In Europe of the 13th century, described in Spufford's (2002) Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe, capital cities first sprang into prominence with a remarkable growth in urbanization, monetization and government. With France as the leading landed kingdom, Paris was the leader in population, attraction and influence. Here, nodes for cities are sized according to population, and the middle sizes on up were capital cities. See also the lattice diagram and entailments among all the features of these cities. We are also learning how to superimpose our networks on GIS images like this.
The thesis: transformations occurring in this period, which set the foundations for modern Europe, were driven by a cyclical dynamic of interaction between demography and sociopolitical violence affecting monetization, velocity of trade, and organizational transformations.

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Data Source: Peter Spufford 2002 - data transported to GIS