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Anthro 179A Culture and Evolution 60255
Anthro 125E Culture and Evolution

Freshman Seminar Link 1

Freshman Seminar Link 2

Winter 2005 T/Th 9:30-10:50 SST 155 Cap 46 http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/AnthroSci/Cul_and_Evol2005.html

Synopsis. We will look in this class not at idealized representations of cultures as evolving in independent but similar stages but as social formations that are reactive to larger scale, interactive and changing political, economic and religious contexts.


Be prepared each class session to do a spontaneous discussion/report on the readings identified for the day from the previous class

When doing a powerpoint presentation, please use the Edward Tufte approach described in this ($7) reading, the only thing I urge you buy besides a Strunk and White or its equivalent (you can buy at the bookstore)

1. Report on one of the articles (required or recommended) or book chapters (Grade: 10%) Reports Days

2. Working with one of the datasets (cities, states, cultures and civilizational networks) in

  • excel (Instructions),
  • ArcGis (Instructions), Tony Soeller notes See Andrew Sherratt ArchAtlas Urban supply routes Sherratt
  • World Cultures comparative ethnography (Instructions), codebook v713koro.sav corrected religion code
  • Network/Pajek world-system analysis, etc.) (Instructions) datafiles also labeled by chapters, should be copied to separate subdirectores 2-world system 3-cohesion 4-sentiments and friendship 5-affiliations 6-center/periphery 7-brokers and bridges 9-prestige 10-ranking 11-geneaologies and citations (12-roles and 8-diffusion are more complicated)
    e.g., Hiromi's Royalties database- England and Japan kinship networks EXE files

    report on a project design (Grade: 10%), present a term project (Grade: 15%) and turn in a term project report (Grade: 55%), plus class participation/discussion (Grade: 10%)

    Required readings

    for some of the on-line but off-campus access to readings please click here to configure your proxy server (or install the VPN campus tunnel)

    Overview William H. McNeill, David Christian ("The Biological Basis of Human History" available on request)

    see Chaps 8 and 9 - Human Civilization Complexity and a Complex Transition, in Dynamics of Complex Systems, by Yaneer Bar-Yam,

    Douglas R. White, Artemy Malkov and Andrey Korotayev. 2005. World Populations power point Kremer World Pop Data also for China, India, Europe Kremer-Kapitza Kremer-singularity and The Periodic Theory of Elements for World Population for submission to Science and Structure and Dynamics

    How metaphor shapes the issues George Lakoff, Linguistics, UC Berkeley e.g., "conservatives use language to dominate politics"

    The Vanishing, Jared Diamond review by Malcolm Gladwell (see: Ecology&Art

    Guillermo Algaze. 2001. Initial Social Complexity in Southwestern Asia The Mesopotamian Advantage Current Anthropology 42(2):199-233. Discussion by Marcella Frangipane U.S. military destruction at Babylon catastrophic destruction

    Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly J. Silver. 2001. Capitalism and World (Dis)order Review of International Studies 27:257-279.

    Civilizations as Dynamic Networks - New PPT Jan25
    White, Douglas. "Hegemonic Change and Long Inflationary Cycles: Do independent observations (Fischer and Arrighi) establish some links?" html 193 Medieval city data for viewing only 205zip Medieval city data new 222zip city data the civilizations project (background)

    Boehm, Christopher. 2000. "Conflict and the Evolution of Social Control," In Journal of Consciousness Studies 7:79-183, Special Issue on Evolutionary Origins of Morality; Leonard Katz, guest editor. see also Variance Reduction and the Evolution of Social Control

    Boehm, Christopher. 1993. Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy Current Anthropology, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 227-254. See also (for blood feud as self-regulation) Exposing the Moral Self in Montenegro: The Use of Natural Definitions to Keep Ethnography Descriptive Christopher Boehm American Ethnologist, Vol. 7, No. 1. (Feb., 1980), pp. 1-26.

    Population Dynamics and Warfare: preprint Turchin and Korotayev; Addendum; Supplementary

    Peter Turchin Dynamical Analysis of Socio-Economic Oscillations: England, 1100-1900

    Turchin's PowerPoint presentation of Dynamical maps (22 MB) of evolution of the state system and metaethnic frontiers in Europe during the two millenia CE. These are PowerPoint slides presented at the Santa Fe Institute working group on Analyzing Civilizations as Dynamic Networks (Complex Macrosystems). C. Nussli, 2002. Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe is the source of the new states/ethnogenesis maps.

    Turchin's Cliodynamics site

    Artemiy S. Malkov The Silk Roads -- Eurasian Integration through Trade: Ancient, Islamic and 13th Century. See also the ECAI Silk Road online project

    Janet Abu-Lughod. 1993. The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-End or Precursor? (xeroxed reprint)

    Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. 1997. Rise and Demise: Comparing World-Systems. Paperback - $39. Barnes & Noble HarperCollins. New Perspectives in Sociology. Hardback - Boulder, CO: Westview Press. See also Globalization: A World-Systems Perspective
    Kremer World Pop Data also China, India, Europe
    Kremer World Pop Data Set up For Power-Law Growth Analysis also China, India, Europe WorldPopKremer.xls
    Analysis of City and Empire Size (xls database)

    Rein Taagepera, 1997 JStor PDF of Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia? International Studies Quarterly 41: 482-504.

    Korotayev, Andrey. 2004. World Religions as a factor of Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. See very end of this web page for more on religion, and for project materials.

    2002 [1969] George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White, Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: on-line. Reprinted with annotations from Ethnology 8:329-369 World cultures database
    ethno-atlas and religion

    1977 Douglas R. White, Michael L. Burton, and Lilyan A. Brudner, Entailment Theory and Method: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Sexual Division of Labor. Behavior Science Research 12:1-249. download data from spss excel

    One of Two Required : book reports by chapters

    Wolf, Eric, and Sydel Silverman. 2001. Pathways of Power: Building an Anthropology of the Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press. ~$25 (paper) Barnes&Noble

    Pomeranz, Kenneth L. 2000. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ~$18 (paper) Barnes&Noble

    Recommended readings

    Co-Evolution of Behaviors and Institutions: The overarching objective is to understand how the complex structures of social interaction defined by markets, gift exchange, inter group bargaining, firms, foraging bands, and other forms of economic organization shape the evolution of individual preferences, norms, and other motivations, and in turn how these motivations shape the evolution of economic organization. To sharpen and discipline the model-building process we will address a few well documented empirical cases as well as the larger empirical puzzle of human sociality itself.

    Civilizations as Dynamic Networks: The goals are to stimulate significant theoretical and methodological breakthroughs in historical macrosystems research by focusing on new methods of network analysis and complex modeling focused on questions such as the interactive processes entailed in the growth and decline of cities and polities. We are doing this by bringing together world-systems and network analysts with historians, archaeologists and other social scientists concerned with the evolution of macrostructural networks is to explore the synergies than can result from the exchange and integration of datasets, the sharing of modeling and analytical tools across disciplines, and exchanges as to intellectual frameworks and problems.

    Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly J. Silver. 1999. Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ~$23 (paper) Barnes&Noble

    Hobsbaum, Eric. 1987. "The Centenarian Revolution," Chapter 1 of The Age of Empire: 1875-1914. New York, NY: Vintage Press.

    Wolf, Eric. 1982 (2nd edition). Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ~$22 (paper) Barnes&Noble

    Chernoble: The Ethnography of a Ghost Town; and Reportage on the Ukranian elections Elena reception to 'fictionally presented' reportage

    Pomeranz, Kenneth L. and Steven Topik. The World that Trade Created: Society, Culture and the World Economy, 1400 to the Present. M. E. Sharpe: 1999. ~$20 Barnes&Noble

    SPSS nations database WVS (Spss 36meg) WVS (Excel1 50meg) WVS (Excel2 26meg)
    222 West Eurasian Cities, 12-15th C
    database (right click to download here) for use with Pajek
    Cities database (rite click to download here) for use with Pajek
    The IROWS (Chris Chase-Dunn, Alexis Alvarez, Dan Pasciuti, Thomas D. Hall) Cities and Empires database
    World cultures dbase files for use with GIS:
    web files-uci

    GIS output from classroom lab

    Buddhism, Christianity and Islam in the Old World: Ethnographic Atlas
    World Cities: World-System project

    To make map
    left click ... Events
    click Properties
    Value Field -- scroll to variable
    click Add all Values
    click value to remove
    click Remove tab
    click value to format

    World Religions and Social Evolution by Andrey Korotayev is also available to students in prepublication form. It draws on the World Cultural database we use in class, and the world religion as well as other variables. From the publisher's blurbs, written by me: This "is a book of startling simplicity and depth that suggests an empirical solution to viewing the subjectivist/objectivist dilemmas in the social sciences and history. It will have a profound effect on how comparison is done in the future in anthropology, and suggests an answer to why some anthropologists, starting with Geertz, are reluctant to suggest comparison as an adequate method. The Murdockian comparative approach, up to Korotayev, had developed to the point where the nonindependence of cultures was well-recognized, and ways of taking the larger configurations of cultural systems into account had been reckoned to lie, in the latest iteration, along lines of high-order proto-linguistic communities. Korotayev demonstrates the effects of breaking what might be seen as a ritual taboo of Murdockian comparison: Thou Shalt Not Code World Religion. By doing so, Korotayev releases the Murdockian spell that lingers over the comparative approach in anthropology, and goes on to demonstrate the powerful effects of world religious communities - dating from what Jaspers calls the 'Axial Age' (400-600BC) - on the preservation and differentiation of distinctive social and political structures in Eurasia. His introduction and conclusion suggest that an objectivist natural history approach to human history, in which subjective factors are of local importance but fade out in terms of lasting effects over generations, is a valid approach to the 'pre-Axial' condition of human societies, while a subjectivist history of consciousness is a necessary complement to the 'post-Axial' condition. Korotayev succeeds in placing these two complementary approaches in context and showing their linkages in terms of how subjective and religious factors play out in human history alongside objective factors such as demography and ecology, each informing the other. He shows how it is impossible to arrive at valid inferential results from comparative approaches without an integration of the two, a situation he aptly calls 'Galton's opportunity' for those are of century-old critiques of the comparative method. The reader will be surprised at the depth of empirical comparative findings in this short book. Following Murray Leaf's Man, Mind and Science (1974) this work is a major contribution to repair of the material/ideational rift in anthropology." [see koro]

    (note that the argument here takes us back to 600-400BCE where the world religious and early philosophical traditions begin. For the 'Axial Age' in the context of a world history course, see WebChron: The WebChronology Project at NorthPark)
    (To connect with Korotayev's book, compare Korotayev's introduction which characterizes Spencer's approach to 'evolution' as just one of several types of evolution.)

    Korotayev: World Religions (40 pages)

    (see also book manuscript

    Bell: A new model of Middle Eastern Social Structures.(34 pages)

    White and Houseman: The Navigability of Strong Ties:
    Small Worlds, Tie Strength and Network Topology
    Another model of Middle Eastern Social Structures.(10 pages)


    Korotayev and Komarova: A new model of Chinese dynastic cycles (40 pages)

    Rethinking the Hobbesian Metaphor for International Politics - Comparing Ancient China and Early Modern Europe
    Hui Tin-bor

    Jack A. Goldstone: Chapter 4, State Breakdown in Early Modern Asia:
    The Ottoman Crisis and the Ming-Qing Transition (66 pages) - also his Structural Demography article

    White and Spufford: From Medieval to Modern (4 pages), with slides, GIS and SVG network images

    John F. Padgett, Christopher K. Ansell, Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400-1434 American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, No. 6. (May, 1993), pp. 1259-1319.

    Wright, Henry. From Chiefdoms to Origins of States and Civilizations

    Balasz, Socialism to Capitalism in Hungary

    Bearman, Social Movements

    2005 Walter W. Powell, Douglas R. White, Kenneth W. Koput and Jason Owen-Smith. Network Dynamics and Field Evolution: The Growth of Interorganizational Collaboration in the Life Sciences. Forthcoming: American Journal of Sociology 110(4) January electronic edition Download: PDF SFI-WP2003d.pdf See link to movies at Barabasi site

    2005 Jason Owen-Smith, Walter W. Powell, and Douglas R. White. Network Growth and Consolidation: The Effects of Cohesion and Diversity on the Biotechnology Industry Network Submitted Forthcoming in Management Science , Special issue on Complex Systems Across Disciplines. Download: PDF Growth_andConsolidation.pdf

    1988 Large-Scale Network of World Economy: Social scientists use the CRAY Interview: Douglas R. White, David A. Smith. Science at the San Diego Supercomputer Center 1987: 27-28

    2004 Douglas R. White, Walter W. Powell, Jason Owen-Smith and James Moody. Networks, Fields and Organizations: Micro-Dynamics, Scale and Cohesive Embeddings. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 10:95-117. Special issue on Mathematical Representations for the Analysis of Social Networks within and between Organizations.

    Brudner, Lilyan A., and Douglas R. White. 1997. Class, Property and Structural Endogamy: Visualizing Networked Histories Theory and Society 25:161-208.

    White, Douglas R. 2005. Ring Cohesion in Marriage and Social Networks Forthcoming: Social Networks special issue edited by Alain Degenne Mathematiques, informatique, et sciences humaines Journal of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales, Paris Download:RingCohesionMarriage.pdf

    White, Networks, Ethnography and Emergence

    Korotayev - world religions and social structure

    NSF sponsored study of Rwandan genocide/policide in space and time