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Social Networks and Dynamics
Social Networks and Evolution

69740 Sociol 229/Anthro 289A/Social Sciences 249A
Fall 2005 (Syllabus in continual redevelopment tailored to students)
SSPB 2296 2:00-4:50 Thursday

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Week 9 (Thurs) - THanksgivingHoliday
You should own Exploratory Network Analysis with Pajek and get the downloadable data files that go with each chapter Together these constitute a network analysis practicum.
Recommended: From Words to Numbers : Narrative, Data, and Social Science (Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences) (Paperback) by Roberto Franzosi, 2004 Generalized Blockmodeling (Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences) (Hardcover) Patrick Doreian, Vladimir Batagelj, Anuska Ferligoj

complete access to drw pdfs
Students in this seminar are from GSM, Sociology, Political Science, Economics, DASA, MBS, ICS, and Anthropology. Sociology students may want to consult the Social Network Field Exam Reading List. The Social Dynamics and Evolution Group that sponsors this seminar is also linked to the four-campus Human Sciences and Complexity program that meets every other friday starting Sept 30 and to which you are all invited. The readings are not static: they will be adjusted to the needs and interests of the seminar participants.

Partial Syllabus

Networks and Social Dynamics/Evolution

Anthro 289A/Social Sciences 249A

Fall 2005 (preliminary)

Professor Doug White

Each week, selected students will present discuss the material of the week's readings.  It is expected that students will do more than summarize the reading and challenge some aspects of the readings from methodological and/or theoretical perspectives.  The overall objective of this section of the course is to advance the development of theory and method for understanding the internal dynamics of social formations.  For questions: drwhite@uci.edu

One fundamental set of concepts you will need to review is the theory of relations as formal properties

eJournal Readings:

  • First Cities - Algaze
  • Population and Conflict Dynamics - Turchin
  • Time series methods - Turchin
  • Network Dynamics of Small Groups - Kadushin
  • Emergence of Institutions - Jost
  • see also: Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy Avner Greif 2005, Stanford
  • and: Civilizations as dynamic networks: Cities, hinterlands, populations, industries, trade and conflict" drw powerpoint for Videoconference and Plenary Session

    What is this seminar about? The subject is how (kinematics) and why things change (dynamics) or evolve. The simplest modeling approach is to pick a limited number of clear variables and processes and investigate how they interact. Experiment, observation, analysis of time-series data, simulation, and mathematical modeling are among the tools we use. Networks are crucial because they provide a representational context for interaction.

  • Typically the simpler mathematical models and simulations do not show a very good fit to observation or analysis of time-series. They are largely suggestive, provide baselines for comparison, and serve to clarify how to look and measure the phenomena studied.
  • The principle of sufficient statistics is interesting in this regard: how much of the detail in the data is irrelevant to the dynamics? Note how Turchin does the analysis of dynamics as between demography and sociopolitical conflict by ignoring birth death and migration and taking the population number at the variable that has the main time series interactions.
  • Time-series analysis can be very tricky, but if we look at the people from UCSD who won the Nobel prize in this area on stock market behavior, they focused on how movements and patterns in movements (rise and fall: the 'arch' pattern) relate to variance (volatility) and they picked up how human behavior with respect to risk and perceived opportunity created some of these patterns. In the eJrnl articles we will read the first week, fortunately, Turchin gives us a primer on these methods, and you may want to go to some of the works he references if you want to use these methods.
  • In my own work, currently, I am taking the principles of sufficient statistics, modeling, and time-series, network and scaling analysis in combination to construct a series of models, so as to develop multi-level explanations for processes that we observe historically in the problem of 'Civilizations as Dynamic Networks.' The focus is on one 'outcome' time series: rise and fall of city network economies. The models start from the simplest one, and the first part of the analysis evaluates its explanatory adequacy. The second part, if there are major gaps, is to identify the next simplest overlay model (a combination of two or more models) that accounts for the most 'variance' so to speak, or systemic behavior.
  • If we are looking at any substantive problem for which there are data (a) through time and (b) hopefully, not only entities that have attributes or measurable variables, but (c) interactions that we can code as networks, the analytic problem is to take some focus, some outcome or dependent variable or variables, and try to figure out what is a reasonable context or system in which the interactions that produce the outcome(s) are in some way regular and accountable by a model of endogenous regularities in which interaction among entities and variables (including network variables) will go on producing this regularity, which may include the possibility of some kind(s) of transformation occurring as a result, or some kind of partially predictable oscillations, etcetera. Parameter-fitting of models and testing on independent samples will be considered.
  • To illustrate, I am going to review some of the problems of dynamical network modeling under the heading of some large-scale processes (under the topics following), and some of the readings will cover examples in these areas:

    Some large-scale topics:

  • Population dynamics - trends and oscillations
  • Population and Conflict Dynamics - Turchin
  • Cities - Scaling hierarchies - Problems with Fitting to the Power-Law Distribution (or q-exponential) Michel L. Goldstein, Steven A. Morris, and Gary G. Yen
  • City dynamics - Cities and Complexity - ??
  • Hegemony - Political and Economic
  • Industries - Network Sequences and Foreign Investment David Stark and Balazs Vedres
  • Polities
  • Parties (e.g., Analyzing the US Senate in 2003)
  • External War

    Week One, 1: Network Economics and Evolutionary Trajectories

    (choose one on the list above to read, review, present)


    Week One, 2:  Intra-species interaction

      Inter-species interaction

    Tim Ingold: Predation and Protection (30 pages)

    Alan Rogers: Resources and population dynamics  (27 pages)

    Week Two, 1:  Intra-species interaction

    Robert L. Trivers:  Sexual selection and parental investment (48 pages) Ch 7, Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971 Ed. Bernard Campbell

    Bell & Song: Sacrificing reproductive success (10 pages)

    Week Two, 2: Dynamics of Population 

    Turchin: Chapters Two, Three and  Four (68 pages)

    An Exponentialist homepage David Coutts (11 pages)

    Korotayev, Malkov, and White: (More is Simpler -) A Compact Macromodel of World Population Growth (11 pages)

    Population Dynamics and Warfare: preprint Turchin and Korotayev; Addendum; Supplementary Turchin's nature article

    Peter Turchin Dynamical Analysis of Socio-Economic Oscillations: England, 1100-1900

    Week Three, 1:  Dynamics of Wealth Accumulation

    Bell: Wealth, Power & Corp. Groups (40 pages)

    Korotayev: World Religions (40 pages)

    (see also book manuscript

    Bell: Bands, fertility and the social organization of early humans (21 pages, doc file)

    Fredrik Barth: Nomads of South Persia (32 pages)

    Week Three, 2: Social structure and demographic processes

    Bell: A new model of Middle Eastern Social Structures.(34 pages)

    White and Houseman: The Navigability of Strong Ties:
    Small Worlds, Tie Strength and Network Topology
    Another model of Middle Eastern Social Structures.(10 pages)

    2003 Douglas R. White, Emergence, transformation and decay in pastoral nomad socio-natural systems. to appear in Emergence, Transformation and Decay in Socio-Natural Systems, edited by Sander van der Leeuw, Uno Svedin, Tim Kohler, and Dwight Read.

    1998 Michael Houseman and Douglas R. White, Network Mediation of Exchange Structures: Ambilateral Sidedness and Property Flows in Pul Eliya. Kinship, Networks and Exchange, Chapter 4, pp. 58-88. Edited by Thomas Schweizer and Douglas R. White. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Week Four, 1: Social structure and demographic processes in early China


    Korotayev and Komarova: A new model of Chinese dynastic cycles (40 pages)

    Rethinking the Hobbesian Metaphor for International Politics - Comparing Ancient China and Early Modern Europe (31 pages)

    Jack A. Goldstone: Chapter 4, State Breakdown in Early Modern Asia:
    The Ottoman Crisis and the Ming-Qing Transition (66 pages) - from the book Revolution and Rebellion in the Modern World

    Mark Edward Lewis:  Sanctioned Violence in Early China. (39 pages)

    C. Martin Wilbur:  Slavery in China During the Former Han Dynasty (33 pages)

    Week Four, 2: General Models of Network Evolution

    2004 Douglas R. White, Walter W. Powell, Jason Owen-Smith and James Moody. Networks, Fields and Organizations: Micro-Dynamics, Scale and Cohesive Embeddings. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 10:95-117. Special issue on Mathematical Representations for the Analysis of Social Networks within and between Organizations.

    1977 Douglas R. White, Michael L. Burton, and Lilyan A. Brudner, Entailment Theory and Method: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Sexual Division of Labor. Behavior Science Research 12:1-249. download data from spss excel

    James G. March, 1991 " Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning," Organization Science 2 71-87. JSTOR

    Week Five: Edge-Based Modeling (EBM) and Network Evolution of Civilizations

    A generative model for feedback networks, In Press, Physical Review E White, Kejzar, Tsallis, Farmer and White: (8 pages), with simulations

    Stuart Kauffman's NK Boolean Networks (2 pages)

    White and Spufford: From Medieval to Modern (4 pages), with slides, GIS and SVG network images

    John F. Padgett, Christopher K. Ansell, Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400-1434 American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, No. 6. (May, 1993), pp. 1259-1319.

    Brudner, Lilyan A., and Douglas R. White. 1997. Class, Property and Structural Endogamy: Visualizing Networked Histories Theory and Society 25:161-208.

    White, Douglas R. 2005. Ring Cohesion in Marriage and Social Networks Forthcoming: Social Networks special issue edited by Alain Degenne Mathematiques, informatique, et sciences humaines Journal of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales, Paris Download:RingCohesionMarriage.pdf

    Hamberger, Klaus, Michael Houseman, Elizabeth Daillant, Douglas R. White and Laurent Barry. 2005 Matrimonial ring structures Forthcoming: Social Networks special issue edited by Alain Degenne Mathematiques, informatique, et sciences humaines Journal of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales, Paris Download: MatrimonialRingStructure.pdf Tools for Marriage Network Analysis

    Week Six: Discussion papers on early Chinese demographic processes


    Chiefdoms into States

    Boehm, Christopher. 1993. Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy Current Anthropology, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 227-254. See also (for blood feud as self-regulation) Exposing the Moral Self in Montenegro: The Use of Natural Definitions to Keep Ethnography Descriptive Christopher Boehm American Ethnologist, Vol. 7, No. 1. (Feb., 1980), pp. 1-26.

    Wright, Henry. From Chiefdoms to Origins of States and Civilizations

    Role Interlock

    Nadel, S.F. Social Structure. Chapter on the Coherence of Roles

    White et al. 2004. Adding Higher-Order Interactions to Network Ontology

    Transformations of Structure

    Denham and White

    Balasz, Socialism to Capitalism in Hungary

    Bearman, Social Movements

    Micro Behavior and Macro Structure

    White, Networks, Ethnography and Emergence

    Network Evolution in the Industrial Economy

    2005 Walter W. Powell, Douglas R. White, Kenneth W. Koput and Jason Owen-Smith. Network Dynamics and Field Evolution: The Growth of Interorganizational Collaboration in the Life Sciences. easiest to read!: American Journal of Sociology 110(4, January):1132-1205 electronic edition Download: PDF SFI-WP2003d.pdf See link to movies at Barabasi site

    2005 Jason Owen-Smith, Walter W. Powell, and Douglas R. White. Network Growth and Consolidation: The Effects of Cohesion and Diversity on the Biotechnology Industry Network Submitted Forthcoming in Management Science , Special issue on Complex Systems Across Disciplines. Download: PDF Growth_andConsolidation.pdf

    1988 Large-Scale Network of World Economy: Social scientists use the CRAY Interview: Douglas R. White, David A. Smith. Science at the San Diego Supercomputer Center 1987: 27-28

    Macrocultural Evolution and Networks

    Korotayev - world religions and social structure

  • Picture

         Gray Langur

    On-line Resources:

  • Networks and Complexity: Special Issue (see Intro, Social Insects, Brain, Small Worlds, History, Civilizations, Markets)
  • Cambridge Colloquium on Complexity and Social Networks
  • Fractal Properties of Growing Networks source: Networked Nation by Sid Karen
  • Visualizing Social Networks JoSS: Journal of Social Structure Vol. 1, No. 1, February 4, 2000 Linton C. Freeman
  • Graph Theory: Wolfram
  • Jean-Pierre Eckmann and Elisha Moses slides: Curvature and Thematics in the WWW, the Brain, Gene Regulation, Protein Interaction
    the curvature article:
  • more on Connectivity and topology: Jean-Pierre Eckmann, Elisha Moses and Danilo Sergi
  • Community structure in social and biological networks Authors: Michelle Girvan, M. E. J. Newman
  • Barabási Article: All the World's a Net
  • Supplementary:

  • Theme 1 - Social Network Analysis: A Handbook by John Scott
  • Theme 1 - Nexus: The Groundbreaking Science of Networks Mark BuchananAmazon Price: $18.17
  • Theme 2 - Self-Organized Systems (SOC) ../Anthro179a/038798738X.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg (12707 bytes) How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality - Per Bak. ISBN: 038798738X Amazon: $18.00
  • Theme 2 - The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. 2000. Malcolm Gladwell. Amazon Price: $22.46 Free shipping within 24 hours. Hardback: ISBN:0316316962 Paper: ISBN: 0316346624
  • Theme 3 - Simulations of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World by Stefan Helmreich For hands-on simulation experience, Download ../Anthro179a/0691015678.01.LZZZZZZZ.gif (12707 bytes) Starlogo from the MIT media lab (PC and Mac)
    Readings by the author of Starlogo: first chapter, pp. 3-19 (on decentralization): Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds (Complex Adaptive Systems) - Mitchel Resnick; 1997. Paperback MIT PRESS. ISBN: 0262680939 Usually ships in 2-3 days - Amazon Price: $12.50.
  • Theme 3 - Simulations - ../Anthro179a/038798738X.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg (12707 bytes) Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up (Complex Adaptive Systems) - Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell; 1996. Paperback Usually ships 24 hours - Amazon Price: $20.00.
  • Theme 4 - Simulations of Evolutionary Dynamics (ED)
    see: Simulations: Evolving Artificial Moral Ecologies - Theoretical Background - Notes - Simulations - Simulators predprey - Patch Simulator- instructions

    Course with list of courses with similar content

  • On-line: We will be using Pajek freeware for network analyis, reading chapters in the Explorarory Social Network Analysis book about using Pajek, and using the downloadable data files provided with that book. To download, Right click each set of chapter datafiles listed here to SAVE to the directory you select at home or school, but first make subdirectories Ch2, Ch3 etc so each self-extracts to a separate subdirectory and you can find them by chapter. Once saved you can click on each with windows explored and it will self-extract the files for that chapter: chap2.EXE chap3.EXE chap4.EXE chap5.EXE chap6.EXE chap7.EXE chap8.EXE chap9.EXE chap10.EXE chap11.EXE chap12.EXE Appendix.EXE to accompany Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek, by Wouter de Nooy, and pajek authors Andrej Mrvar, and Vladimir Batagelj -- by installing Pajek at home and unzipping datafiles, you can work through the book, turning in exercises and analyses at the rate of two per week for project credit, including a report on and intensive analysis of a dataset.

  • JUNG: the Java Universal Network/Graph Framework, developed by UCI graduate students, is the latest in network analysis technology and also reads Pajek files. Java Plugin required : go down one page on this site to Download Production Release 1.4.2 and click

    Duran Bell preliminary syllabus