Douglas R. White Fall Quarter, 2002
Course Code 60250 revised Sept 16-02
Fall 2002 TuTh in SST 155 (Computer Lab)
Office Hours SSPA4169: Tues/Th 10-11, 2-3:00 and by Appt x5893, x8495 (Secty: Chris Grott 3175 SSPA)
The instructional format of this course is a bit unusual. We meet each day in a computer lab.
Numerous illustrations of the topics under discussion are provided by web links. With the guidance of the
instructor, students explore materials on a theme related to networks
and complexity, and find materials which may provide a basis for further research, class presentations, and term projects.
Tools for computer analysis are illustrated in relation to these
topics, and may be downloaded and used in class or at home: they provide a cumulative basis for modeling
sociocultural, sociocognitive and social network phenomena via an integrated
anthropological and complexity perspective.
Download and install (or access manual for use in the lab)
Pajek by Vladimir and Andrej;
optional add-ons by Skye Bender-deMoll (SFI):
Pajek Animator and
Pajek Converter. See How2UsePajek-in-the-Lab.html
Week 1 - Introduction to networks using Pajek --'spider'-- software. Read Barabási
First thru Fifth Link in Linked: The New Science of Networks and work through
the web page highlights for those chapters of the book, each with its own links. See also Part 1 in Supplementary Readings
Download and install (or access manual for use in the lab) Pajek by Vladimir and Andrej; optional add-ons by Skye Bender-deMoll (SFI): Pajek Animator and Pajek Converter. See How2UsePajek-in-the-Lab.html
|NetDraw download (NetDraw.exe on current site too) and ucinet (*.##) data files Wasserman and Faust data net/anytiemain.##h net/anytiemain.##d net/keyplayer.exe net/keyplayer.zip net/methodscamp.##h net/methodscamp.##d SELF EXTRACTING PAJEK NET FILES USAIR97.EXE NetMiner Analytic Methods||*.ged files for Pajek - kin nets F&Wpres.ged kennedy.ged lincoln2.ged p-fe3.ged p-tur.ged p-wlf.ged pmr-bwr.GED SELF EXTRACTING PAJEK GED FILES||EXERCISE:
I'm my own grandpa!
Who Rules? A Data Archive for Power Structure Research
They Rule Interlocking directorates
Line (arc, edge)
Sets (ordered, unordered)
Analogous Sets (structural eq., regular eq.)
Component, k-components (node, edge) - stack slopes
Centers (centrality, centralization)
(We study network structure through Graph Theory - see glossary, also Wolfram)
|see Supplementary Readings for links to examples||
Comparison of Networks, Skvoretz & Faust 2002 (H=human P=Primates)
+ Relations: H+P => Mutuality & In-Stars
- Relations: P => Antimutual, Transitive Triples, Anti-Cyclical, Anti-In-Stars, Anti-Mixed-Stars
Differential fitness for Pref. Attachment
Exponential e.g. growth
powers of ten
Power-Law e.g. decay
e.g. Bak's Sandpile experiment
e.g. Java Simulation BTW sandpile model
Bose-Einstein, e.g., Movies (DeVany)
OUTCOME OF PROCESS (click Projects button in
while running starlogo) See also Sienna
hills of cohesion (node, edge)
Some new links
more specifically human processes, e.g., prestige hierarchy as basis of imitation? (Heinrich)
Random Graph (SoL p235)
Cycles (SoL p21-26-fruiting mold p232 spiral resilience)
Flow Convection (SoL p13-17), Inflationary Dynamics
Preferential Attachment: Barabási 14th Link: The Networked Economy: see Link to Biotech study
Differential fitness for Pref. Attachment
Cohesion, Waves, Autocatalysis
Coherence (emergent levels, channeling)
Rich-get-richer; Schismogenesis; Escalation independent of precipitating event
|robustness and resilience: "Imagine that cultural phenomena are in constant flux, that they can be envisioned as inter-related flows in space through time of material, labor, and messages articulated by individual actors. These definitions of channels, and of the points where they interact, may be thought of as places, groups, institutions and the like, but they cannot be explained without reference to the flows. When these flows maintain the same arrangements though time in spite of changing conditions in the broader environment, we can speak of 'robustness'. When the arrangement of flows are changed in response to changing conditions, we speak of 'resilience'." Henry Wright, 2002||see social effects of Inflationary Dynamics||Chronicling Cultures: Long-term Field Research in Anthropology, eds., Robert V. Kemper, Anya Royce. AltaMira Press. $29.95 Ch. 4 turks and "The Navigability of Strong Ties" (on the same case, the two articles, web site and book provide an introduction to long-term anthropological studies through issues of networks and complexity) -- for an anthro major this might provide an alternate route to a final grade through a term project involving analysis of anthropological network data.|
Kannan Sivalingam 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 World System Rank (Smith and White) and
1985-1990 GINI Inequality Index: Preliminary Data and Project Results Measures of income inequality: 1947-1990 data by Klaus Deininger and Lyn Squire on Gini coefficients Recalculated: G.Kluge, 09/1998, 1995 data: World Bank's World Development Indicators 2002
|Linkages long-term field sites project sets up community research sites worldwide for the ethnographic study of social organization and socioeconomic change||One of the key ideas in the Linkages long-term field sites projects was to link changes in the world-system position of nations (now measured accurately by Smith and White 1988) to changes in income inequality (click image to the left, from Kennan's project), and boom or bust business cycles that differentially affect both nations and our long-term community field studies.|
site under construction from here - see XEROXED READER TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOVE
Web Presentations Networks and Complexity in the Biotech Industry Powell, White, Koput and Owen-Smith
As approaches to social science, and the understanding of society and social dynamics, theories of complexity and evolutionary dynamics are explored through readings (many online) and practicum in the computer lab. The key to complexity is internal diversity, which implies heterarchy: heterogeneity driving up-down processes that drive side-side interactions spawning further heterogeneity. Heterarchical systems are ubiquitous in nature and society. They require variably long time scales for the interactions among their diverse elements to unwind towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The unwinding of long-span (e.g., solar) systems fuels the wind-up of shorter-span (e.g., living) systems. Stacks of such complex systems comprise the universe - physical, biological, and social - as we know it. Within those stacks of interest to this course, we focus on the newly emergent sciences of complexity to study the principles of self-organization of social systems.
In addition to readings on basic principles, students explore several current research approaches in the social sciences and focus on one for a class presentation and term paper. Students with no computer expertise and those with such expertise are both encouraged to participate. Students may work on the presentations and written projects either individually or in groups of up to 3. Guidance is provided for those who wish to do web site presentations.
Dynamical simulation has become a key conceptual tool for the social sciences in understanding how the existing diversity of complex systems has evolved, and may continue to evolve, in the absence of rational planning or central direction. Implications for contemporary political and economic issues include benefits of decentralized evolutionary processes (and tacit/local versus formal/expert knowledge) resulting from innumerable local interactions among actors versus centralized processes where major actors dominate.
Physicists speak to thermodynamic engine processes driving evolution as the unwinding of complex heterarchical systems (where equilibrium equates to death). Darwinian principles speak to how diversity is generated in biological systems through differential reproduction, speciation, and specialization. Evolutionary game theory speaks to how replicator dynamics lead to diverse trajectories, path dependencies, and stable outcomes other than those predicted by models of rational choice and economic equilibrium. Co-evolutionary approaches to complex adaptive systems and their environments open a host of ways that cooperativity can occur with population diversity that is not under direct selective pressure for adaptation.
Browse: web links
Reader, Chapter 2. Balinese water temples - see: discussion by Jonathan Sepe
Read text: Axelrod, Chs 1-2
(Book/Article Report:) J. Stephen Lansing. 1991. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali. $17.95 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. HB99.5 .N67 1990
(Book/Article Reports:) Kohler, Holland
Reader, Chapter 3. Evolutionary Formation, Cooperativity and Condensation (Birth, Maturation, Senescence)
Read text: Axelrod, Chs 3-4
(Book/Article Report:) Hutchins, Resnick / Johnson "Model" sections
Pheleah Reyes chapter 3 book report on Resnick: Ants simulation
Reader, Chapter 4. Arthur; Wolpert
Read text: Axelrod, Chs 5-6
(Book/Article Report:) Kauffman 1995; Kauffman 2000 / BiosGroup
Preview networks: Network Evolution of the Biotech Industry
Read text: Per Bak, How Nature Works Chs 1-2, 6-7 (see
critiques of Bak's SOC
and extensions, of which DeVany is an example)
Erin Tomlinson & Maree Vincent chapters 1 & 3 book report
Reader, Chapter 5. Adamic and DeVany
Read text: Axelrod, Ch 7
(Book/Article Report:) Prietula and Carley / De Vany and Walls, Barabasi, Saari
Read text: Per Bak, How Nature Works Chs 10-11
Reader, Chapter 6. Modeling Adaptive Dynamics
Simulations: Evolving Artificial Moral Ecologies -
Agent-Patch Simulators: Zero-th Generation:
Reader, Chapter 7. Skyrms - dynamic model of network formation
Read text: Axelrod, Introduction
(Book/Article Report:) Watts / Barabasi, Skyrms, Powell et al.
see links to: social networks
The Electronic Small World Project take and report on the survey for extra credit - testfile@hotmail testfile
Combining thermodynamic laws with multi-agent models:
Velocity of trade phase transitions in economic organization
see: Physics of Phase Transitions Douglas R. White
Example: Inflationary Dynamics and Phase Transitions
Tom Abel's Simulations by Shenin Mesdaghi
see links to: multi-agent simulations
see links to: evolutionary game theory
yr 2000 web sites
Social Networks: Pilipino Pre-health student organization by May Lansigan, Joshua Militante, Cornel Pascual, Nomar Sulit
The Rise of American Culture by Eric Vega
Complexity Theory and Teen Parenting by Vicky Grey
Browse: linkages longitudinal fieldsites
Network explorations in Tierra, artificial life
Skyrms (text). The Social Contract Emergent from Multi-Actor Interactions (see Evolutionary Game Theory by Jason Alexander) Social Dynamics and Rules of Interaction in the Contemporary Context (Postrel): Heterarchy in Networks
Would-Be Worlds: How Simulation Is Changing the Frontiers of Science, by John L. Casti
George B. Dyson, 1997. Chapter 10 (Self-Organizing Systems). Darwin among the machines. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
For a synopsis of evolutionary theory in biology: John Maynard Smith and Oörs Szathmáry. 1999. The Origins of Life.
Also: Grobstein, Clifford. 1974 (2nd edition). The Strategy of Life. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Tentative Conclusions for Better Approaches to Historical Complexity: SFI Report on Hayward Alken
Global Politics, Common Culture and Sustainability: Robert Axelrod Builds Two New Models
For math and computer background to complexity: The Computational Beauty of Nature : Computer Explorations of Fractals, Chaos, Complex Systems, and Adaptation by Gary William Flake. Amazon Price: $45.00
Dynamic Patterns : The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior (Complex Adaptive Systems) J. A. Scott Kelso. Paperback 1995 Amazon Price: $30
review by Gert Korthof
Kauffman At Home in the Universe. "The secret of life is auto-catalysis"
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation.
book reviews from JASSS:
Chaos, Complexity, and Sociology: Myths, Models, and Theories, Edited by Raymond A. Eve, Sara Horsfall and Mary E. Lee. London: Sage Publications. 1997. Reviewed by Alan Dean.
Barriers and Bounds to Rationality: Essays on Economic Complexity and Dynamics in Interactive Systems by Peter S. Albin, Edited by Duncan K. Foley. Princeton, NJ: Princeton thUniversity Press 1998. Reviewed by Roger A. McCain.
Thought Contagion: How Belief Spreads through Society. Aaron Lynch. New York, NY: Basic Books. 1996. Reviewed by Paul Marsden.
Social Science Microsimulation. Edited by Klaus G. Troitzsch, et al. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 1996. reviewed by Brendan Halpin.
System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. by Robert Jervis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1997 reviewed by Scott E. Page.
Iberall, Arthur, A characteristic 500-year process-time in cultural civilization, Comparative Civilization Review, 32: 146-162, Spring, 1995.
David Green's Complex Systems Virtual Library
Yahoo's Complex Systems pages Complexity: applications some
web links Brief
Overview of Swarm Agent Simulation Adaptive
Agent Simulation SANTA FE INSTITUTE Yahoo's Artificial Life pages ALife
home page Anasazi Village Formation
simulation Roger A.
McCain Strategy and Conflict: An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory Complexification:
Explaining a Paradoxical World Through the Science of Surprise, by John L.
Logics of Social Structure by Kyriakos M. Kontopolous $52.95+ Computer Simulation:
The Art and Science of Digital World Construction, by Paul A. Fishwick Networks
in Action: Communication, Economics and Human Knowledge, by David Batten,
John Casti, Roland Thord (Editor) Cooperation
and Conflict in General Evolutionary Processes, by John L. Casti (Editor),
Anders Karlqvist (Editor) other recommended texts:
some notes and
Yahoo's Complex Systems pages
Complexity: applications some web links
Brief Overview of Swarm Agent Simulation
Adaptive Agent Simulation SANTA FE INSTITUTE
Yahoo's Artificial Life pages
ALife home page
Anasazi Village Formation simulation
Roger A. McCain Strategy and Conflict: An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory
Complexification: Explaining a Paradoxical World Through the Science of Surprise, by John L. Casti
The Logics of Social Structure by Kyriakos M. Kontopolous $52.95+
Computer Simulation: The Art and Science of Digital World Construction, by Paul A. Fishwick
Networks in Action: Communication, Economics and Human Knowledge, by David Batten, John Casti, Roland Thord (Editor)
Cooperation and Conflict in General Evolutionary Processes, by John L. Casti (Editor), Anders Karlqvist (Editor)
other recommended texts: