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SASci ABSTRACT Ethnographies of Indigenous Australian language groups suggest that their populations were consistently small, averaging perhaps 500 people each, while classical models of their kinship systems consistently embody endogamous marriage as both a norm and a logical requirement. However, paleodemographers argue that reproductively closed small human populations are doomed due to stochastic variations in birth rates and sex ratios. How did these societies avoid extinction and indeed persist in Australia for 40,000 years and more? We introduce a mathematical model of Aboriginal descent, marriage and kinship that is reproductively open rather than closed, show how the openness articulates with traditional closed models, and demonstrate how the resulting system maintains dynamic population stability despite internal and external stresses that might otherwise lead to extinction. Our resolution of this Australian Paradox demonstrates what mathematical modeling gets us.

Conference Programme Committee, European Conference on Complex Systems 2006 (ECCS '06), Said Business School, University of Oxford, 25-29 September 2006

  • ECCS06 Session on

    Papers by Tsutomu (Tom) Nakano, Kwansei Gakuin University/Columbia University; and Douglas White, University of California-Irvine/Santa Fe Institute, accepted for presentation at the American Sociological Association's 101st Annual Meeting, August 11-14, in Montreal. The convention theme, "Great Divides: Transgressing Boundaries," explores the complex processes and institutional underpinnings that create boundaries. Session on "Networks and Organizations" organized by Martin Ruef:
  • The Large-Scale Strategic Network of a Tokyo Industrial District: Small-World, Scale-Free, or Depth Hierarchy? Complex Systems Session
  • Power-Law and "Elite Club" in a Complex Supplier-Buyer Network: Flexible Specialization or Dual Economy? Social Networks Session.

    JSM (the Joint Statistical Meetings) August 6-10, 2006, Seattle, Washington. Session chaired by Cosma Shalizi. Seattle Convention Center. 7 August 10:30am-12:20pm. Tom Nakano and Doug White "Depth Partitions and Hierarchical Network Structure in a Tokyo Industrial District." Abstract. We explore the implications of the theory of Harrison White, Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production, using a network statistics analysis of an industrial district of 7000 firms in Ohta District, Toyko.

    "Innovation, Networks and Dynamics," Presentation to the final ISCOM meeting will take place 20-24 May (inclusive!), in Venice

    "Models of city-size scaling laws: embedded co-evolution in a cross-validated theory of geopolitical dynamics," D. White and N. Kejzar: Globalization as Evolutionary Process Modeling, Simulation, and Forecasting Global Change, sponsored by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, meeting at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg , Austria , April 6-8,

    Causality of Network Configurations in Historical Dynamics: Some Hypotheses and Evidence. March 23, 2006 International Studies Association San Diego 47th Annual ISA Convention March 22-25, 2006 Town & Country Resort and Convention Center. UPLOAD PAPER HERE powerpoint: Rethinking World Historical Systems from Network Theory Perspectives: Medieval Historical Dynamics 1175-150 paper - ISA2006March23.pdf

    Monday, March 20. Workshop participant. Measuring and modeling state formation since the iron age. With Chris Chase-Dunn and Peter Turchin. The workshop will focus on defining the scope and methods of our empirical and modeling project. Participants will be asked make short presentations on particular topics and we will have group discussion of each topic for the purpose of producing a feasible project plan that improves upon the proposal that was submitted to the NSF.


    INVITED TALKS, PLENARY AND KEYNOTE ADDRESSES, Workshops given

    JSM (the Joint Statistical Meetings) Invited Lecture, August 6-10, 2006, Seattle, Washington. Session chaired by Cosma Shalizi. Seattle Convention Center. Tom Nakano and Doug White "Depth Partitions and Hierarchical Network Structure in a Tokyo Industrial District." Abstract. We explore the implications of the theory of Harrison White, Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production, using a network statistics analysis of an industrial district of 7000 firms in Ohta District, Toyko.

    Keynote speaker European Conference on Complex Systems Paris, 14-18 November 2005. powerpoint: Civilizations as Dynamic Networks Alternate Title: Abstract: Networks, Hierarchy and Complexity, Multi-net analysis and nonlinear dynamics, with some methods and results in complexity science. Wednesday: Nov 16, 9:50-10:40.

    Abstract. Although the talk will focus only on civilizational networks as an example, many complex systems are composed by multi-nets, i.e., multiple networks undergoing change in time series. Understanding the behavior of multi-net systems poses some basic questions:
    1) how should we represent and model multiply layered and evolving networks (multi-nets) so as to discover their instabilities and nonlinear dynamics?
    2) what are some of the common properties induced by dependence on co-evolution with network topologies?
    3) does a generalized Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, that takes into account network dependencies and hence long-range correlations, have applicability to modeling complexity in social systems?
    4) what is the contribution of a combination of multiply layered networks, time series, methods of study for nonlinear dynamic interactions (identifying oscillations and instabilities), simulation, nonextensive BG entropy, and tracking co-evolution of network topology?
    The examples illustrated are city attributes and networks, industrial networks, agent search behavior, and marriage choice; each includes issues of the co-evolution of network topology and micro-macro linkages. Five sets of results are discussed:
    1. A simulation that shows how modeling of results with generalized Boltzmann-Gibbs (q-) entropy takes long range correlations into account in known network dynamics relating to agent search behavior. http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0508028 SFI working paper (incoming comment: you might find interesting the paper about measuring growing mechanisms in networks (interaction behavior, or preferential attachment (PA)), especially regarding your neat recent arXiv paper, where perhaps it may be relevant in the particular case of PA related to degree (alpha), social distance (beta & gamma)
    2. A q-entropy worldwide scaling of the 28 historically estimated city-size distributions is investigated for nonlinear instabilities in urban systems. pdf
    3. Investigation of a multi-net coding and longitudinal analysis of agrarian civilizations as dynamical networks (Medieval European and Eurasian datasets) showing nonlinear dynamic interactions.
    4. Analysis of collaborative multi-nets in the world biotech industry shows an interactive dynamics of recruitment for innovation and organizational consolidation. AJS 210(4): 1132-1205.
    5. Multi-net construction of social structure through mate choice and co-evolution of social network topologies. Complexity 8(1):72-81.

    Founding Lecture, Sept 30, 2005, Four-Campus UC Human Sciences and Complexity VideoColloqium. powerpoint: Civilizations as Dynamic Networks Alternate Title: "Networks, Hierarchy and Complexity, Historical Modeling and Simulation: What do Network Interdependencies have to do with Civilizational Dynamics?" To play this vidcon talk off the web, you will need Real Player, which is a free download. Then open "real player", play something, and in the url window you can cut and past the url below into the real player address bar or just click here.

    streaming video #1: rtsp://media.nacs.uci.edu:554/ITC/SocialScience/White/Anthro-093005.rm

    Transforming Ethnographic Data and Analytical Problems into Network Data Suitable for Complementary Analysis and Theory Halle Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology June 27 2005 Powerpoint examples

    Invited discussant, ISCOM conference, Santa Fe Institute, August 2005

    Invited speaker, Civilizations as Dynamic Networks, Institute of Ethnology, University of Cologne. June 28, 2005

    Invited speaker, Theory and Analysis of Kinship Networks, Anthropology Department, University of Hamburg, June 20, 2005

    Invited speaker, Civilizations as Dynamic Networks, Anthropology and Sociology, Central European University. June 2, 2005

    Faculty of Economics and School of Social Science, jointly sponsored seminar, University of Ljubljana. Title: Network Dynamics of Inter-Organization Collaborations in Biotechnology, 1988-1999, Douglas R. White, in collaboration with W. W. Powell and J. Owen-Smith. May 24, 2005.
    Abstract of the discussion. The growth regimes of complex networks account for many of their structural features and behavioral effects. In the case of collaborative alliances among organizations in the biotech industry, the dynamics of inter-connection helps forge cohesive clusters of prominent nodes into an elite that can play gatekeeper and arbiter roles in an expanding network. The characteristics of such emergent elites, however, depend intimately upon the structural locations of the partners that form new ties (Powell et al., AJS 2005). Systems where cores deepen their internal connections conserve their position, but may calcify. Those that expand their reach by forming connections to newcomers and to the network's periphery increase responsiveness and innovation at the cost of incoherence. Analysis of twelve years of longitudinal network data from the biotech industry demonstrates that a mix of expansive and conserving ties account for that industry's particular combination of stability and responsiveness. A structural and dynamical view of network growth offers new insights into the distinctive features of social and economic networks, while linking models of network dynamics to debates in organizational theory and innovation studies. Analysis of dynamics shows interactive and periodic oscillation between consolidation within the multiconnected core of the industry and recruitment by core organizations of newcomers or peripheral partners in the network that have a high potential for innovation and complementarity.

    Anthropological Science invited seminar, University of Ljubljana, Title: Anthropology and Structural Cohesion: Theory and Four Ethnographic Examples, May 27, 2005.

    Network Dynamics and Scaling (with links to pdfs and with powerpoint) Information Society as a Complex System (ISCOM) Third Annual Meeting, Reggio-Modena, Italy. April 4 2005

    Genealogy and Social Cohesion invitation from 17th Entretiens du Centre Jacques Cartier. Montreal. October, 2004, to speak on "The uses and practices of genealogy in the human, social and biological sciences," Meetings cover a wide spectrum of scientific, societal or cultural themes bringing together a variety researchers, artists, politicians, etc from Europe and North America.

    International SFI Collaboration on Network Analysis using Pajek: Powerpoint slides Civilizations as Complex Networks. Aug 23, 2004. Abstract. General scientific strategies for complex evolutionary processes emergent out of network interaction might require capturing long term dynamics first, in this case the interaction between relatively slow processes of population growth pressing on resources building pressures for sociopolitical violence, and how these affect stacks of processes that operate at faster time scales. Turchin's work shows oscillatory dynamics in multiple civilizational contexts at a secular (2-3 century) scale in which organizational innovation leaves lasting organizational changes that generate millennial trends. Micro dynamics resulting from demographic-violence crises in the period and region examined (1175-1500 CE Europe and peri-European region beginning with a largely demonetized economy) drive monetization at the macro-level and differential growth of commercial production regions that is mediated by network variables (placement in the geographic and trade network). Entailment relationships among commodities and urban or trade-node variables change over generational time scales - the current research problem involving how these coevolve with demographic-violence phases and regional network positional effects. Strong statistical tests are used for identifying empirical dynamics, changing entailment relationships, new graph theoretic measures and statistical techniques (ring cohesion) are used for measuring cohesion and its effects, and new network measures of flow centralities contribute to time-lagged predictions of changes in the relative prominence of cities and states within the evolving world economy.

    Seminaire Pajek: Workshop on Genealogical Analysis in History and Ethnography. Centre Roland Mousnier. Universite de Sorbonne, Paris. June, 2004. Ring Cohesion in Marriage Networks

    Modeling the Dynamics of Network Formation and Evolution. Workshop on Dynamics of groups and institutions: Their emergence, co-evolution and environment. Santa Fe Institute and the Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences, from June 7 to June 11, 2004. Vlado's photos (self-exploding file)

    Santa Fe Institute working group paper on Civilizations as Dynamic Networks (Macrosocial systems), April-May, 2004

    Quantitative Network Analysis, with Bob Hanneman at Time-mapping Globalization in the World-System Saturday February 7 and Sunday February 8, 2004, UC Riverside

    Network Processes in Evolving Systems. Opening research focus group discussion, MBS program in Social Dynamics and Evolution. January, 2004, UCI.

    December 2003 POWERPOINT Network dynamics, cohesion and scaling Second ISCOM Workshop Conference on the Information Society as a Complex System Chateau de Champs-sur-Marne, France.

    First ISCOM Workshop Santa Fe Institute, August 2003

    Nov 2003 POWERPOINT Networks and Demography Douglas R. White and James Moody. Stanford, Anthropological Sciences. Networks from Genealogies and Linked Censuses: Why do they matter?

    Aug 2003 Network Dynamics and Field Evolution: The Growth of Interorganizational Collaboration in the Life Sciences Walter W. Powell, Douglas R White, Kenneth W Koput, Jason D. Owen-Smith (Presenter). Annual Meeting, American Sociological Assocation. Session: Social Networks as Resources. Monday, 8/18/2003 at 4:30 p.m.

    June 2003 Social cohesion in organizations IRESCO, Paris. Organisation : Emmanuel Lazega, Lise Mounier
    Séminaire " Réseaux et régulation " powerpoint handout powerpoint

    POWERPOINT Kinship Networks and Demography Douglas R. White and James Moody, Ohio State University. Minneapolis, May 1-3 2003: Population Association of America Networks from Genealogies and Linked Censuses: Why do they matter?

    GENEVA: plenary and Kinship 2001

    Cologne2000 incl Plenary

    SFI2000 Working Group on Complex Interactive Networks ATTENDING

    June 2003 Conférence Marc Bloch - 10 juin 2003 Le Sorbonne, Paris. Annual Meeting of the Professoriat, University of Paris

    CONFERENCE PAPERS

    "Power and Profit in Europe and the Near East: Network Dynamics in the Early Renaissance 1175-1500" March 2006 International Studies San Diego

    Santa Fe Institute, Discussant, ISCOM Project, July, 2005

    Santa Fe SASci meeting, Feb 2005, Title: Macromodels - Civilizations as Dynamic Networks

    Abstract: Here we present, critique, and examine the empirical evidence for a model of population growth that is more complex than either of the models power-law or hyperbolic. It involves two variables, a technologically induced carrying capacity K, and the literacy rate, in addition to population number P. Literacy rate L is seen as a critical nonlinear variable that has a sigmoidal pattern of change in relation to K, KL(1-L), while changes in K are affected by the product P times L and changes in P are affected by those in L times N but divided by L. Hence population growth slows as literacy increases, as in (a) the theory of demographic transition and (b) the periods of demographic transition over the past 12,000 years.
    New Abstract: Civilizations as dynamic networks are examined for the Medieval period in the context of our larger macromodels. powerpoint

    Santa Fe SASci meeting, Feb 2005, Title: Conceptual Ethnography

    Abstract: Conceptual ethnography begins from the recognition that the compartments and conceptions of anthropology and ethnography are interlinked. Here I examine cognition and social networks in relation to the concept of culture, exemplified in the study of kinship. Concepts used in network analysis of the context and behaviors involved in kinship lead to new understandings of patterns of cohesion. Within cohesive groups, people in various communities are shown to use the network itself to compute categories of kinship in unexpected ways that do not require the kinds of assumptions anthropologists often make about the connection between kinship terminology and behavior. It is shown that this lends support to the view that cognition cannot be considered an internal mental process but involves the social environment itself as part of the cognition in the wild, as Ed Hutchins has aptly put the case. Hence culture cannot be considered in terms of models of internal states, and a definition of culture must deal with the many layers of interconnections between behavior, networks, cognition, and socially cohesive units such as community or organizations in which people interact. powerpoint

    Redondo Beach INSNA meeting, Feb 2005, Title: World-System Network Dynamics in the Early Renaissance

    Abstract: The European and surrounding region, 1175-1500, is examined as a portion of the larger world-systems interface, drawing on (1) Spufford's work on trade networks, urban industry, the dynamics of monetization and hyperinflationary processes and their effects and (2) Turchin's work on dynamics of population change and sociopolitical violence. Longitudinal analysis of generational time series for industries and trade routs in intercity networks integrates network analysis -- providing additional predictions about structural effects on change processes -- with statistical dynamics and the dynamics of change in interindustry implicational structures. Overlays of GIS and network data and images are used for visualization in addition to statistical analyses. powerpoint

    March 2003 The Navigability of Strong Ties: Small Worlds, Complex Dynamics and Network Topologies Second Lake Arrowhead Conference on Human Complexity Systems
    Douglas R. White and Michael Houseman

    Sunbelt 2003 Proposal

    AAA 2002 Sided with Omaha but no Twist: Three Logics of Alyawarra Kinship

    EMCSR conference 2002, EMCSR society and paper

    Lille Micro/Macro Relations: Advances in the Contribution of Structural Analysis 2002

    Preliminary Paper AAA 2001 and final paper

    UCLA Computational Models talk, ULCA Jan 2001