sociological uses of this approach are discussed
White, Douglas R. and Frank Harary. 2001.
"The Cohesiveness of Blocks in Social Networks: Connectivity and
Conditional Density." To appear in Sociological Methodology 2001.
White, Douglas R. and Mark E. J. Newman. 2001.
ìFast approximation algorithms for finding node-independent paths.î
Submitted to Sociological Methodology 2002.
Moody, James, and Douglas R. White. 2001.
ìStructural Cohesion and Embeddedness:A hierarchical conception of social
groups.î Santa Fe Institute Working Paper 00-08-049, submitted to the
American Journal of Sociology.
example (from plenary session):
Powell, Walter W., Douglas R. White, Kenneth W.
Koput and Jason Owen-Smith. 2001. ìEvolution of a Science-Based Industry:
Dynamic Analyses and Network Visualization of Biotechnology.îİ Informal working paper: Santa Fe
PAJEK is a program for large network analysis
(Batagelj and Mrvar 1999).İ In
Decemberí97 PAJEK 0.23 implemented the p-graph format of White and Jorion
(1992) as the default for genealogical datasets (*.GED files), the drawing
of dotted (p Dots) versus solid lines (p Solid) for the different sexes,
and a fast version of bicomponents (for the study of structural endogamy).
There is also a genealogical representation using triangles or circles as
nodes for individuals, and a representation that combines the two systems
Network/Partition/Depth/Genealogy command -
implemented to compute genealogical depth. This enabled 2D or 3D drawings
of kinship networks.İ Illustrations
will be given.
Manuals for p-graph kinship analysis and
discussions of software programs and multimedia representations are found
1) http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite (has
links to articles)
Pajek keeps evolving.İ In September-Octoberí98, Pajek 0.33-36 added Vectors (*.vec)
whose values can be real numbers, including:
Editing vectors, making vectors from a
partition, and vector transformations (multiplying by a constant, absolute,
sqrt, normalizations), reordering and binary operations on vectors (sum,
difference, product, division, min, max) and additional operations
according to neighbors.
Retrieving and putting coordinates of network to
vector and vice versa.
In Novemberí99, Pajek 0.50 added automatic demographic
vectors for birth, marriage, and death dates, when GEDCOM files are read.
April-May 2000, Pajek 0.54-55 implemented:
Network/Generate in Time to produce time-series
Draw-Vector and Draw-Partition-Vector with Options/Previous/Next
that uses vector values to modify size of nodes in time-series graphs.
File/TimeEventsNetwork/Read and /Save for
reading and saving a time network in time events format to control every
feature of the graphs.
Social Class and Structural Endogamy in the
Austrian village of Feistritz:İ
Strategic Relinking (w/ Lilyan Brudner)
Status Endogamy in a Javanese village (Dukuh
hamlet and Muslim) Elites: Marriages frequencies governed by demographic
constraints, not by different consanguineal marriage preferences (w/ Thomas
Dual Organization in Sri Lanka: Preferred
Marriages and Sidedness in Pul Eliya Village (w/ Michael Houseman)
Tzintzuntzan (w/ Eric Widmer and Robert van
Clan Organization among Nomadic Herders (w/ Ulla
Graphic technique: showed households as a
macro-unit of analysis, containing successive nuclear or stem families as
nodes in the graph.
Key concepts: marital relinking, p-graph (where
nodes are marriages and lines are filiation), structural endogamy, bicomponent
of the p-graph defines endogamous boundary (in those case, of social
Predicted social class and heirship among
farmers from the cohesive set of marriages in the farming valley (non heirs
did not enter in the kinship bicomponent)
1997 ìClass, Property and Structural Endogamy:
Visualizing Networked Histories,î Theory and Society 25:161-208. Lilyan
Brudner and Douglas White. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/T&S/T&Spage1.htm
Graphic technique: nuclear families as the unit
of p-graph analysis, additional arrows for property flows (used in the
publication) showed extended family rules for partitioning of mercantile
resources and property of groups constituted by relinking.
Key concepts: blood marriage as a form of marital
relinking, p-graph, structural endogamy, bicomponent of the p-graph, the social
biography of things (property flows).
(1) apparent differences in marriage patterns of elites and
commoners were due to a common cultural practice of status endogamy, which
for elites implied a set of potential mates whose smaller size implied marriage
among blood relatives within a few generations, (2) given a common rule of
division of inheritance, closer marital relinkings among elites facilitated
the reconsolid-ation of wealth within extended families, and (3) extended
families so constituted operated with a definite set of rules for the
division of productive resources so as to distribute access to mercantile
as well as landed resources.
Douglas White and Thomas Schweizer, 1998
ìKinship, Property and Stratification in Rural Java: A Network Analysisî
pp. 36-58 in Schweizer and White, eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange.
Cambridge Univ. Press.
Graphic technique: nuclear families as the unit
of p-graph analysis, analysis of blood marriages, sibling sets and of
inheritance or bequests revealed an underlying logic of marital sidedness.
Key concepts: bipartite graph and sidedness (empirical
bipartition of a matrimonial network, reiterated from one generation to
another following a sexual criterion).
ìThis remarkable work, among other merits, has
that of reconstituting the near-totality of the data of Leachís study of
Pul Eliya, reexamined by means of the PGRAPH program.İ It reveals that Leach had not seen, and could
not for lack of requisite tools of analysis, that marriages were organized
in response to a logic that the authors call dividedness and in another
form sidedness:İ invisible to the
untrained eye, the matrimonial network is bipartite, the marriages of the
parents and those of the children divide themselves into two distinct
ensembles (which have nothing to do with moieties)î (review by Georg
Augustins, LíHomme 2000)
Michael Houseman and Douglas White. 1998
ìNetwork Mediation of Exchange Structures: Ambilateral Sidedness and
Property Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri Lankaî pp. 59-89 in Schweizer and White,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. Cambridge Univ. Press.
1999 ìControlled Simulation of Marriage
Systems.îİ Journal of Artificial
Societies and Social Simulation 2(3). Douglas R. White. http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/2/3/5/JASSS.html
software and statistical methodology for comparing systems of
marriage-rules to random baseline models with controls for demographic
For the Austrian study, random baseline models
established the preference for relinking with relatives within 3
For the Javanese study, the lack of difference
between commoner and elite marriages is supported, in spite of differences
in frequency of different marriage types.
For the Pul Eliya study, random baseline models
established the patri-sided marriage rule for blood marriages, and the
absence of a genealogical rule for determining the marriageability of
Tzintzuntzan, a 4th example, is in
If time allows, Iíll give a more extended 5th
example, or just show on Pajek slide and stop