1 13 = 36 1 14 = 40 1 15 = 90 14 16 = 100 1 17 = 200 1 18 = 400 10 19 = 1,000 3 20 = 2,000 1 21 = 3,600 1 22 = 4,000 1 23 = 5,000 13 24 = 10,000 1863. Confidence in Making Counting Rating 95 . = Missing data or society not coded 34 1 = Not confident in making the rating 57 2 = Confident in making the rating ETHNIC DIVERSITY CODES Elizabeth Cashdan. 2001. Ethnic Diversity and Its Environmental Determinants: Effects of Climate, Pathogens, and Habitat Diversity. American Anthropopologist 103(4) AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 103:968-991. ST88.DAT Vars. 1864-1887 Ethnic Diversity Codes 1864. Concordance: number of societies within 100 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 98 0 = 0 32 1 = 1 14 2 = 2 11 3 = 3 8 4 = 4 9 5 = 5 4 6 = 6 2 7 = 7 2 8 = 8 1 10 = 10 1 11 = 11 1 12 = 12 1 13 = 13 1865. Concordance: number of societies within 150 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 65 0 = 0 35 1 = 1 21 2 = 2 15 3 = 3 8 4 = 4 10 5 = 5 3 6 = 6 5 7 = 7 1 8 = 8 2 9 = 9 2 10 = 10 5 11 = 11 2 12 = 12 1 13 = 13 1 14 = 14 1 16 = 16 3 17 = 17 1 18 = 18 1 20 = 20 1 27 = 27 1866. Concordance: number of societies within 200 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 49 0 = 0 29 1 = 1 20 2 = 2 15 3 = 3 11 4 = 4 11 5 = 5 6 6 = 6 5 7 = 7 2 8 = 8 3 9 = 9 2 10 = 10 4 11 = 11 3 12 = 12 2 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 1 15 = 15 2 16 = 16 1 17 = 17 2 19 = 19 1 21 = 21 3 24 = 24 3 25 = 25 1 26 = 26 1 28 = 28 2 29 = 29 1 38 = 38 1867. Concordance: number of societies within 250 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 35 00 = 0 23 01 = 1 18 02 = 2 17 03 = 3 12 04 = 4 9 05 = 5 9 06 = 6 11 07 = 7 3 08 = 8 3 09 = 9 5 10 = 10 6 12 = 12 2 14 = 14 3 16 = 16 3 17 = 17 2 19 = 19 1 20 = 20 1 21 = 21 2 22 = 22 2 23 = 23 1 24 = 24 3 26 = 26 1 27 = 27 1 29 = 29 2 30 = 30 1 31 = 31 1 32 = 32 1 33 = 33 1 34 = 34 1 35 = 35 1 36 = 36 1 37 = 37 1 55 = 55 1868. Concordance: number of societies within 300 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 22 0 = 0 26 1 = 1 16 2 = 2 13 3 = 3 14 4 = 4 9 5 = 5 7 6 = 6 8 7 = 7 10 8 = 8 6 9 = 9 1 10 = 10 2 11 = 11 3 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 4 15 = 15 2 16 = 16 4 18 = 18 2 19 = 19 2 20 = 20 1 22 = 22 2 24 = 24 1 25 = 25 2 26 = 26 3 29 = 29 1 31 = 31 1 32 = 32 2 33 = 33 1 34 = 34 2 35 = 35 2 36 = 36 1 37 = 37 1 38 = 38 2 39 = 39 1 40 = 40 1 41 = 41 1 44 = 44 1 45 = 45 1 46 = 46 1 48 = 48 1 64 = 64 1869. Concordance: number of societies within 350 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 18 0 = 0 18 1 = 1 18 2 = 2 8 3 = 3 14 4 = 4 13 5 = 5 6 6 = 6 4 7 = 7 9 8 = 8 9 9 = 9 6 10 = 10 1 11 = 11 3 12 = 12 1 13 = 13 1 14 = 14 4 15 = 15 4 16 = 16 2 17 = 17 4 19 = 19 1 20 = 20 1 21 = 21 1 22 = 22 3 23 = 23 2 24 = 24 2 25 = 25 1 27 = 27 1 29 = 29 1 30 = 30 2 31 = 31 1 32 = 32 1 33 = 33 1 36 = 36 2 39 = 39 1 43 = 43 3 44 = 44 2 45 = 45 2 46 = 46 1 47 = 47 2 49 = 49 1 51 = 51 1 54 = 54 1 55 = 55 1 56 = 56 1 57 = 57 1 59 = 59 1 62 = 62 1 67 = 67 1 75 = 75 1870. Concordance: number of societies within 400 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 14 0 = 0 14 1 = 1 15 2 = 2 14 3 = 3 10 4 = 4 11 5 = 5 6 6 = 6 7 7 = 7 4 8 = 8 6 9 = 9 8 10 = 10 5 11 = 11 4 12 = 12 5 13 = 13 2 14 = 14 1 16 = 16 2 17 = 17 5 18 = 18 1 19 = 19 2 20 = 20 2 21 = 21 1 22 = 22 4 24 = 24 2 25 = 25 1 26 = 26 2 28 = 28 2 29 = 29 2 30 = 30 1 31 = 31 2 33 = 33 1 37 = 37 1 40 = 40 3 41 = 41 1 44 = 44 3 49 = 49 2 50 = 50 1 51 = 51 1 53 = 53 2 54 = 54 3 55 = 55 1 60 = 60 1 62 = 62 1 63 = 63 1 65 = 65 2 70 = 70 1 72 = 72 1 75 = 75 1 83 = 83 1 87 = 87 1871. Concordance: number of societies within 450 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 11 0 = 0 9 1 = 1 13 2 = 2 8 3 = 3 11 4 = 4 8 5 = 5 9 6 = 6 8 7 = 7 8 8 = 8 4 9 = 9 5 10 = 10 10 11 = 11 5 12 = 12 3 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 3 15 = 15 3 17 = 17 4 19 = 19 3 20 = 20 3 21 = 21 3 23 = 23 2 24 = 24 3 25 = 25 1 28 = 28 2 29 = 29 2 30 = 30 2 32 = 32 3 33 = 33 2 34 = 34 1 37 = 37 1 42 = 42 1 43 = 43 1 44 = 44 3 48 = 48 2 51 = 51 1 54 = 54 3 60 = 60 2 61 = 61 1 63 = 63 1 64 = 64 2 66 = 66 1 69 = 69 2 70 = 70 1 72 = 72 1 73 = 73 1 74 = 74 2 82 = 82 1 86 = 86 1 87 = 87 1 96 = 96 1 99 = 99 1872. Concordance: number of societies within 500 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 181 0 = Less than 100 2 1 = 100 or more 1873.GONE Concordance: number of societies within 500 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 9 0 = 0 7 1 = 1 13 2 = 2 8 3 = 3 4 4 = 4 7 5 = 5 9 6 = 6 6 7 = 7 5 8 = 8 12 9 = 9 4 10 = 10 4 11 = 11 8 12 = 12 9 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 2 15 = 15 3 16 = 16 3 17 = 17 3 19 = 19 3 20 = 20 1 21 = 21 1 22 = 22 2 23 = 23 3 24 = 24 2 26 = 26 3 27 = 27 4 29 = 29 1 30 = 30 1 31 = 31 1 33 = 33 1 35 = 35 2 36 = 36 1 37 = 37 2 39 = 39 1 41 = 41 1 42 = 42 2 44 = 44 1 46 = 46 1 49 = 49 2 52 = 52 1 53 = 53 1 57 = 57 1 61 = 61 1 65 = 65 1 66 = 66 2 67 = 67 1 69 = 69 1 71 = 71 2 73 = 73 3 74 = 74 1 75 = 75 1 76 = 76 1 80 = 80 3 83 = 83 1 85 = 85 1 89 = 89 1 91 = 91 1 96 = 96 1 97 = 97 1 98 = 98 1874. Atlas: number of societies within 100 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 54 0 = 0 40 1 = 1 31 2 = 2 18 3 = 3 10 4 = 4 7 5 = 5 7 6 = 6 3 7 = 7 1 8 = 8 3 9 = 9 3 10 = 10 2 11 = 11 1 15 = 15 1 20 = 20 1 22 = 22 1 25 = 25 1875. Atlas: number of societies within 150 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 31 0 = 0 27 1 = 1 16 2 = 2 12 3 = 3 13 4 = 4 17 5 = 5 13 6 = 6 7 7 = 7 13 8 = 8 7 9 = 9 3 10 = 10 5 11 = 11 4 12 = 12 2 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 1 15 = 15 1 17 = 17 1 18 = 18 1 22 = 22 1 23 = 23 1 24 = 24 1 28 = 28 1 34 = 34 1 38 = 38 1 48 = 48 1876. Atlas: number of societies within 200 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 25 0 = 0 15 1 = 1 16 2 = 2 11 3 = 3 5 4 = 4 7 5 = 5 12 6 = 6 11 7 = 7 7 8 = 8 5 9 = 9 6 10 = 10 16 11 = 11 5 12 = 12 3 13 = 13 7 14 = 14 2 15 = 15 2 16 = 16 5 17 = 17 4 18 = 18 3 19 = 19 2 20 = 20 2 21 = 21 2 22 = 22 1 24 = 24 1 27 = 27 1 28 = 28 1 29 = 29 1 33 = 33 1 41 = 41 1 46 = 46 1 54 = 54 1 61 = 61 1 69 = 69 1877. Atlas: number of societies within 250 mile radius 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 17 0 = 0 11 1 = 1 11 2 = 2 7 3 = 3 6 4 = 4 11 5 = 5 2 6 = 6 6 7 = 7 7 8 = 8 13 9 = 9 7 10 = 10 7 11 = 11 5 12 = 12 8 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 4 15 = 15 6 16 = 16 3 17 = 17 7 18 = 18 2 19 = 19 6 20 = 20 3 21 = 21 4 23 = 23 2 24 = 24 1 25 = 25 1 26 = 26 1 27 = 27 4 28 = 28 1 29 = 29 2 31 = 31 1 32 = 32 1 33 = 33 3 34 = 34 1 35 = 35 1 37 = 37 1 40 = 40 1 43 = 43 1 45 = 45 1 59 = 59 2 65 = 65 1 83 = 83 1 97 = 97 1878. Atlas: number of societies within 300 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 182 0 = Less than 100 1 1 = 100 or more 1879.GONE Atlas: number of societies within 300 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 10 0 = 0 9 1 = 1 10 2 = 2 8 3 = 3 6 4 = 4 5 5 = 5 4 6 = 6 4 7 = 7 3 8 = 8 5 9 = 9 5 10 = 10 5 11 = 11 8 12 = 12 7 13 = 13 6 14 = 14 6 15 = 15 4 16 = 16 6 17 = 17 3 18 = 18 6 19 = 19 2 20 = 20 3 21 = 21 2 22 = 22 4 23 = 23 3 24 = 24 4 25 = 25 4 26 = 26 4 27 = 27 1 28 = 28 4 29 = 29 2 30 = 30 2 31 = 31 2 32 = 32 2 33 = 33 2 35 = 35 2 39 = 39 1 40 = 40 2 42 = 42 1 44 = 44 2 46 = 46 1 47 = 47 1 48 = 48 1 50 = 50 1 51 = 51 3 54 = 54 1 59 = 59 1 61 = 61 1 66 = 66 1 72 = 72 1 75 = 75 1 83 = 83 1 98 = 98 1880. Atlas: number of societies within 350 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 181 0 = Less than 100 2 1 = 100 or more 1881.GONE Atlas: number of societies within 350 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 9 0 = 0 8 1 = 1 6 2 = 2 7 3 = 3 3 4 = 4 7 5 = 5 4 6 = 6 5 7 = 7 2 8 = 8 1 9 = 9 2 10 = 10 2 11 = 11 2 12 = 12 8 13 = 13 6 14 = 14 8 15 = 15 6 16 = 16 6 17 = 17 5 18 = 18 3 19 = 19 6 20 = 20 2 21 = 21 4 22 = 22 7 23 = 23 1 24 = 24 3 25 = 25 2 27 = 27 1 28 = 28 3 29 = 29 1 30 = 30 3 31 = 31 3 32 = 32 2 33 = 33 3 35 = 35 2 36 = 36 3 37 = 37 1 38 = 38 1 39 = 39 3 40 = 40 1 41 = 41 3 42 = 42 1 45 = 45 3 47 = 47 1 50 = 50 3 52 = 52 2 54 = 54 1 56 = 56 1 58 = 58 1 59 = 59 1 60 = 60 1 63 = 63 1 67 = 67 2 68 = 68 2 69 = 69 1 74 = 74 1 78 = 78 1 79 = 79 2 84 = 84 1 86 = 86 1 96 = 96 1882. Atlas: number of societies within 400 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 175 0 = Less than 100 8 1 = 100 or more 1883.GONE Atlas: number of societies within 400 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 7 0 = 0 4 1 = 1 6 2 = 2 9 3 = 3 3 4 = 4 5 5 = 5 4 6 = 6 5 7 = 7 1 8 = 8 3 9 = 9 2 10 = 10 3 11 = 11 1 12 = 12 5 13 = 13 1 14 = 14 3 15 = 15 3 16 = 16 2 17 = 17 4 18 = 18 7 19 = 19 6 20 = 20 8 21 = 21 8 22 = 22 4 23 = 23 4 24 = 24 8 25 = 25 3 26 = 26 2 27 = 27 1 28 = 28 1 29 = 29 1 30 = 30 2 31 = 31 3 32 = 32 1 33 = 33 2 36 = 36 2 37 = 37 1 38 = 38 2 39 = 39 1 40 = 40 5 42 = 42 2 43 = 43 4 46 = 46 1 49 = 49 3 50 = 50 2 51 = 51 2 52 = 52 1 53 = 53 2 55 = 55 1 56 = 56 1 57 = 57 1 60 = 60 1 61 = 61 1 63 = 63 4 64 = 64 2 65 = 65 2 66 = 66 1 67 = 67 1 75 = 75 1 80 = 80 1 81 = 81 1 84 = 84 1 87 = 87 1 90 = 90 2 92 = 92 1 00 = 00 1884. Atlas: number of societies within 450 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 170 0 = Less than 100 13 1 = 100 or more 1885.GONE Atlas: number of societies within 450 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 5 0 = 0 4 1 = 1 4 2 = 2 6 3 = 3 5 4 = 4 2 5 = 5 2 6 = 6 6 7 = 7 3 8 = 8 4 9 = 9 3 10 = 10 2 11 = 11 1 12 = 12 2 13 = 13 4 14 = 14 4 16 = 16 2 17 = 17 2 18 = 18 2 19 = 19 3 20 = 20 2 21 = 21 4 22 = 22 6 23 = 23 2 24 = 24 4 25 = 25 8 26 = 26 3 27 = 27 5 28 = 28 5 29 = 29 1 30 = 30 3 31 = 31 6 32 = 32 3 33 = 33 3 34 = 34 3 35 = 35 1 37 = 37 1 38 = 38 1 39 = 39 1 40 = 40 2 41 = 41 3 43 = 43 2 46 = 46 1 47 = 47 2 48 = 48 2 50 = 50 2 51 = 51 2 53 = 53 1 54 = 54 1 55 = 55 1 56 = 56 3 57 = 57 1 58 = 58 2 59 = 59 1 61 = 61 2 62 = 62 1 63 = 63 1 64 = 64 1 66 = 66 3 67 = 67 2 71 = 71 2 72 = 72 2 73 = 73 1 74 = 74 1 75 = 75 3 77 = 77 2 80 = 80 1 81 = 81 1 87 = 87 1 92 = 92 2 95 = 95 1 00 = 00 1886. Atlas: number of societies within 500 mile radius (100 value) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 165 0 = Less than 100 17 1 = 100 or more 1 2 = 200 or more 1887.GONE Atlas: number of societies within 500 mile radius (values between 0-99) 3 . = Missing data or society not coded 4 0 = 0 3 1 = 1 3 2 = 2 6 3 = 3 5 4 = 4 3 5 = 5 6 6 = 6 3 7 = 7 3 8 = 8 2 9 = 9 4 10 = 10 4 11 = 11 2 12 = 12 1 13 = 13 3 14 = 14 1 15 = 15 3 17 = 17 1 19 = 19 2 20 = 20 5 22 = 22 3 23 = 23 2 24 = 24 2 25 = 25 3 26 = 26 6 28 = 28 7 29 = 29 6 30 = 30 4 31 = 31 3 32 = 32 4 33 = 33 4 34 = 34 4 36 = 36 4 37 = 37 2 38 = 38 1 39 = 39 3 40 = 40 1 41 = 41 2 42 = 42 2 43 = 43 3 44 = 44 1 45 = 45 1 46 = 46 2 48 = 48 2 49 = 49 2 50 = 50 2 51 = 51 1 54 = 54 1 55 = 55 1 56 = 56 1 57 = 57 2 58 = 58 1 59 = 59 1 61 = 61 1 62 = 62 2 64 = 64 1 65 = 65 2 66 = 66 1 67 = 67 1 68 = 68 2 72 = 72 2 73 = 73 1 75 = 75 1 76 = 76 2 77 = 77 2 79 = 79 1 80 = 80 1 81 = 81 1 82 = 82 1 83 = 83 1 84 = 84 1 85 = 85 1 86 = 86 1 87 = 87 1 88 = 88 1 89 = 89 1 90 = 90 1 92 = 92 1 93 = 93 1 94 = 94 1 95 = 95 1 99 = 99 HABITAT CODES Elizabeth Cashdan. 2001. Ethnic Diversity and Its Environmental Determinants: Effects of Climate, Pathogens, and Habitat Diversity. AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 103:968-991. ST88.DAT Vars. 1888-1903 Habitat Codes 1888. Number of Habitats within 100 mile radius 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 17 1 = 1 habitat 58 2 = 2 habitats 54 3 = 3 habitats 27 4 = 4 habitats 16 5 = 5 habitats 1889. Ocean within 100 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 96 0 = no 76 1 = yes 1890. Lake within 100 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 163 0 = no 9 1 = yes 1891. Number of Habitats within 150 mile radius 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 6 1 = 1 habitat 38 2 = 2 habitats 59 3 = 3 habitats 38 4 = 4 habitats 25 5 = 5 habitats 5 6 = 6 habitats 1 7 = 7 habitats 1892. Ocean within 150 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 87 0 = no 85 1 = yes 1893. Lake within 150 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 161 0 = no 11 1 = yes 1894. Number of Habitats within 200 mile radius 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 2 1 = 1 habitat 22 2 = 2 habitats 48 3 = 3 habitats 43 4 = 4 habitats 35 5 = 5 habitats 15 6 = 6 habitats 7 7 = 7 habitats 1895. Ocean within 200 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 70 0 = no 102 1 = yes 1896. Lake within 200 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 156 0 = no 16 1 = yes 1897. Number of Habitats within 250 mile radius 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 1 1 = 1 habitat 14 2 = 2 habitats 45 3 = 3 habitats 36 4 = 4 habitats 39 5 = 5 habitats 23 6 = 6 habitats 11 7 = 7 habitats 2 8 = 8 habitats 1 9 = 9 habitats 1898. Ocean within 250 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 66 0 = no 106 1 = yes 1899. Lake within 250 miles? 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 149 0 = no 23 1 = yes 1900. Type of site: 100 miles 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 7 1 = island 145 2 = mainland 20 3 = peninsula 1901. Type of site: 150 miles 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 8 1 = island 140 2 = mainland 24 3 = peninsula 1902. Type of site: 200 miles 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 13 1 = island 134 2 = mainland 25 3 = peninsula 1903. Type of site: 250 miles 14 . = Missing data or society not coded 13 1 = island 132 2 = mainland 27 3 = peninsula RAINFALL CODES Elizabeth Cashdan. 2001. Ethnic Diversity and Its Environmental Determinants: Effects of Climate, Pathogens, and Habitat Diversity. AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 103:968-991. ST88.DAT Vars. 1904-1917 Rainfall Codes 1904.GONE Latitude hemisphere 131 0 = Northern hemiphere 55 1 = Southern hemisphere 1905. Latitude 0.00 = min (equator) 89.00 = max (pole) 1906.GONE Longitude hemisphere 109 0 = East 77 1 = West 1907. Longitude 0.00 = min 179.12 = max 1908. Is station within one degree of society? 30 0 = no 156 1 = yes 1909. Is station within two degrees of society? 12 0 = no 174 1 = yes 1910. Is station within three degrees of society? 3 0 = no 183 1 = yes 1911. Earliest date sampled 1872 = earliest 1966 = latest 1912. Number of years sampled 2 10 = 10 years 1 12 = 12 years 1 13 = 13 years 1 15 = 15 years 2 16 = 16 years 2 17 = 17 years 1 18 = 18 years 5 19 = 19 years 171 20 = 20 years 1913. Mean yearly annual rainfall (cm) 0.140 = minimum 578.967 = maximum 1914. Coefficient of variation in mean annual rainfall - interannual variation, i.e., around the mean of means of yearly rainfalls for n years of observation 9.376 = minimum 161.225 = maximum 1915. Lowest yearly rainfall in the n years sampled (cm) 0.00 = minimum 355.80 = maximum 1916. Highest yearly rainfall in the n years sampled (cm) 0.80 = minimum 767.40 = maximum 1917. Difference between maxrain and minrain (cm) 0.80 = minimum 411.60 = maximum GRIEF AND MOURNING (1) 78 Societies, Not SCCS (2) H.R.A.F. does not share data with researchers Paul C. Rosenblatt, R. Patricia Walsh, and Douglas A. Jackson. Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective. H.R.A.F. Press. 1976. STSD89.DAT Paul C. Rosenblatt, R. Patricia Walsh, and Douglas A. Jackson. TDS91.COD Grief and Mourning Codes. 2011. World Cultures eJournal 18(2). STDS91.COD Vars. 1918-2000 Grief and Mourning Codes 1918. Crying Frequency var1 - Careful: Number of cases N = 60 128 . = Missing data 1 0 = Crying is absent 1 2 = 2 6 = 8 7 = 46 8 = Crying is frequent 1919. Crying Duration var2 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 155 . = Missing data 1 0 = Less than a few minutes 3 2 = 1 8 = 2 10 = 1 11 = 8 12 = 4 14 = 1 15 = 10 16 = More than a week 1920. Male Crying: Frequency var3 - Careful: Number of cases N = 52 134 . = Missing data 8 0 = Absent 2 1 = 0 2 = 1 3 = 0 4 = 7 5 = 4 6 = 3 7 = 9 8 = 10 9 = 8 10 = 1921. Female Crying: Frequency var4 - Careful: Number of cases N = 56 132 . = Missing data 1 0 = Absent 0 1 = 1 2 = 1 3 = 0 4 = 2 5 = 1 6 = 4 7 = 13 8 = 20 9 = 13 10 = 1922. Attempted Self-Injury: Frequency var5 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1923. Actual Self-Injury: Frequency var6 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = Absent 8 = Very frequent 1924. Male Attempted Self-Injury: Frequency var7 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1925. Female Attempted Self-Injury: Frequency var8 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1926. Male Actual Self-Injury: Frequency var9 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1927. Female Actual Self-Injury: Frequency var10 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = Absent 10 = Occurs always 1928. Institutionalized Attack by Widow of Something or Someone - var11 1929. Institutionalized Attack by Widower of Something or Someone - var12 1930. Institutionalized Attack on Self by Widow - var13 1931. Institutionalized Attack by Adult Offspring of Deceased - var14 1932. Institutionalized Self Attack by Adult Offspring of Deceased - var15 1933. Institutionalized Attack by Adult Siblings of Deceased - var16 1934. Outgroup Member Institutional Target - var17 1935. Presumed Killer Institutional Target - var17 1936. Self Institutionalized Target - var19 1937. Somebody Institutionalized Target - var20 1938. Something Institutionalized Target - var21 1939. Something Institutionalized Target, not a Sacrifice - var22 1940. Spontaneous Aggression after Sudden Death - var23 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 for any of these variables . = Missing data 0 = Both raters say it is absent 2 = Both raters say it is present 1941. Fear of Ghost Present - var24 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 145 . = Missing data 7 0 = Absent 34 1 = Present 1942. Degree of Fear of Ghost - var25 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 147 . = Missing data 7 0 = None 1 8 = 1 10 = 3 12 = 3 13 = 2 15 = Corrections to original codebook 1 17 = 1 18 = 7 20 = 5 22 = 4 23 = 3 25 = 1 27 = 1943. Fear of Bodies Present - var26 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 166 . = Missing data 12 0 = Absent 8 1 = Present 1944. Sex Difference, Crying - var27 - Careful: Number of cases N = 48 138 . = Missing data 0 1 = 13 2 = 6 3 = 8 4 = 8 5 = 12 6 = 0 7 = 1 8 = 1885A??. Mourning Behavior by Gender - from Variables 27-30??, Paul Rosenblatt, R. Patricia Walsh, and Douglas A. Jackson. Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective. H.R.A.F. Press. 1976. 000. Scaled from low to high male emotionality. Code not located in book. Note: this variable out of sequence (variable 0 of 01N.DAT file) N=58 and does not seem to fit the Rosenblatt dataset. Chapter 1? Variable 27 or 28? 128 . = Missing data 1 0 = No mourning 31 1 = Women cry more than men, and if any self-mutilation, women self-mutilate, not men 2 2 = Men self-mutilate more than women, crying equal 1 3 = Men self-mutilate more than women, and show more aggression, crying equal 2 4 = Men show more aggression than women, but women cry more 20 5 = Equal self-mutilation, if any, and equal crying 1 6 = Men show more aggression but not more self-mutilation, and equal crying 1945. Sex Difference, Attempted Self-Mutilation - var28 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1946. Sex Difference, Actual Self-Mutilation - var29 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 2 = Women show much more of it than men do 6 = Sexes are approximately equal 10 = Men show much more of it than women do 1947. Sex Difference, Anger and Aggression - var30 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 176 . = Missing data 1 0 = Sexes are equal 3 2 = 2 3 = 1 4 = 3 5 = Men show much more of the behavior 1948. Importance of Ritual Specialists up to and Including Initial Body Disposal - var31 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 141 . = Missing data 12 0 = Specialists do nothing 8 1 = 4 2 = 3 3 = 3 4 = 6 5 = 3 6 = 2 7 = 2 8 = 2 9 = 0 10 = Everything or almost everything is done by specialists 1949. Ritualization up to and Including Initial Disposal - var32 - Careful: Number of cases N = 62 124 . = Missing data 0 0 = None 2 1 = 9 2 = 8 3 = 15 4 = 10 5 = 9 6 = 8 7 = 1 8 = A very large amount 1950. Amount of Contact by Bereaved with Corpse - var33 - Careful: Number of cases N = 56 130 . = Missing data 0 0 = None 3 1 = 1 2 = 10 3 = 10 4 = 12 5 = 11 6 = 7 7 = 2 8 = A very large deal 1951. Isolation of Widows - var34 1952. Isolation of Widowers - var35 1953. Isolation of Adult Offspring of Deceased - var36 1954. Isolation of Parent of Deceased Subadult Offspring - var37 1955. Marking of Widows - var38 N = 47 139 . = Missing data 4 0 = Absent 43 1 = Present 1956. Marking of Widowers - var39 1957. Marking of Adult Offspring of Deceased - var40 1958. Marking of Subadult Offspring of Deceased - var41 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = Absent 1 = Present 1959. Marking Duration, Parent of Subadult Offspring - var42 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 170 . = Missing data 7 0 = Absent 2 2 = 1 4 = Present for at least thirty days 1 6 = 1 7 = 4 8 = 1960. Ghosts Present - var43 - Careful: Number of cases N = 59 . = Missing data 0 = No 1 = Yes 1961. Ghosts Perceived Are of Those Best Known - var44 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = No 1 = Yes 1962. Eventual Distance of Spirits - var45 - Careful: Number of cases N = 46 140 . = Missing data 1 0 = Close to survivors 1 2 = 1 3 = 3 5 = 1 7 = 4 8 = 5 10 = 3 12 = 5 13 = 6 15 = 4 17 = 2 18 = 10 20 = Always away from survivors - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 missing - var46 - var47 - Not included in ratings table 1963. Sororate Present vs. Absent - var48 168 . = Missing data 2 0 = Absent 16 1 = Present 1964. Percentage of Widow Remarrying - var49 - Careful: Number of cases N = 27 159 . = Missing data 0 0 = 0% 1 30 = 15% 1 40 = 20% 1 55 = 37.5% 1 90 = 45% 1 95 = 47.5% 1 100 = 50% 2 105 = 52.5% 1 110 = 55% 1 120 = 60% 1 126 = 63% 1 130 = 65% 1 140 = 70% 1 150 = 75% 4 155 = 77.5% 3 160 = 80% 1 165 = 82.5% 1 170 = 85% 1 175 = 87.5% 1 180 = 90% 1 190 = 95% 1 200 = 100% 1965. Percentage of Widows Remarrying by Levirate - var50 - Careful: Number of cases N - 20 168 . = Missing data 3 0 = 0% 1 10 = 10% 1 54 = 54% 1 60 = 60% 1 62 = 62% 1 63 = 63% 1 65 = 65% 4 70 = 70% 2 73 = 73% 1 77 = 77% 2 97 = 97% 100 = 100% 1966. Levirate Present vs. Absent - var51 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 149 . = Missing data 3 0 = Absent 34 1 = Present 1967. Some Personal Objects of Deceased are Disposed of with Corpse or Given to Other Groups or Put off Sight and Use for Substantional Amount of Time - var52 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 142 . = Missing data 8 0 = No 36 1 = Yes 1968. Amount of Useful Property Destroyed - var53 - Careful: Number of cases N = 62 124 . = Missing data 13 0 = None 9 2 = 9 4 = 2 5 = 11 6 = 6 7 = 9 8 = 2 10 = 1 11 = 0 12 = Most complete amount of property destroyed 1969. Name Taboo Present - var54 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 146 . = Missing data 19 0 = No taboo 1 1 = 2 2 = 4 4 = Name taboo present and permanent 3 6 = 1 7 = 10 8 = 1970. Dwelling or Room of Deceased Abandoned at Least Temporarily - var55 129 . = Missing data 39 0 = No taboo 18 1 = 1971. Temporary or Permanent Camp or Village Abandonment - var56 N = 52 134 . = Missing data 46 0 = No 6 1 = Yes 1972. Name Taboo, if Present, Applies Primarily to Close Relatives or Behavior in Presence of Close Relatives of the Deceased - var57 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = No 1 = Yes 1973. Cleansing of Widows - var58 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1974. Ghost Feared Those of People Best Known - var59 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = Absent 4 = Definitely present 1975. Initial Funeral Ceremonies, Attendance - var60 - Careful: Number of cases N = 57 129 . = Missing data min = 8 days actual min max = 325 days actual max 999 = 999 days or more129 1976. Final Funeral Ceremonies, Attendance - var61 - Careful: Number of cases N = 38 . = Missing data 999 = 999 or more 1977. Mourning: Duration, Widowers - var62 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1978. Mourning: Duration, Widows - var63 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 1979. Mourning: Duration, Adult Offspring - var64 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 136 . = Missing data min = 1 days actual min max = 495 days actual max 999 = 999 days or more 1980. Final Ceremonies Present or Absent - var65 - Careful: Number of cases N = 52 134 . = Missing data 14 0 = Absent 38 1 = Present 1981. Series of Final Ceremonies - var66 1982. Final Ceremonies Coincide with Annual Death Ceremonies - var67 1983. Final Disposal of Remains at Final Ceremony - var68 1984. Final Ceremonies Terminates Mourning - var69 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = No 1 = Yes 1985. Amount of Grief after End of Mourning - var70 175 . = Missing data 1 1 = Absent 1 2 = 2 3 = 1 4 = 4 5 = 2 7 = Extremely significant missing - var71 - var72 Mourning Duration: Widowers, Widows 1986. Feasting at Initial Funeral Ceremonies - var73 N = 46 1987. Games at Initial Funeral Ceremonies - var74 1988. Dances at Initial Funeral Ceremonies - var75 1989. Sexual Liberties at Initial Funeral Ceremonies - var76 1990. Alcohol at Initial Funeral Ceremonies - var77 1991. Feasting at Final Funeral Ceremonies - var78 1992. Games at Final Funeral Ceremonies - var79 1993. Dances at Final Funeral Ceremonies - var80 1994. Sexual Liberties at Final Funeral Ceremonies - var81 1995. Alcohol at Final Funeral Ceremonies - var82 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 . = Missing data 0 = Absent 1 = Present 1996. Final Ceremonies Held for More than one Death at a Time - var83 - Careful: Number of cases N < 48 171 . = Missing data 10 0 = No 5 1 = Yes 1997. Degree of Christian Influence - var84 - Careful: Number of cases N = 67 119 . = Missing data 45 0 = None 2 2 5 10 2 15 1 20 4 30 2 40 1 45 2 60 2 70 1 80 = Entirely Christian 1998. Belief in Reincarnation of Deceased Adults - var85 - Careful: Number of cases N = 53 133 . = Missing data 33 0 = None 2 1 = 6 2 = 3 3 = 9 4 = Strong belief 1999. Conflict and Resentment over Property Inheritance - var86 - Careful: Number of cases N = 21 167 . = Missing data 3 0 = None 4 2 = 1 3 = 1 4 = 6 6 = 1 7 = 3 8 = High degree of that 2000. Age of Marriage, Females - var87 N = 35 151 . = Missing data 1 8.2 1 9.0 1 11.5 1 12.0 1 12.5 2 13.0 2 13.3 1 13.5 1 13.8 1 14.2 1 14.5 1 15.0 3 15.5 1 15.8 5 16.0 1 16.2 1 16.5 1 16.7 1 17.2 1 17.3 2 17.8 1 18.0 1 18.5 1 20.3 1 20.5 1 25.3 WORLD RELIGION CODES 1986 Societies. Andrey Korotayev and Daria Khaltourina. Andrey Korotayev. 2004. World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective, STDS89.DAT Variables 2001-2002 2001. 1806. Deep Islamization / Christianization 161 1 Neither 19 2 Deep Islamization 6 3 Deep Chrisianization 2002. (formerly 1807). World Religions 116 1 Neither 19 2 Deep Islamization 6 3 Deep Chrisianization 7 4 Superficial Islamization 24 5 Superficial Chrisianization 6 6 Mahayana Buddhism 2 7 Hinayana Buddhism 2 8 Vajrayana Buddhism 4 9 Hinduism HIGODS CODES 186 Societies. John R. Snarey. 1996. Snarey, John R. 1996. The Natural Environment's Impact upon Religious Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Study. JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION. 35(2):85-96. STDS90.DAT Vars. 2003-2007 HiGod4 Codes 2003. Rain 111 1 = >40in/year 58 2 = Moderate 17 3 = <10in/year 2004. Terrain 44 1 = Surface Water 37 2 = Moderate 105 3 = Surface H20 Scarce 2005. Water 126 1 = Neither Rain nor Surface H2O high 60 2 = Either Rain nor Surface H20 high 2006. Missions 73 1 = Premissionized 113 2 = Missionized 2007. HiGod4 69 1 = Absent 51 2 = Present, inactive, unconcerned 23 3 = Present, active, unconcerned with humans 43 4 = Present, active, supportive of morality KIN GROUP VENGEANCE Karen Paige Ericksen and Heather Horton. 1992. "Blood Feuds": Cross-Cultural Variations in Kin Group Vengeance . Cross-Cultural Research 26(1-4): 57-85 STDS91.DAT Vars. 2008-2010 Kin group vengeance 2008. Legitimacy of kin group vengeance Violent Action Legitimate 18 . = Missing data 38 1 Moral Imperative 14 2 Most Appropriate 18 3 Circumstantial 20 4 Last Resort Violent Action Not Legitimate 63 5 Formal Adjudication Only 15 6 Individual Self-Redress 2009. Target of kin group vengeance 26 . = Missing data 36 1 = Anyone in the malefactor's kin group 23 2 = The Malefactor if possilbe 24 3 = The Malefactor only Violent Action Not Legitimate 78 0 = Not applicable: Category 5 or 6 for Legitimacy of kin group vengeance 2010. Internal War (Variant of Nammour 1974 variable - 891.) 39 . = Missing data 16 1 = Infrequent 49 2 = Sporadic 82 3 = Chronic BEYOND WAR Douglas P. Fry. 2007. Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. STDS92.DAT Vars. 2011-2012 2011. Warfare [Fry_War] (Armed conflict between political communities) 0 . = Missing data (Coding needed for Nonhunters) 167 1 = Nonhunters or Warfare (Armed conflict between political communities) 19 2 = No warfare (No Armed conflict between political communities) 2012. Hunters and gatherers 0 . = Missing data 21 1 = Simple hunters (and getherers): Nomadic and egalitarian, lack ranked social hierarchies and well-defined positions of leadership and authority 14 2 = Complex hunters (and getherers): Nomadism partial or lacking, and may have elaborate economic and political status differences, rank-distinctions and chiefs 151 3 = Other RELIGIOUS EVOLUTION SOURCE: Sanderson, Stephen K., and Wesley W. Roberts. 2008. The Evolutionary Forms of the Religious Life: A Cross-Cultural, Quantitative Analysis. American Anthropologist 110(4):454-466. 454-466. STDS93.DAT Var. 2013. 2013. Stages of Religious evolution 8 -1 = Too missionized 10 . = Missing data (cases 29 & 30 are 0) 30 1 = Shamanistic 89 2 = Communal 12 3 = Polytheistic 37 4 = Monotheistic SEXUAL JEALOUSY Ralph B. Hupka and James M. Ryan. 1990. The Cultural Contribution To Jealousy: Cross-Cultural Aggression in Sexual Jealousy Situations. Cross-Cultural Research 24(1-4): 51-71. STDS94.DAT Vars. 2014-2019. Consult the Appendix pp65-67 for scoring of the variables 2014. Male jealousy: Reactions to an adulterous wife. 0 . = Missing data values and frequencies to be added (may be multiples of 9) 2015. Female jealousy: Reactions to an adulterous husband. 146 . = Missing data 2 15 = 17 18 = 1 23 = 1 24 = 3 27 = 1 32 = 1 34 = 3 36 = 1 8 = 10 9 = 2016. Pair bonding: Marriage bonds difficult to break, importance and necessity of marriage. 2017. Attitudes to progeny: Pair bonds strengthened by presence of children 2018. Property: Importancet of private ownership of property and severity of punishment for theft. 2019. Sexual gratification: Extent to which sexual activity was restricted to matrimony. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF FORAGERS (Pryor I) Pryor, Frederic L. 2003. Economic Systems of Foragers. Cross-Cultural Research 37(4):393-426. http://ccr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/37/4/393. Data are not contained in the article. See: http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Economics/fpryor1/Systems_Data.xls Notes on the Economic Systems of Foragers (pdf) Appendices to essay "Economic Systems of Foragers" :http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Economics/fpryor1/Notes%20on%20Foragers.PDF STDS95.DAT Vars. 2020-2043. v2020. Economic System, Derived from Cluster Analysis. (Pryor I) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 12 1 classic foragers 13 2 transition foragers 9 3 unequal-politically foragers 13 4 unequal-socioeconomically foragers 10 5 unequal-intangibles foragers 129 NA NA v2021. Distribution of Wealth. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 17 1 general equality 6 1.5 1.5 17 2 some differences in wealth 3 2.5 2.5 14 3 considerable differences in wealth 129 NA NA v2022. Food Sharing/Redistribution, Composite Variable including Both Food Shared On-the-spot Where Foraged (Weight of 1/3) and Food Shared-in-camp (Weight of 2/3) . Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=40 Stat Value nobs 57 mean 2.489 min 0.667 max 4 sd 0.801 v2023. Market Exchange or Barter. Market Exchange Appears to Form a Guttman Scale: Little Internal Market Exchange Occurred in the Absence of Considerable External Market Exchange, While the Reverse Did Not Hold. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=9 Freq Value Description 2 1 little or no market exchange 4 1.5 1.5 12 2 market exchange but primarily with few external traders 8 2.5 2.5 11 3 market exchange with many external agents 2 3.5 3.5 10 4 external market exchange plus some internal market exchange as well 4 4.5 4.5 4 5 considerable internal and external market exchange. 129 NA NA v2024. Taxation or Tribute. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 47 0 political leader had no special rights to part of foraging produce of others 1 0.5 0.5 9 1 political leader had special rights to part of foraging produce of others, which can either be redistributed or kept for personal use. 129 NA NA v2025. Possession of Land. a Composite Variable Running from 0 through 4, Coding the Degree to Which Groups and Persons Claimed Exclusive Rights to Land. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=8 Freq Value Description 5 0 no group territorial claims, no individual ownership of land 2 0.5 0.5 14 1 1 22 2 2 3 2.5 2.5 6 3 3 4 4 territory claimed by small or large family group, and all or important parts of land privately owned 1 5 5 129 NA NA v2026. Food Storage. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 21 1 no storage or short-term storage (for several days) or storage only of luxury foods 1 1.5 1.5 29 2 food storage in one season to last over other seasons for nourishment purposes 2 2.5 2.5 4 3 food storage covering more than a years nourishment needs (surplus could be used for other purposes such as ceremonial use). 129 NA NA v2027. Slave Holding Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 40 1 no slaves at focus date 1 1.5 war captives taken, but treated well 9 2 presence of slaves, but usually held only by elite 2 2.5 2.5 5 3 presence of slaves and all could hold. 129 NA NA v2028. Property in Intangibles, Especially Curing Techniques Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 7 1 knowledge widely shared 1 1.5 1.5 14 2 knowledge specialized but economically unimportant to owner 11 2.5 2.5 24 3 knowledge specialized and constituted an important source of income 129 NA NA v2029. Extent of Bridewealth Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 40 1 none, small gifts, mutual exchange of gifts, or a substitute form of compensation such as bride service 2 1.5 1.5 7 2 some, but not significant wealth involved 8 3 significant wealth involved 129 NA NA v2030. Inheritance of Movable Property. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 10 1 very little; most movable property destroyed or buried with corpse 7 1.5 1.5 20 2 some property inherited, some destroyed or buried 5 2.5 2.5 15 3 significant share of movable property inherited 129 NA NA v2031. Territoriality and Predominant Unit of Land Holding. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 6 0 no significant territoriality 1 0.5 0.5 14 1 territory claimed by tribe as a whole 1 2 territory claimed by subgroups of tribe larger than the band 26 3 territory claimed by band or local group 7 4 territory claimed by extended family, gens, or clan 2 5 territory claimed by small families or individuals 129 NA NA v2032. Importance of Private Land Holding by Individuals or Families. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 25 1 private land either nonexistent, unimportant, or casual 3 1.5 1.5 18 2 particular (non-critical) areas or sites held private, such as individual trees 4 2.5 2.5 5 3 large areas held privately, but also some large community land 2 4 most land divided privately (individuals or families) 129 NA NA v2033. Political Centralization. a Composite Variable Running from 0 through 4 Equally Weighting the Political Leaders Relative Wealth; the Power of the Political Leader (Leader Was Weak and Operated Though Influence, Weak and Worked with a Council, Strong but Worked with a Council, Strong and Ruled Alone) ; the Formal Nature of Political Leadership (Leadership Was Informal, Leader Selected in Semi-formal or Formal Process, or Leadership Inherited) ; and Extent of Power (Strictly Local, over Several Local Groups, or over Tribe) . Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=19 Stat Value nobs 57 mean 0.966 min 0 max 3.25 sd 0.921 v2034. Social Differentiation of Free Individuals (I. E., excluding Slaves) . Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 31 1 general egalitarianism 5 1.5 1.5 10 2 individuals or families ranked 6 2.5 2.5 5 3 at least two distinct classes with considerable inheritance of status. There were no societies with castes. 129 NA NA v2035. Fixity of Residence/Nomadism. the Basic Distinction Is between Societies with and without Permanent Homes. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 12 1 Society without permanent homes, roaming the entire year 1 1.5 1.5 15 2 Society has temporary stationary encampment for some months and roams the remainder of the year 3 2.5 2.5 8 3 Society has permanent homes, but is nomadic for part of the year 3 4 Society moves between two or more permanent homes 15 5 Society had single permanent home for many years 129 NA NA v2036. Average Population Size of Most Significant Local Group. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=10 Freq Value Description 23 1 < 50 5 1.5 1.5 4 2 50 - 99 8 2.5 2.5 1 3 100 - 149 5 4 150 - 199 3 4.5 4.5 1 5 200 - 249 1 5.5 5.5 6 6 over 250. 129 NA NA v2037. Contact with the West, during the Pinpointed Year Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 24 1 relatively little contact with white traders, missionaries, or officials 13 1.5 1.5 20 2 sufficient contact with white traders, missionaries, or officials to have an important impact on the economy. 129 NA NA v2038. Presence of Gambling. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 31 1 1 2 1.5 1.5 5 2 some 3 2.5 2.5 16 3 considerable. 129 NA NA v2039. Presence of Potlatch. Potlatch Covers Those Ceremonies in Which Large Quantities of Property Are given Away or Destroyed by the Owner to Demonstrate the Owners Wealth and Thus Prestige. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 49 1 not present 6 2 present but property given away and not destroyed 2 3 property either given away or destroyed. 129 NA NA v2040. Rights in Women. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 23 1 women have sole right to choose own husband 13 1.5 1.5 18 2 family has dominant rights in selecting a womans husband 1 2.5 2.5 2 3 men in the family use their rights in determining a womans husband to obtain a spouse for themselves. 129 NA NA v2041. Transportation of Stored Food. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 18 1 no storage or stored food carried on back 39 2 use of horses, sleds, or boats to transport stored foods 129 NA NA v2042. Demand-sharing. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=56; Number of unique values=8 Freq Value Description 8 1 yes, if an article was requested in some way, it was usually handed over. This could occur in the form either of direct asking, considerable scrounging, or tolerated theft. 2 1.5 1.5 20 2 demandsharing occurred only for certain goods, for instance, food 1 2.5 2.5 5 3 demand reciprocity - if an article was requested, the recipient gave a gift before asking 4 4 only the chief or leader required to honor requests 1 4.5 4.5 15 5 no demand-sharing. 130 NA NA v2043. Carneiro Complexity Measure. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=29 Stat Value nobs 57 mean 43.877 min 7 max 332 sd 51.56 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF FORAGING, AGRICULTURAL, AND INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Source: Appendices to Frederic L. Pryor, 2005. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agriculture, and Industrial Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press. Data are not contained in book. http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=Economic+Systems+Pryor http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Economics/fpryor1/pryor%20appendix%20%20texts%20-%20Economic%20Systems%20of%20Foraging%20ag%20and%20industrial%20societies.html NO: Appendix to Chapter 3. Click here for PDF file. Part Two. From Foraging to Farming Appendix to Chapter 4. Click here for PDF file. Part Three. Economic Systems of Agriculturalists. Appendix to Chapter 5. Click here for PDF file. Part Three. From Agriculture to Industry. "Data on Transition to Agriculture.xls" and "AgTransition.xls" are identical. Both contain the same variables as the forager dataset you sent earlier, but they contain more societies. So I will use those data. His other unique dataset is "Data on Agricultural Socities.xls". STDS96.DAT Vars. 2044-2069. v2044. Economic System (Pryor II) . Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 8 1 herding plus economic system 14 2 egalitarian farming economic system 5 3 individualistic farming economic system 13 4 semi-marketized farming economic system. 146 NA NA v2045. Communal or Private Ownership of Fields. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=8 Freq Value Description 1 0 No ownership or individual use rights recognized 5 1 communal fields, individual use rights not recognized 2 1.5 1.5 2 2 communal fields, individual use rights recognized 4 3 fields owned by large family unit (clan, gens, sib), use rights assigned to individuals 3 3.5 3.5 23 4 fields owned by individuals or small family unit. 1 5 5 145 NA NA v2046. Individual Use Rights to Fields, Bounded or Absolute. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 3 0 no use rights over land recognized 5 1 land communally held or held by large kin groups, and use directed by headman or kin-group head 12 2 land rights held by individual or small family unit, but community or large kin group can regulate sale or intervene in other ways 6 2.5 2.5 15 3 land rights held by individual or small family unit, and neither community nor large kin group intervenes. 145 NA NA v2047. Individual Ownership of Unfarmed but Usable (Empty) Lands. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 2 0 empty lands open to all 1 0.5 0.5 19 1 empty lands and meadows held by community or large kin group directed by leaders of community or kin group, and individual rights assigned when needed. 1 1.5 1.5 17 2 empty lands held and controlled by individuals or small family unit. 146 NA NA v2048. Rate of Land Rents. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 17 1 no rents 3 1.5 1.5 6 2 middle range rents (e.g. up to 25% of crop) 2 2.5 2.5 6 3 rents between 25 and 50 % of crop 7 3.5 3.5 145 NA NA v2049. Tenancy. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 15 1 use rights or ownership almost always by actual farmer or herder 5 1.5 1.5 10 2 some lands rented 5 2.5 2.5 4 3 most lands rented 1 4 most land farmed by hired or unfree laborers (considered as a form of tenancy). 146 NA NA v2050. Mutual Aid in Farming or Herding. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=38; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 9 0 farming done usually by individuals or small family groups with little outside help from friends, neighbors, or relatives 14 0.5 0.5 15 1 considerable mutual aid or labor exchanges. 148 NA NA v2051. Work-coordination. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 12 0 each individual farmer or herder works on own schedule 5 0.5 0.5 5 1 farming or herding activities coordinated to a certain degree because of the exigencies of irrigation or grazing 2 1.5 1.5 15 2 extensive coordination of agricultural activities of individual farmers or herders. 147 NA NA v2052. Unfree Labor in the Last Two Centuries. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 18 1 none 2 1.5 1.5 12 2 some slavery or serfdom, but not extensive 5 2.5 2.5 4 3 extensive use of slave or serf labor. 145 NA NA v2053. Unfree Labor at the Pinpointed Date. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 34 1 none 1 1.5 1.5 4 2 some slavery or serfdom, but not extensive 1 2.5 2.5 1 3 extensive use of slave or serf labor. 145 NA NA v2054. Inheritance by All Children or Primogeniture, Considering Only the Inheritance of Land (in a Cultivating Society) or Herds (in a Herding Society) . Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 3 0 no inheritance 7 1 inheritance split among all children 8 1.5 1.5 11 2 inheritance split among children of one sex 10 2.5 2.5 2 3 inheritance primarily by one child. 145 NA NA v2055. Central Redistribution of Food, Either by the Headman, the Big Man, a Clan Leader, or a Church. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 22 1 little such redistribution 8 1.5 1.5 8 2 moderate redistribution 2 3 considerable redistribution. 146 NA NA v2056. Trade of Goods with Other Communities. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 1 1 not important 2 1.5 1.5 8 2 somewhat important (roughly 5% of total production of goods) 5 2.5 2.5 24 3 very important (more than 10% of total production of goods). 146 NA NA v2057. Intra-community Trade of Goods Made within the Community and Traded with Other Community Members. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 13 1 not important 12 1.5 1.5 2 2 some what important (roughly 5 % of total production of goods) 3 2.5 2.5 9 3 very important (roughly 10 % or more of total production of goods). 147 NA NA v2058. Importance of Wage Labor outside the Community. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 14 1 little such activity 9 1.5 1.5 5 2 somewhat important (roughly 5% of the total labor supply) 2 2.5 2.5 10 3 very important (roughly 10 %of more of the total labor supply) 146 NA NA v2059. Importance of Wage Labor inside the Community. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 11 1 little such activity. 9 1.5 1.5 6 2 somewhat important (roughly 5%of the total labor supply) 1 2.5 2.5 14 3 very important (roughly 10%or more of the total labor supply). 145 NA NA v2060. Interest on Loans. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=37; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 8 1 none 8 2 interest charged, but primarily on commercial loans (such as loans by moneylenders) 7 2.5 2.5 14 3 interest charged on most loans, commercial or personal (except from close relatives). 149 NA NA v2061. Inequality of Wealth in the Form of Land Holdings and Herds. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 1 1 general equality 10 2 some differences in wealth 8 2.5 2.5 21 3 considerable differences in wealth. 146 NA NA v2062. Relative Wealth of Political Leaders in the Community. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 10 1 local political leader has little more wealth than others 7 1.5 1.5 22 2 local political leader among the wealthiest in community. 147 NA NA v2063. Social Inequality of Free Population. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 1 1 general egalitarianism 6 1.5 1.5 14 2 social ranking important 2 2.5 2.5 18 3 at least two distinct classes or castes, other than slaves and royalty. 145 NA NA v2064. Presence of Irrigation. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 17 0 no irrigation 3 0.5 some use of irrigation 21 1 considerable use of irrigation. 145 NA NA v2065. Political Centralization. Unweighted Average Of: Relative Wealth of Local Political Leader, Power of Local Leader, Selection of Political Leader, Extent of Local Political Hierarchy, and Level of Sovereignty (Each Scaled from 0 (Low Centralization) to 4 (High Centralization)) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=32 Stat Value nobs 41 mean 1.885 min 0.3 max 4 sd 0.953 v2066. Number of Persons in Community Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=12 Freq Value Description 3 1 or < 50 1 1.5 1.5 3 2 50-99 1 2.5 2.5 2 3 100-149 3 4 150-199 3 4.5 4.5 3 6.5 6.5 3 7 300-399 2 8 400-500 1 8.5 8.5 16 9 9 145 NA NA v2067. Capital Intensity of Production. One Point Each for the Presence of Plows, Irrigation, Terracing, and Fertilization. One Point for 15 to 35% Reliance on Animal Husbandry for Food; Two Points for 35 to 65% Reliance; Three Points for 65 to 85% Reliance; and Four Points for 85% or More Reliance. the Total Capital Intensity Was the Sum of These Two Calculations, but Truncated at 4. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 3 0 0 1 0.5 0.5 1 1.5 1.5 5 2 2 1 2.5 2.5 5 3 3 25 4 4 145 NA NA v2068. Form of Rent. Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 16 0 no rent 2 1 payment in labor 5 2 fixed payment in crops (often simply a symbolic rent) 1 2.5 2.5 13 3 payment in a share of the crop 3 4 fixed money rent 146 NA NA v2069. Presence of Gambling. (Pryor II) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=38; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 1 0 0 21 1 little or none 4 1.5 1.5 6 2 some 4 2.5 2.5 2 3 considerable 148 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Chick, Garry, and John W. Loy. Making Men of Them: Male Socialization for Warfare and Combative Sports. World Cultures 12, no. 1 (2001): 2-17. v2070. Combative Sports 56: Number of individual combative sports reported Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 52 0 None reported 37 1 One reported 14 2 Two reported 5 3 Three reported 2 4 Four reported 76 NA NA v2071. Combative Sports 57: Data quality, individual combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 17 1 Low 24 2 LowMedium 46 3 Medium 22 4 MediumHigh 1 5 High 76 NA NA v2072. Combative Sports 58: Level of aggression in indvcs Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 25 1 Body contact but no mention of frequency of injuries 3 2 Weapons used but no mention of frequency of injuries 1 3 Body contact resulting in few or no injuries 4 5 Body contact resulting in frequent and/or severe injuries 3 6 Weapons used resulting in frequent and/or severe injuries 74 8 No information on frequency or severity of injuries 76 NA NA v2073. Combative Sports 59: Data quality, level of aggressiveness in individual combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 17 1 Low 15 2 LowMedium 12 3 Medium 4 4 MediumHigh 62 8 No information 76 NA NA v2074. Combative Sports 60: Participants in individual combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 15 1 Men only 13 2 Men and boys 5 3 Boys only 2 5 Mixed groups (M&F) 75 8 Insufficient information to determine participation 76 NA NA v2075. Combative Sports 61: Data quality, participants in individual combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 15 1 Low 8 2 LowMedium 12 3 Medium 9 4 MediumHigh 4 5 High 62 8 No information 76 NA NA v2076. Combative Sports 62: Number of team combative sports reported Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=4 Freq Value Description 75 0 No team combative sports reported 23 1 One ream combative sport reported 8 2 Two team combative sports reported 4 3 Three team combative sports reported 76 NA NA v2077. Combative Sports 63: Data quality, team combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 25 1 Low 22 2 LowMedium 40 3 Medium 19 4 MediumHigh 3 5 High 1 8 No information 76 NA NA v2078. Combative Sports 64: Level of aggression in team combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 2 1 Body contact but no mention of frequency of injuries 4 2 Weapons used but no mention of frequency of injuries 1 3 Body contact resulting in few or no injuries 1 4 Use of weapons largely symbolic, few or no injuries 4 5 Violent body contact, frequent and/or severe injuries 3 6 Weapons used resulting in frequent and/or severe injuries 95 8 No information on frequency or severity of injuries 76 NA NA v2079. Combative Sports 65: Data quality, level of aggression in team combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 15 1 Low 3 2 LowMedium 10 3 Medium 1 4 MediumHigh 1 5 High 80 8 No information 76 NA NA v2080. Combative Sports 66: Participants in team combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 3 1 Men only 2 2 Men and boys 5 3 Boys only 2 4 Women only 8 5 Mixed groups (M&F) 90 8 No information on participants in team combative sports 76 NA NA v2081. Combative Sports 67: Data quality, participants in team combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 8 1 Low 3 2 LowMedium 2 3 Medium 8 4 MediumHigh 7 5 High 82 8 No information 76 NA NA v2082. Combative Sports 68: Number of sham combats reported Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 76 0 None reported 24 1 One reported 8 2 Two reported 1 3 Three reported 1 4 Four reported 76 NA NA v2083. Combative Sports 69: Data quality, sham combats Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 19 1 Low 13 2 LowMedium 54 3 Medium 21 4 MediumHigh 3 5 High 76 NA NA v2084. Combative Sports 70: Level of aggression in sham combats Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 1 1 Body contact but no mention of frequency of injuries 16 2 Weapons used but no mention of frequency of injuries 5 4 Use of weapons largely symbolic, few or no injuries 6 6 Use of weapons resulting in frequent and/or severe injuries 82 8 No information on frequency or severity of injuries 76 NA NA v2085. Combative Sports 71: Data quality, aggression in sham combats Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 4 1 Low 13 2 LowMedium 8 3 Medium 8 4 MediumHigh 1 5 High 76 8 No information 76 NA NA v2086. Combative Sports 72: Participants, sham combats Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 7 1 Men only 8 2 Men and boys 9 3 Boys only 1 5 Mixed groups (M&F) 83 8 No information on participants in team combative sports 2 9 Confusing or contradictory information 76 NA NA v2087. Combative Sports 73: Data quality, participants in sham combats Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 9 1 Low 5 2 LowMedium 6 3 Medium 9 4 MediumHigh 5 5 High 76 8 No information 76 NA NA v2088. Combative Sports 74: Number of non combative sports reported Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=11 Freq Value Description 19 0 None reported 22 1 One reported 22 2 Two reported 13 3 Three reported 10 4 Four reported 6 5 Five reported 6 6 Six reported 5 7 Seven reported 3 8 Eight reported 1 9 Nine reported 3 10 Ten reported 76 NA NA v2089. Combative Sports 75: Data quality, non combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 16 1 Low 40 2 LowMedium 41 3 Medium 9 4 MediumHigh 3 5 High 1 8 No information 76 NA NA v2090. Combative Sports 76: Participants in non combative sports Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 12 1 Men only 18 2 Men and boys 7 3 Boys only 1 4 Women only 16 5 Mixed groups (M&F) 56 8 No information on participants in non combative sports 76 NA NA v2091. Combative Sports 77: Data quality, participants in non combative sprts Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6 Freq Value Description 22 1 Low 15 2 LowMedium 26 3 Medium 12 4 MediumHigh 2 5 High 33 8 No information 76 NA NA v2092. Combative Sports 78: Combative sport present (0-1 var from #56, #62, #68) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 28 0 Absent 82 1 Present 76 NA NA v2093. Combative Sports 79: Total number of sports reported (sum of #56,#62,#68,#74) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=14 Freq Value Description 9 0 0 10 1 1 17 2 2 15 3 3 13 4 4 10 5 5 8 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 6 9 9 1 10 10 3 11 11 1 12 12 3 14 14 76 NA NA v2094. Combative Sports 80: Proportion of individual combative sports (#56 / #79) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=20 Stat Value nobs 101 mean 0.209 min 0 max 1 sd 0.26 v2095. Combative Sports 81: Proportion of team combative sports (#62 / #79) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=17 Stat Value nobs 101 mean 0.096 min 0 max 1 sd 0.168 v2096. Combative Sports 82: Proportion of sham combats (#68 / #79) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=15 Freq Value Description 67 0 0 1 0.071 0.071 1 0.083 0.083 1 0.111 0.111 2 0.125 0.125 3 0.143 0.143 3 0.167 0.167 1 0.182 0.182 6 0.2 0.2 3 0.222 0.222 2 0.25 0.25 3 0.333 0.333 6 0.5 0.5 1 0.667 0.667 1 1 1 85 NA NA v2097. Combative Sports 83: Proportion of non combative sports (#74 / #79) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=27 Stat Value nobs 101 mean 0.6 min 0 max 1 sd 0.303 ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Stephans, W.N. 1962 The Oedipus complex. Glencoe, Ill., Free Press. p305 Appendix 2 v2098. Severity of sex training [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=25; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 12 -1 Absence 13 1 Presence 161 NA NA v2099. Pregnancy sex taboo [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=20; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 10 -1 Absence 10 1 Presence 166 NA NA v2100. Sexual intercourse before marriage prohibited [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=21; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 13 -1 Absence 8 1 Presence 165 NA NA v2101. Sexual intercourse usually punished in folklore [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=16; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 12 -1 Absence 4 1 Presence 170 NA NA v2102. Sexual avoidance therapy [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=26; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 20 -1 Absence 6 1 Presence 160 NA NA v2103. Sexual explanations for Illness [measured as strength of + (presence) and - (absence)] Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=29; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 16 -1 Absence 13 1 Presence 157 NA NA v2104. Stephans summative scoring, leaving blank those cases where there are too few indicators to form a sum Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=24; Number of unique values=9 Freq Value Description 2 -5 -5 7 -4 -4 1 -3 -3 3 -2 -2 3 -1 -1 2 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 4 1 5 5 162 NA NA v2105. Doug White's summative scoring for all cases Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=33; Number of unique values=10 Freq Value Description 3 -5 -5 6 -4 -4 1 -3 -3 4 -2 -2 6 -1 -1 3 0 0 6 2 2 1 3 3 2 4 4 1 5 5 153 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Rosenblatt, Paul C. "Marital Residence and the Functions of Romantic Love." Ethnology 6, no. 4 (October 1, 1967): 471-480. doi:10.2307/3772832. v2106. Romantic Love Ratings (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=51; Number of unique values=18 Stat Value nobs 51 mean 10.216 min 1 max 20 sd 5.693 v2107. Premarital Sex (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 19 0 Disapproved/prohibited 23 1 Allowed/tolerated 144 NA NA v2108. Extramarital Sex (Rosenblatt 1967) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=38; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 9 1 Allowed for both 11 2 Allowed for husband only 18 3 Prohibited for both 148 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Aronoff, Joel. Parental Nurturance in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Theory, Coding, and Scores. Cross-Cultural Research 46, no. 4 (November 1, 2012): 315-347. doi:10.1177/1069397112450851. v2109. Parental Nurturance Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=130; Number of unique values=8 Freq Value Description 5 2 Parental behavior is most harmful to childrens emotional development 9 3 Harmful parental behavior is less intense than maximally negative 19 4 Most parental behavior is harmful but appears at a more moderate level 29 5 Although some positive parental factors may appear, childrens growth is largely restricted 17 6 Parental behavior is a compound of moderately positive and negative factors 9 7 Although largely a positive collection of parental skills, a specific negative factor may appear 33 8 An optimally respectful cluster of warm, attentive, and stable parental care 9 9 The engagement of parents in nurturing involvements appears more deeply and consistently 56 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: BACON, Margaret K.; Herbert BARRY III; Irvin L. CHILD; Charles R. SNYDER. 1965 "A cross-cultural study of drinking", Quarterly journal of alcohol studies (special issue), Supplement 3. v2110. Amount Consumed Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=48; Number of unique values=11 Freq Value Description 5 0 none 1 1 none to very small amounts 1 5 small to moderate amounts 5 6 moderate but less than average 6 7 less than average 7 8 average 3 9 average to somewhat above average 5 10 somewhat above average 6 11 above average 8 12 large amounts 1 13 large to very large amounts 138 NA NA v2111. Amount Consumed Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=16; Number of unique values=10 Freq Value Description 2 0 none 1 3 very small to small amounts 2 4 small amounts 2 5 small to moderate amounts 2 6 moderate but less than average 2 7 less than average 2 8 average 1 9 average to somewhat above average 1 10 somewhat above average 1 12 large amounts 170 NA NA v2112. Frequency of Drunkeness Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=13 Freq Value Description 4 0 nonexistent 1 1 nonexistent to very rare 2 3 very rare to unusual 5 4 does occur but unusual 4 5 unusual to occasional 2 6 not unusual but less than average 4 8 average in frequency and degree 2 9 average to somewhat above average 2 10 somewhat above average 3 11 above average 7 12 considerably more frequent than average 6 13 very frequent but not extreme 3 14 extreme 141 NA NA v2113. Frequency of Drunkeness Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=14; Number of unique values=12 Freq Value Description 2 0 nonexistent 1 1 nonexistent to very rare 1 2 very rare 1 3 very rare to unusual 1 4 does occur but unusual 2 5 unusual to occasional 1 6 not unusual but less than average 1 7 not unusual to average 1 10 somewhat above average 1 11 above average 1 12 considerably more frequent than average 1 13 very frequent but not extreme 172 NA NA v2114. Extent of Problem Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=43; Number of unique values=13 Freq Value Description 1 0 no problem 1 1 none to insignificant 2 2 very slight if any 6 3 slight problem 3 4 some problem but not severe 3 5 noticeable problem 4 6 moderate problem 2 7 moderate to considerable problem 3 8 considerable problem 3 9 considerable to severe problem 5 10 severe problem 5 11 severe to very severe problem 5 12 very severe problem 143 NA NA v2115. Extent of Procurement Effort Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=10 Freq Value Description 2 3 very slight labor or expense devoted to beverages 2 4 slight labor or expense devoted to beverages 4 5 slight to moderate labor or expense 7 6 moderate labor or expense 7 7 moderate to considerable labor or expense 4 8 considerable outlay of labor or expense 2 9 considerable to large labor or expense 3 10 a large outlay of labor or expense 5 11 procurement verges on being a major cultural focus 6 12 a major part of cultural effort is devoted to preparing or procuring the beverages 144 NA NA v2116. Extent of Procurement Effort Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=8; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 1 5 slight to moderate labor or expense 1 6 moderate labor or expense 1 7 moderate to considerable labor or expense 1 8 considerable outlay of labor or expense 2 9 considerable to large labor or expense 1 10 a large outlay of labor or expense 1 11 procurement verges on being a major cultural focus 178 NA NA v2117. Amount of Nurturant Care given Drinkers Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=3; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 1 0 no nurturance 1 5 occasional to moderate nurturance 1 10 frequent nurturance 183 NA NA v2118. Amount of Nurturant Care given Drinkers Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=8; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 2 7 moderate to considerable nurturance 1 9 considerable to frequent nurturance 3 10 frequent nurturance 1 11 frequent acts of nurturance to major acts of nurturance 1 12 major acts of nurturance 178 NA NA v2119. Boisterousness of Drinking Bouts Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=36; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value Description 1 6 slightly quiet and inactive to neither loud nor quiet 3 9 slightly loud and boisterous 3 10 slightly to moderately loud and boisterous 9 11 moderately loud and boisterous 6 12 moderately to very loud and boisterous 8 13 very loud and boisterous 6 14 extremely loud and boisterous 150 NA NA v2120. Boisterousness of Drinking Bouts Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=8; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 2 0 extremely quiet and inactive 1 9 slightly loud and boisterous 1 11 moderately loud and boisterous 3 12 moderately to very loud and boisterous 1 13 very loud and boisterous 178 NA NA v2121. Approval of Drinking Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=44; Number of unique values=11 Freq Value Description 1 2 very strong disapproval 1 5 strong to mild disapproval 1 6 mild disapproval 2 7 mild disapproval to indifference 1 8 attitude is one of indifference 2 9 indifference to mild approval 1 10 mild approval 2 11 mild to strong approval 10 12 strong approval 11 13 strong to very strong approval 12 14 very strong approval 142 NA NA v2122. Approval of Drinking Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 1 6 mild disapproval 1 7 mild disapproval to indifference 1 10 mild approval 1 11 mild to strong approval 1 13 strong to very strong approval 181 NA NA v2123. Approval of Drunkeness Male Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=11 Freq Value Description 4 2 very strong disapproval 3 3 very strong to strong disapproval 3 4 strong disapproval 1 5 strong to mild disapproval 3 6 mild disapproval 3 7 mild disapproval to indifference 4 10 mild approval 7 11 mild to strong approval 4 12 strong approval 6 13 strong to very strong approval 1 14 very strong approval 147 NA NA v2124. Approval of Drunkeness Female Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=7; Number of unique values=5 Freq Value Description 1 1 extremely strong disapproval 2 3 very strong to strong disapproval 2 4 strong disapproval 1 6 mild disapproval 1 9 indifference to mild approval 179 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Douglas R. White 2013 v2125. Importance of Wage Labor inside the Community or outside (If Return Migration) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=3 Freq Value Description 66 1 little such activity 28 2 some important (roughly 5% of total labor supply) 62 3 very important (10% or more of the total labor supply) 30 NA NA v2126-2176 are found in ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: George P. Murdock and Caterina Provost. 1973. Factors in the Division of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Ethnology 12: 203-225. v2126. Food Collection: Vegetal (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 10 0 absent 169 1 present 7 NA NA v2127. Food Collection: Insects, and/or Small Land Fauna (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 18 0 absent 115 1 present 53 NA NA v2128. Food Collection: Shellfish/Small Aquatic Fauna (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 85 0 absent 77 1 present 24 NA NA v2129. Food Collection: Honey (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=106; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 38 0 absent 68 1 present 80 NA NA v2130. Food Collection: Fowling (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=157; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 16 0 absent 141 1 present 29 NA NA v2131. Food Collection: Fishing (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 29 0 absent 153 1 present 4 NA NA v2132. Food Collection: Trapping (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 20 0 absent 151 1 present 15 NA NA v2133. Food Collection: Large Land Fauna (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 36 0 absent 144 1 present 6 NA NA v2134. Food Collection: Large Aquatic Fauna (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 127 0 absent 50 1 present 9 NA NA v2135. Food Production: Land Clearance (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 44 0 absent 140 1 present 2 NA NA v2136. Food Production: Soil Preparation (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 49 0 absent 135 1 present 2 NA NA v2137. Food Production: Planting (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 44 0 absent 141 1 present 1 NA NA v2138. Food Production: Crop Tending (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 48 0 absent 134 1 present 4 NA NA v2139. Food Production: Harvesting (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 44 0 absent 141 1 present 1 NA NA v2140. Food Production: Small Domestic Animals (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 13 0 absent 167 1 present 6 NA NA v2141. Food Production: Large Domestic Animals (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 76 0 absent 108 1 present 2 NA NA v2142. Food Production: Milking (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 127 0 absent 58 1 present 1 NA NA v2143. Food Preparation: Vegetal: Food Preparation (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 2 0 absent 176 1 present 8 NA NA v2144. Food Preparation: Butchering (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=167; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 8 0 absent 159 1 present 19 NA NA v2145. Food Preparation: Preservation (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=161; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 31 0 absent 130 1 present 25 NA NA v2146. Food Preparation: Drinks (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 37 0 absent 133 1 present 16 NA NA v2147. Food Preparation: Dairy (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 130 0 absent 48 1 present 8 NA NA v2148. Food Preparation: Cooking (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=1 Freq Value Description 185 1 present 1 NA NA v2149. Extractive Industries: Mining/Quarrying (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 106 0 absent 41 1 present 39 NA NA v2150. Extractive Industries: Fuel Gathering (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 1 0 absent 178 1 present 7 NA NA v2151. Extractive Industries: Lumbering (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=169; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 14 0 absent 155 1 present 17 NA NA v2152. Extractive Industries: Water Fetching (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=1 Freq Value Description 185 1 present 1 NA NA v2153. Intermediate Processing: Skins (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 48 0 absent 125 1 present 13 NA NA v2154. Intermediate Processing: Spinning (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 56 0 absent 100 1 present 30 NA NA v2155. Intermediate Processing: Loom Weaving (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 81 0 absent 89 1 present 16 NA NA v2156. Intermediate Processing: Smelting (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 125 0 absent 37 1 present 24 NA NA v2157. Manufacturing: Matmaking (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 29 0 absent 134 1 present 23 NA NA v2158. Manufacturing: Netmaking (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 45 0 absent 110 1 present 31 NA NA v2159. Manufacturing: Basketmaking (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 21 0 absent 149 1 present 16 NA NA v2160. Manufacturing: Rope or Cordage (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 3 0 absent 167 1 present 16 NA NA v2161. Manufacturing: Leather (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 57 0 absent 106 1 present 23 NA NA v2162. Manufacturing: Clothing (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 36 0 absent 127 1 present 23 NA NA v2163. Manufacturing: Pottery (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 61 0 absent 111 1 present 14 NA NA v2164. Manufacturing: Wood (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 1 0 absent 181 1 present 4 NA NA v2165. Manufacturing: Bone (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 14 0 absent 126 1 present 46 NA NA v2166. Manufacturing: Stone (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=143; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 39 0 absent 104 1 present 43 NA NA v2167. Manufacturing: Metal (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 93 0 absent 86 1 present 7 NA NA v2168. Manufacturing: Musical Instruments (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 8 0 absent 162 1 present 16 NA NA v2169. Miscellaneous: Fire (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 3 0 absent 182 1 present 1 NA NA v2170. Miscellaneous: Laundering (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 52 0 absent 75 1 present 59 NA NA v2171. Miscellaneous: Bodily Mutilation (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=164; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 13 0 absent 151 1 present 22 NA NA v2172. Miscellaneous: Bonesetting/Surgery (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=98; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 37 0 absent 61 1 present 88 NA NA v2173. Miscellaneous: Burden Carrying (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 3 0 absent 152 1 present 31 NA NA v2174. Miscellaneous: Boatbuilding (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 79 0 absent 96 1 present 11 NA NA v2175. Miscellaneous: Housebuilding (task present==1, absent==0) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value Description 1 0 absent 184 1 present 1 NA NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Douglas R. White. 1988. Rethinking Polygyny: Co-Wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems. Current Anthropology 29:529-559. (project begun in collaboration with Michael L. Burton, and John W. M. Whiting). f=SCCS$v872/100 ; m=SCCS$v871/100 ; (1-f)=proportion of married females that are monogamous; (1-m)=proportion of married males that are monogamous; M=number of married males; F=number of married females; Since the number of monogomous males equals the number of monogamous females: (1-f)*F=(1-m)*M; so F/M=(1-m)/(1-f) v2176. Mean number wives per husband (Married Women/Married Men) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=78 Stat Value nobs 142 mean 1.349 min 1 max 8 sd 0.856 RECENT CODES CONTRIBUTED SOURCE: Elizabeth Cashdan and Matt Steele. 2013. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Human Nature 24(1):59-75. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (abstract) Appendix pp25-30: The sum score is the total of the individual pathogen scores. The z-score includes additional data (a finer breakdown of schistosomes and leishmanias, plus two of Low's pathogen scores). Human Nature 24(1):59-75. r = 0.96 corr.test(x = dx$v2178, y = dx$v2177) #Correlation matrix v2177. The sum score is the total of the individual pathogen scores. 8-27 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 24 4 7 4 11 12 9 13 6 10 15 10 8 15 10 7 12 6 2 1 v2178. Historical scores were used in order to get pathogen data that matched the SCCS time focus as closely as possible. The z-score includes additional data (a finer breakdown of schistosomes and leishmanias, plus two of Low's pathogen scores). Z-scores (rounded: original three decimal places). -1 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 23 3 6 4 5 9 13 6 10 9 8 12 9 8 10 15 6 6 9 7 4 2 1 1 SOURCE: Sanderson, Stephen K., and Wesley W. Roberts. 2008. The Evolutionary Forms of the Religious Life: A Cross-Cultural, Quantitative Analysis. American Anthropologist 110(4):454-466. 454-466. ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (eds.). 2011. The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. Data at http://wals.info/ (assignment by E. Anthon Eff) wwlang. WALS language name Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=154 First six non-missing records: society wwlang Nama Hottentot Khoekhoe Kung Bushmen !Xun (Ekoka) Thonga Tsonga Lozi Lozi Mbundu UMbundu Hadza Hadza wals. WALS language code Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=154 First six non-missing records: society wals Nama Hottentot KHO Kung Bushmen XUN Thonga TSN Lozi LOZ Mbundu UMB Hadza HAD ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: data from http://www.ethnologue.com/, assigned by E. Anthon Eff iso639.3. ISO 639-3 language code, used on Ethnologue (http://www.ethnologue.com/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 First six non-missing records: society iso639.3 Nama Hottentot naq Kung Bushmen knw Thonga tso Lozi loz Mbundu umb Suku sub lang. Language name, from Ethnologue (http://www.ethnologue.com/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 First six non-missing records: society lang Nama Hottentot Nama Kung Bushmen Kung-Ekoka Thonga Tsonga Lozi Lozi Mbundu Umbundu Suku Suku phyl. Language phylogenetic classification, from Ethnologue (http://www.ethnologue.com/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=174 First six non-missing records: society phyl Nama Hottentot Khoisan,Southern Africa,Central,Nama. Kung Bushmen Khoisan,Southern Africa,Northern. Thonga Niger-Congo,Atlantic-Congo,Volta-Congo,Benue-Congo,Bantoid,Southern,Narrow Bantu,Central,S,Tswa-Ronga (S.50). Lozi Niger-Congo,Atlantic-Congo,Volta-Congo,Benue-Congo,Bantoid,Southern,Narrow Bantu,Central,S,Sotho-Tswana (S.30). Mbundu Niger-Congo,Atlantic-Congo,Volta-Congo,Benue-Congo,Bantoid,Southern,Narrow Bantu,Central,R,South Mbundu (R.10). Suku Niger-Congo,Atlantic-Congo,Volta-Congo,Benue-Congo,Bantoid,Southern,Narrow Bantu,Central,H,Yaka (H.30). reg. Classification into Old World or New World. Used for calculation of linguistic proximity matrix. Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2 Freq Value 63 newWorld 123 oldWorld meanalt. BIOCLIM: Mean altitude within 20 km radius (m) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=172 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 613.892 min 3 max 4344 sd 717.195 sdalt. BIOCLIM: Standard deviation of altitude within 20 km radius (m) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=137 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 150.683 min 1 max 1002 sd 167.814 bio.1. BIOCLIM: Annual Mean Temperature (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 183.775 min -129.682 max 291.365 sd 96.683 bio.2. BIOCLIM: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 108.638 min 44.23 max 178.084 sd 30.854 bio.3. BIOCLIM: Isothermality (bio_2/bio_7) (*100) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 56.473 min 15.013 max 91.438 sd 20.616 bio.4. BIOCLIM: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 3971.71 min 108.25 max 19154.167 sd 3946.218 bio.5. BIOCLIM: Max Temperature of Warmest Month (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 298.356 min 89.825 max 433.26 sd 61.868 bio.6. BIOCLIM: Min Temperature of Coldest Month (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 70.78 min -415.029 max 251.16 sd 146.022 bio.7. BIOCLIM: Temperature Annual Range (bio_5-bio_6) (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 227.84 min 56.438 max 621.039 sd 119.873 bio.8. BIOCLIM: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 199.849 min -46.672 max 304.031 sd 82.795 bio.9. BIOCLIM: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 168.685 min -298.454 max 335.3 sd 122.566 bio.10. BIOCLIM: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 232.444 min 35.656 max 335.3 sd 60.5 bio.11. BIOCLIM: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter (dgC*10) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 131.535 min -362.91 max 276.16 sd 141.606 bio.12. BIOCLIM: Annual Precipitation (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 1430.92 min 0 max 5354.505 sd 1007.061 bio.13. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Wettest Month (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 226.126 min 0 max 583.877 sd 138.079 bio.14. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Driest Month (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=169 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 43.651 min 0 max 347.444 sd 60.366 bio.15. BIOCLIM: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 60.066 min 0 max 159.485 sd 33.298 bio.16. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=185 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 601.248 min 0 max 1587.323 sd 371.443 bio.17. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Driest Quarter (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=175 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 153.488 min 0 max 1137.858 sd 199.869 bio.18. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=182 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 373.284 min 0 max 1365.227 sd 302.936 bio.19. BIOCLIM: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter (mm) (Hijmans et al. 2005) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=182 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 289.144 min 0 max 1500.553 sd 312.893 mnnpp. Mean Net Primary Production within 50 km radius. (scaled) (Imhoff et al. 2004) Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 0.048 min -1.353 max 2.687 sd 1.076 long. Longitude (decimal degrees)--rectified Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=182 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 14.474 min -172.441 max 179.495 sd 92.45 lati. Latitude (decimal degrees)--rectified Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=168 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 14.651 min -55.427 max 68.7 sd 25.139 ecoregion. WWF ecoregion. (Olson et al. 2001) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=155 First six non-missing records: society ecoregion Nama Hottentot Nama Karoo Kung Bushmen Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea Woodland Thonga Maputaland Coastal Forest Lozi Zambezian Flooded Grassland Mbundu Angolan Miombo Woodland Suku Southern Congolian Forest-Savanna Mosaic mht.name. WWF major habitat type. (Olson et al. 2001) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=15 Freq Value 8 Boreal foresttaigas 15 Deserts and xeric shrublands 1 Flooded grasslands 3 Mediterranean scrub 4 Montane grasslands 2 Snow, ice, glaciers, and rock 13 Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests 15 Temperate coniferous forests 8 Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands 2 Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests 12 Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests 32 Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands 66 Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests 4 Tundra 1 Water ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Kottek, M., et al. 2006. World Map of the K̦ppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263. DOI: 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. (assigned by E. Anthon Eff) koeppengei. Koeppen-Geiger climate classification. (Kottek et al. 2006) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=22 First six non-missing records: society koeppengei Nama Hottentot BWk Kung Bushmen BSh Thonga Aw Lozi Cwa Mbundu BSh Suku Aw ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: data from http://www.gadm.org/ (assigned by E. Anthon Eff) iso. ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country codes (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=90 First six non-missing records: society iso Nama Hottentot NAM Kung Bushmen NAM Thonga MOZ Lozi ZMB Mbundu AGO Suku COD name.0. Name of Country (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=90 First six non-missing records: society name.0 Nama Hottentot Namibia Kung Bushmen Namibia Thonga Mozambique Lozi Zambia Mbundu Angola Suku Democratic Republic of the Congo name.1. Name of first subnational administrative level (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=163 First six non-missing records: society name.1 Nama Hottentot Karas Kung Bushmen Otjozondjupa Thonga Maputo Lozi Western Mbundu Bie Suku Bandundu hasc.1. Hierarchical administrative subdivision code--level 1 (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=157 First six non-missing records: society hasc.1 Nama Hottentot NA.KA Kung Bushmen NA.OD Thonga MZ.MP Lozi ZM.WE Mbundu AO.BI Suku CD.BN name.2. Name of second subnational administrative level (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=171 First six non-missing records: society name.2 Nama Hottentot Berseba Kung Bushmen Tsumkwe Thonga Boane Lozi Senanga Mbundu Chinguar Suku Kwango hasc.2. Hierarchical administrative subdivision code--level 2 (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=125; Number of unique values=125 First six non-missing records: society hasc.2 Nama Hottentot NA.KA.BE Kung Bushmen NA.OD.TS Thonga MZ.MP.BO Lozi ZM.WE.SN Mbundu AO.BI.CG Bemba ZM.NO.KS name.3. Name of third subnational administrative level (GADM-2 data from http://www.gadm.org/) Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=80 First six non-missing records: society name.3 Thonga Boane Mbundu Kutato Suku Feshi Nyakyusa Makwale Hadza Yaeda Chini Luguru Boma ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: assignment by E. Anthon Eff continent. Continent Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7 Freq Value 44 Africa 52 Asia 2 Australia 7 Europe 39 North America 16 Oceania 26 South America region. Major sub-continental geographic region Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=22 First six non-missing records: society region Nama Hottentot Southern Africa Kung Bushmen Southern Africa Thonga Eastern Africa Lozi Eastern Africa Mbundu Middle Africa Suku Middle Africa eaid. Ethnographic Atlas ID number, if society is in the EA Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 356.968 min 1 max 1267 sd 370.316 lrbid. Binford foragers ID number, if society is in the LRB Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=37; Number of unique values=37 Stat Value nobs 37 mean 157.243 min 9 max 330 sd 109.068 sccsid. Standard Cross Cultural Sample ID number, if society is in the SCCS Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 Stat Value nobs 186 mean 93.5 min 1 max 186 sd 53.838 wnaiid. Western North American Indian ID number, if society is in the WNAI Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=12; Number of unique values=12 Freq Value 1 4 1 11 1 23 1 36 1 64 1 76 1 106 1 112 1 136 1 146 1 152 1 160 174 NA ----------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Murdock, G. P, and D. R White. 1969. Standard Cross-cultural Sample. Ethnology 8 (4): 329-369. society. Ethnographic Atlas society name Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186 First six non-missing records: society society.1 Nama Hottentot Nama Hottentot Kung Bushmen Kung Bushmen Thonga Thonga Lozi Lozi Mbundu Mbundu Suku Suku THIS IS ADDITIONAL TO THE EFF CODEBOOK There are 86 variable numbers that don't exist in the data, many of them named in the codebooks (see GONEvariables.csv). MARKED: "GONE" "v839." "v845." "v846." "v847." "v848." "v849" "v850" "v851" "v852" "v853" "v1024." "v1041." "v1067." "v1068." "v1069." "v1070." "v1071." "v1098." "v1099." "v1109." "v1113." "v1114" "v1115" "v1179." "v1180" "v1181" "v1182" "v1183" "v1184" "v1185" "v1186" "v1187" "v1238." "v1239" "v1240" "v1241" "v1242" "v1243" "v1244" "v1245" "v1246" "v1247." "v1252." "v1558." "v1559" "v1560" "v1561" "v1562" "v1563" "v1564" "v1565" "v1566" "v1567" "v1568" "v1569" "v1570" "v1571" "v1572" "v1573" "v1574" "v1575" "v1576" "v1577" "v1578" "v1579" "v1580" "v1581" "v1582" "v1583" "v1584" "v1585" "v1586" "v1587" "v1588" "v1589" "v1590" "v1591" "v1690." "v1873." "v1879." "v1881" "v1883" "v1885" "v1887" "v1904" "v1906" There are also 36 variables in the data with no variation (two of these have missing values for all observations). These variables are in NOvariation.csv. For further variables: e.g., v99p - v148p for sexual division of labor dichotomies between 0-1/2-5. load(url("http://dl.dropbox.com/u/9256203/DE7.Rdata"),.GlobalEnv) names(sccsA)